205 relations: Acrylic paint, Algae, Alkali, Alloy, Aluminium chloride, American Mineralogist, Amino acid, Annalen der Physik, Arc International, Arsenal F.C., Arsenal Stadium, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Barrier cream, Beta decay, BODIPY, British Geological Survey, British Pharmaceutical Codex, Cadmium chloride, Cadmium iodide, Cadmium nitrate, Cadmium oxide, Cadmium pigments, Cadmium selenide, Cadmium sulfate, Cadmium sulfide, Cadmium telluride, Cadmus, Calamine (mineral), Cambridge University Press, Cancer, Carbon, Carbonic anhydrase, Cardiovascular disease, Chemical element, China, Chromate and dichromate, Claire's, Combustibility and flammability, Congener (chemistry), Coordination complex, Copper, Corrosion, Crust (geology), Crustacean, Crystal, Decay product, Diatom, Divalent, Double beta decay, ..., Double electron capture, Ductility, Electric battery, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electron capture, Electroplating, Endocrine disruptor, Environmental Science & Technology, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Fluorescence microscope, Fluorophore, Friction, Friedrich Stromeyer, General Conference on Weights and Measures, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Germany, Glass coloring and color marking, Glycosuria, Gouache, Greek language, Greenockite, Group 11 element, Group 12 element, Group 3 element, Heavy metals, Henry Charles Lea, Henry George Bohn, Hormone, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen embrittlement, Hypoxia (medical), Hypoxia-inducible factors, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Indium, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, Isotope, Itai-itai disease, Jinzū River, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, Krypton, Latin, Lead, Lithium-ion battery, Luminescence, McDonald's, Medication, Mercury (element), Mercury cadmium telluride, Mercury(I) chloride, Metal, Metal fume fever, Metre, Millville, New Jersey, Mineral, Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mollusca, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neutron, Neutron flux, Nickel(II) hydroxide, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nicotiana, Nitric acid, Nuclear fission, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nucleobase, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Offal, Osteoporosis, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Parts-per notation, Passive smoking, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Plastic, Plating, Pneumonitis, Polyvinyl chloride, Populus, Potassium hydroxide, Precipitation (chemistry), Pressurized water reactor, Proteasome, Proteinuria, Pulmonary edema, Quantum dot, Quantum dot display, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rechargeable battery, Recommended exposure limit, Red List building materials, Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, Rice, Roasting (metallurgy), S-process, Self-assembled monolayer, Semiconductor, Siberia, Silver, Silver-cadmium battery, Smelting, Smithsonite, Solar cell, Solar panel, Solder, Solubility, Sphalerite, Springer Science+Business Media, Steel, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Thebes, Greece, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Toxic heavy metal, Toxicity, Transition metal, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Geological Survey, Vacuum distillation, Vilyuy River, Vitamin, Volt, Walmart, Walter de Gruyter, Watercolor painting, Westinghouse Electric Company, Willow, Wood's metal, World War II, Zinc, Zinc oxide. Expand index (155 more) » « Shrink index
Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
American Mineralogist: An International Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the general fields of mineralogy, crystallography, geochemistry, and petrology.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Arc International is a French manufacturer and distributor of household goods.
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, London, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football.
Arsenal Stadium was a football stadium in Highbury, North London, which was the home ground of Arsenal Football Club between 6 September 1913 and 7 May 2006.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
A barrier cream is a topical formulation used in industrial applications and as a cosmetic to place a physical barrier between the skin and contaminants that may irritate the skin (contact dermatitis or occupational dermatitis).
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
BODIPY, abbreviation for boron-dipyrromethene, is a class of fluorescent dyes.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
The British Pharmaceutical Codex (BPC) was first published in 1907, to supplement the British Pharmacopoeia which although extensive, did not cover all the medicinal items that a pharmacist might require in daily work.
Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2.
Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine.
Cadmium nitrate describes any of the related members of a family of inorganic compound with the general formula Cd(NO3)2.\mathitH2O.
Cadmium oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdO.
Cadmium pigments are a class of pigments that have cadmium as one of the chemical components.
Cadmium selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdSe.
Cadmium sulfate is the name of a series of related inorganic compounds with the formula CdSO4·H2O.
Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium.
In Greek mythology, Cadmus (Κάδμος Kadmos), was the founder and first king of Thebes.
Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Claire's, formerly known as Claire's Accessories, is an American retailer of accessories and jewelry primarily aimed toward girls and young women.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Environmental Science & Technology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 by the American Chemical Society.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Friedrich Stromeyer (2 August 1776 – 18 August 1835) was a German chemist.
The General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures – CGPM) is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures – BIPM), the inter-governmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (GCA) is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glass coloring and color marking may be obtained by 1) addition of coloring ions,Bernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, by 2) precipitation of nanometer sized colloides (so-called striking glassesBernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, such as "gold ruby" or red "selenium ruby"),Werner Vogel: "Glass Chemistry"; Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K; 2nd revised edition (November 1994), 3) by colored inclusions (as in milk glass and smoked glass), 4) by light scattering (as in phase separated glass), 5) by dichroic coatings (see dichroic glass), or 6) by colored coatings.
Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine.
Gouache, body color, opaque watercolor, or gouache, is one type of watermedia, paint consisting of Natural pigment, water, a binding agent (usually gum arabic or dextrin), and sometimes additional inert material.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greenockite is a rare cadmium bearing metal sulfide mineral consisting of cadmium sulfide (CdS) in crystalline form.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Group 12, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table.
Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Henry Charles Lea (September 19, 1825 – October 24, 1909) was an American historian, civic reformer, and political activist.
Henry George Bohn (4 January 179622 August 1884) was a British publisher.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering risk analysis as it relates to environmental health and ecology.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which hydride-forming metals such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, tantalum, and niobium become brittle and fracture due to the introduction and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen into the metal.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that respond to decreases in available oxygen in the cellular environment, or hypoxia.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
was the name given to the mass cadmium poisoning of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, starting around 1912.
The is a river that flows from Gifu Prefecture to Toyama Prefecture in Japan.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles covering all areas of modern spectrometry including fundamental theory, practice and analytical applications.
The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann (20 January 1765 – 1 September 1846) was a German chemist who helped discover cadmium in 1817.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.
Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal fume fever, also known as brass founders' ague, brass shakes, zinc shakes, galvie flu, metal dust fever, Welding Shivers, or Monday morning fever, is an illness primarily caused by exposure to chemicals such as zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or magnesium oxide (MgO) which are produced as byproducts in the fumes that result when certain metals are heated.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Millville is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) was an executive state agency within the government of the People's Republic of China.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
Nickel(II) hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ni(OH)2.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface.
Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
A quantum dot display is a display device that uses quantum dots (QD), semiconductor nanocrystals which can produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Red List Building Materials contain chemicals that have been designated as harmful to living creatures, including humans, or the environment.
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a European Union regulation dating from 18 December 2006.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on sustainable energy.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of organic molecules are molecular assemblies formed spontaneously on surfaces by adsorption and are organized into more or less large ordered domains.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A silver-cadmium battery is a type of rechargeable battery using cadmium metal as its negative terminal, silver oxide as the positive terminal, and an alkaline water-based electrolyte.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), a mineral ore of zinc.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is an independent agency of the United States government.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.
The Vilyuy River (also Vilyui, p; Бүлүү, Bülüü) is a river of the Central Siberian Plateau, longest tributary of the Lena River.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (British English; see spelling differences), also aquarelle (French, diminutive of Latin aqua "water"), is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.
Westinghouse Electric Company LLC is a US based nuclear power company formed in 1998 from the nuclear power division of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Wood's metal, also known as Lipowitz's alloy or by the commercial names Cerrobend, Bendalloy, Pewtalloy and MCP 158, is a eutectic, fusible alloy with a melting point of approximately.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.