201 relations: Academic Press, Acrosome, Action potential, Agar plate, Ageing, Alzheimer's disease, Andrew Fire, Animal, Animal testing on invertebrates, Anthranilic acid, Apoptosis, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Asymmetric cell division, Autosome, Émile Maupas, Bacterivore, Base pair, Bergerac, Dordogne, Bioluminescence, Body cavity, Bristol, Caenorhabditis, Caenorhabditis brenneri, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus, Caenorhabditis elegans Cer13 virus, Caenorhabditis remanei, Caretaker gene, Cellular differentiation, Centromere, Chemotaxis, Chordate, Chromadorea, Circadian rhythm, Cleavage (embryo), Coelom, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Collagen, Compost, Connectome, Craig Mello, Cryptochrome, Cryptococcus kuetzingii, Cryptococcus laurentii, Cuticle, Dauer larva, Desiccation, Developmental biology, Diabetes mellitus, Discovery Channel, ..., Ecdysis, Ellsworth Dougherty, Embryogenesis, Endocytosis, Enterococcus faecalis, Epiboly, Epidermis (zoology), EPPO Code, Eukaryote, Eutely, Excretion, Exoskeleton, Fatigue, Flagellum, Flatworm, Fluorescence, Gamete, Garland Science, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastropoda, Günther Osche, Gene, Gene density, Gene expression, Gene silencing, Genus, Geriatrics, Germ cell, Germline, Glycosylation, Gonad, Green fluorescent protein, H. Robert Horvitz, Hermaphrodite, Homology (biology), Insect, Insemination, Insulin-like growth factor, Intergenic region, International Space Station, Intron, Isopoda, John Sulston, Karyotype, Kinetochore, Larva, Late embryogenesis abundant proteins, Learning, Lithium chloride, Lysosome, Martin Chalfie, Mating, Mechanotransduction, Meiosis, Melanin, Melanosome, Memory, Microbivory, MicroRNA, Microsporidia, Microtubule, Millipede, Mitochondrial DNA, Model organism, Molecular biology, MRE11A, Multicellular organism, Muscle atrophy, Nematocida parisii, Nematode, Nervous system, Neuron, Nicotine, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-coding RNA, Notch signaling pathway, Oikopleura, Oocyte, OpenWorm, Operon, Opsin, Orsay virus, Ovary, Oviduct, Oxford University Press, Parasitism, Pharynx, Photoreceptor protein, Piwi-interacting RNA, Postdoctoral researcher, Postgraduate education, Pronucleus, Protease-activated receptor, Protein, Protostome, PSEN1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Reproduction, Rhabditida, Rhabditidae, RNA interference, RNA-binding protein, Salmonella enterica, Schistosoma mansoni, Segmentation (biology), Selfing, Sex chromosome, Shotgun sequencing, Sleep in non-human animals, Small-world network, Somatic cell, Space research, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle Endeavour, Spaceflight, Sperm, Spermatheca, Spicule (nematode anatomy), Staphylococcus aureus, Strain (biology), STS-134, Subgenus, Substance dependence, Sydney Brenner, Syncytium, Tc1/mariner, Thermotaxis, Transcription factor, Transformation (genetics), Transgene, Trematoda, Trypanosomatida, Tunicate, Type species, Ultraviolet, University of California, Davis, University of Nottingham, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Uracil, Uterus, Vas deferens, Victor Nigon, Voltage-gated ion channel, Washington University School of Medicine, Weightlessness, Whole genome sequencing, Wnt signaling pathway, WormBase, X0 sex-determination system, Yeast. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals including humans.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Andrew Zachary Fire (born April 27, 1959) is an American biologist and professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Most animal testing involves invertebrates, especially Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, and Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode.
Anthranilic acid (o-amino-benzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA, 2AA, AA) is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H).
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arthrobotrys oligospora was discovered in Europe in 1850 by Georg Fresenius.
An asymmetric cell division produces two daughter cells with different cellular fates.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Émile Maupas (2 July 1842 in Vaudry – 18 October 1916 in Algiers) was a French librarian, zoologist and botanist.
Bacterivores are free-living, generally heterotrophic organisms, exclusively microscopic, which obtain energy and nutrients primarily or entirely from the consumption of bacteria.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Bergerac is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Dordogne department in southwestern France.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
A body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism other than those of vessels (such as blood vessels and lymph vessels).
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
Caenorhabditis is a genus of nematodes which live in bacteria-rich environments like compost piles, decaying dead animals and rotting fruit.
Caenorhabditis brenneri is a small nematode, closely related to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.
Caenorhabditis briggsae is a small nematode, closely related to Caenorhabditis elegans.
Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus is a species of retroviruses in the genus Metavirus.
Caenorhabditis elegans Cer13 virus is a species of virus in the genus Semotivirus and the family Metaviridae.
Caenorhabditis remanei is a species of nematode found in North America and Europe, and likely lives throughout the temperate world.
Changes in the genome that allow uncontrolled cell proliferation or cell immortality are responsible for cancer.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Chromadorea are a class of the roundworm phylum, Nematoda.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.
The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press was founded in 1933 to aid in Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's purpose of furthering the advance and spread of scientific knowledge.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram".
Craig Cameron Mello (born October 18, 1960) is an American biologist and professor of molecular medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.
Cryptococcus kuetzingii is a species of yeasts.
Cryptococcus laurentii is a species of yeasts.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
Dauer (German "die dauer", "the enduring", from A.G. Fuchs (1937) Neue parasitische und halbparasitischa Nematoden bei Borkenkäfern und einige andere Nematoden) describes an alternative developmental stage of nematode worms, particularly rhabditids including Caenorhabditis elegans, whereby the larva goes into a type of stasis and can survive harsh conditions.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
Ellsworth C. Dougherty (1921-1965) was a biologist who was first to study the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans in the laboratory, with Victor Nigon, in the 1940s.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.
Epiboly describes one of the five major types of cell movements that occur in the Gastrulation stage of embryonic development of some organisms.
In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).
An EPPO code, formerly known as a Bayer code, is an encoded identifier that is used by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), in a system designed to uniquely identify organisms – namely plants, pests and pathogens – that are important to agriculture and crop protection.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eutelic organisms have a fixed number of somatic cells when they reach maturity, the exact number being constant for any one species.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Garland Science is a publishing group that specializes in developing textbooks in a wide range of life sciences subjects, including cell and molecular biology, immunology, protein chemistry, genetics, and bioinformatics.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
Günther Osche (also spelled Guenther Osche, born 7 August 1926 in Neustadt an der Weinstraße, died 2 February 2009 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German evolutionary biologist, ecologist and parasitologist.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In genetics, the gene density of an organism's genome is the ratio of the number of genes per number of base pairs, usually written in terms of a million base pairs, or megabase (Mb).
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Howard Robert Horvitz (born May 8, 1947) is an American biologist best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female animal or plant for the purpose of impregnating or fertilizing the female for sexual reproduction.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.
An Intergenic region (IGR) is a stretch of DNA sequences located between genes.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Isopoda is an order of crustaceans that includes woodlice and their relatives.
Sir John Edward Sulston (27 March 1942 – 6 March 2018) was a British biologist and academic who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the cell lineage and genome of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans in 2002 with his colleagues Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
A kinetochore is a disc-shaped protein structure, found at the centromere of a chromatid, to which microtubules attach during cell division.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEA proteins) are proteins in animals and plants that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses associated with low temperature.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Martin Lee Chalfie (born January 15, 1947) is an American scientist.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Mechanotransduction (mechano + transduction) is any of various mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells and is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Microbivory (adj. microbivorous, microbivore) is a feeding behavior consisting of eating microbes, especially bacteria, and practiced by animals of the mesofauna, microfauna and meiofauna.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Double-strand break repair protein MRE11A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRE11A gene.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
Nematocida parisii, the nematode-killer from Paris, is a species of Microsporidia fungi.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.
Oikopleura is a genus of Tunicata (sea-squirts) in the class Appendicularia.
An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
OpenWorm is an international open science project to simulate the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans at the cellular level as a simulation.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
The Orsay virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
In vertebrates, other than mammals, the passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.
Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal cells.
A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
A pronucleus (plural: pronuclei) is the nucleus of a sperm or an egg cell during the process of fertilization, after the sperm enters the ovum, but before the genetic material of the sperm and egg fuse.
Protease-activated receptors are a subfamily of related G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by cleavage of part of their extracellular domain.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.
Presenilin-1 (PS-1) is a presenilin protein that in humans is encoded by the PSEN1 gene.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The Rhabditida are an order of free-living, zooparasitic and phytoparasitic microbivorous nematodes (roundworms) living in soil.
The Rhabditidae are a family of nematodes which includes the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and participate in forming ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod-shaped, flagellate, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium and a species of the genus Salmonella.
A paired couple of ''Schistosoma mansoni''. Schistosoma mansoni is a water-borne parasite of humans, and belongs to the group of blood flukes (Schistosoma).
Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.
Selfing or self-fertilization is the union of male and female gametes and/or nuclei from same haploid, diploid, or polyploid organism.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.
Sleep in non-human animals refers to a behavioral and physiological state characterized by altered consciousness, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, and homeostatic regulation.
A small-world network is a type of mathematical graph in which most nodes are not neighbors of one another, but the neighbors of any given node are likely to be neighbors of each other and most nodes can be reached from every other node by a small number of hops or steps.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
Space research is scientific studies carried out using scientific equipment in outer space.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The spermatheca (pronounced plural: spermathecae), also called receptaculum seminis (plural: receptacula seminis), is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, e.g. bees, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates.
In nematodes (roundworms), spicules, or copulatory spicules, are needle-like mating structures found only in males.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
STS-134 (ISS assembly flight ULF6) was the penultimate mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the 25th and last spaceflight of.
In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Sydney Brenner (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Tc1/mariner is a class of interspersed repeats DNA transposons.
Thermotaxis is a behavior in which an organism directs its locomotion up or down a gradient of temperature.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.
Trypanosomatida is a group of kinetoplastid excavates distinguished by having only a single flagellum.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UT Southwestern) is a medical education and biomedical research institution in the United States.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
Victor Marc Nigon (born 11 October 1920 in Metz, France, died 5 July 2015) was a biologist who was first to study the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans in the laboratory, with Ellsworth Dougherty, in the 1940s.
Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.
Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM), located in St. Louis, Missouri, is the medical school of Washington University in St. Louis on the eastern border of Forest Park in St. Louis.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
WormBase is an online biological database about the biology and genome of the nematode model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and contains information about other related nematodes.
The X0 sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring among.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
C Aenorhabditis Elegans, C elegance, C elegans, C. Elegans, C. elegans, C.elegans, CAEOEL, Caenorhabditis Elegans, Caenorhabditis elegans proteins, Caenorhabitis elegans, Celegans, P4 cell, Rhabditides, Rhabditides elegans, Strain BO, Strain N2.