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Caesarean section

Index Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies. [1]

213 relations: Añjanā, Abdomen, Adhesion (medicine), Adhesion barrier, Africa, African Great Lakes, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Amniotic fluid, Amniotic fluid embolism, Analgesic, Anatomical terms of location, Ancient Rome, Anesthesia, Anesthesiologist, Anesthetic, Antibiotic, Antibiotic prophylaxis, Antiseptic, Aortocaval compression syndrome, Asepsis, Associated Press, Aurelia Cotta, Australia, Bicornuate uterus, Bindusara, Birth, Bleeding, Blood transfusion, Breastfeeding, Breech birth, Buttocks, Caesar (title), Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Caesarean section, Caesarius of Africa, Caeso (praenomen), Campania, Canadians, Cardiac arrest, Catalonia, Cephalic presentation, Cervical dilation, Chanakya, Childbirth, Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder, China, Choosing Wisely, Chu (state), Cognomen, Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia, ..., Corriere della Sera, Crohn's disease, Danish language, Death, Delivery after previous Caesarean section, Drain (surgery), Dutch language, Elective surgery, Emergency, Emperor, Endometritis, Epidural administration, Esophagus, Exercise, EXIT procedure, False etymology, Female infertility, Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer, Fetal distress, Fetal viability, Fetus, Firstborn (Judaism), Foot, Furbaide Ferbend, General anaesthesia, German language, Gestational age, Gynaecology, Hanuman, Hebrew language, Hermann Johannes Pfannenstiel, HIV, Hungarian language, Hypertension, Hysterectomy, Hysterotomy, Hysterotomy abortion, India, Indication (medicine), Infant, Intubation, Iran, Irish mythology, Italy, Jakob Nufer, James Barry (surgeon), Japanese language, Jews, Jilian, Judaism, Julius Caesar, Kemmental, Korean language, Labor induction, Large for gestational age, Late termination of pregnancy, Latin, Leges regiae, Linea nigra, Local anesthesia, Lochia, Lower segment Caesarean section, Maimonides, Maternal health, Maurya Empire, Max Saenger, Mayo Clinic, Medb, Medical News Today, Medical Subject Headings, Midwifery, Misgav Ladach, Mortality rate, MSNBC, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nerve block, NHS Direct, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nordic countries, Norwegian language, Numa Pompilius, Obstetrical forceps, Obstetrics, Obstetrics & Gynecology (journal), Obstructed labour, Operating theater, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxygen therapy, Pain, Pelvis, Perinatal mortality, Perineum, Peritoneum, Pfannenstiel incision, Pidyon haben, Placenta, Placenta accreta, Placenta praevia, Placental abruption, Pliny the Elder, Portugal, Posek, Post-dural-puncture headache, Posthumous birth, Postpartum bleeding, Postpartum depression, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Praenomen, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Presentation (obstetrics), Pulmonary aspiration, Raymond Nonnatus, Records of the Grand Historian, Republic of Ireland, Resuscitation, Romania, Rome, Rostam, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Rudaba, Russian language, Self-inflicted caesarean section, Sepsis, Serbian language, Sexual function, Shahnameh, Sima Qian, Simurgh, Slovene language, Spinal anaesthesia, Surgery, Surgical suture, Swedish language, Tachycardia, Talmud, Taylor & Francis, The Economist, Tocolytic, Transient tachypnea of the newborn, Transverse plane, Tsar, Turkish language, Twin, Ulster Cycle, Umbilical cord, Umbilical cord prolapse, United Kingdom, United States National Library of Medicine, Urinary bladder, Urinary catheterization, Urinary tract infection, Uterine rupture, Uterus, Vaginal delivery, Vasa praevia, Ventouse, WebMD, World Health Organization, Yellow Emperor, Zāl. Expand index (163 more) »


(Anchanai, Anjani, Anjati, Anjaneya or Swaha) is the mother of Lord Hanuman, one of the heroes of the Indian epic, the Ramayana.

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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Adhesion (medicine)

Adhesions are fibrous bands that form between tissues and organs, often as a result of injury during surgery.

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Adhesion barrier

An adhesion barrier is a medical implant that can be used to reduce abnormal internal scarring (adhesions) following surgery by separating the internal tissues and organs while they heal.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African Great Lakes

The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.

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American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.

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Amniotic fluid

The amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid Amniote.

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Amniotic fluid embolism

An amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare childbirth (obstetric) emergency in which amniotic fluid, enters the blood stream of the mother to trigger a serious reaction.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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An anesthesiologist is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine.

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An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antibiotic prophylaxis

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the prevention of infection complications using antimicrobial therapy (most commonly antibiotics).

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Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Aortocaval compression syndrome

Aortocaval compression syndrome is compression of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus when a pregnant woman lies on her back, i.e. in the supine position.

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Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing micro-organisms (such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, pathogenic fungi, and parasites).

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Aurelia Cotta

Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (May 21, 120 – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BC).

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bicornuate uterus

A bicornuate uterus or bicornate uterus (from the Latin cornū, meaning "horn"), commonly referred to as a "heart-shaped" uterus, is a uterus composed of two "horns" separated by a septum.

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Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor of India.

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Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Breech birth

A breech birth occurs when a baby is born bottom first instead of head first.

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The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles.

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Caesar (title)

Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Caesarean delivery on maternal request

Cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is a caesarean section birth requested by the pregnant woman without a medical reason.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Caesarius of Africa

Saint Caesarius of Africa, also Caesarius of Terracina (Saint Cesario deacon in Italian) was a Christian martyr.

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Caeso (praenomen)

Caeso or Kaeso is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, usually abbreviated K. Although never a common name, Caeso was regularly used by a number of prominent families, both patrician and plebeian, during the period of the Roman Republic.

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Campania is a region in Southern Italy.

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Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Cephalic presentation

A cephalic presentation or head presentation or head-first presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal).

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Cervical dilation

Cervical dilation (or cervical dilatation) is the opening of the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, during childbirth, miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological surgery.

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Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder

Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychological disorder that can develop in women who have recently given birth.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Chu (state)

Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.

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A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.

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Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia

Combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (CSE) is a regional anaesthetic technique, which combines the benefits of both spinal anaesthesia and epidural anaesthesia and analgesia.

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Corriere della Sera

The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Delivery after previous Caesarean section

In case of a previous Caesarean section a subsequent pregnancy can be planned beforehand to be delivered by either of the following two main methods.

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Drain (surgery)

A surgical drain is a tube used to remove pus, blood or other fluids from a wound.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Elective surgery

Elective surgery or elective procedure (from the eligere, meaning to choose) is surgery that is scheduled in advance because it does not involve a medical emergency.

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An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment.

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An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.

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Endometritis is inflammation of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus.

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Epidural administration

Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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EXIT procedure

The EXIT procedure, or ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure, is a specialized surgical delivery procedure used to deliver babies who have airway compression.

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False etymology

A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.

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Female infertility

Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans.

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Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer

Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer (February 16, 1837 – June 16, 1914) was a German gynecologist who was a native of Guntersblum in Rhenish Hesse.

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Fetal distress

In medicine (obstetrics), the term fetal distress refers to the presence of signs in a pregnant woman—before or during childbirth—that suggest that the fetus may not be well.

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Fetal viability

Fetal viability or foetal viability is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Firstborn (Judaism)

The firstborn or firstborn son (Hebrew בְּכוֹר bəḵōr) is an important concept in Judaism.

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The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.

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Furbaide Ferbend

Furbaide Ferbend is a character from the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology.

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General anaesthesia

General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gestational age

Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

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Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.

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Hanuman (IAST: Hanumān, Sanskrit: हनुमान्) is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama and one of the central characters in the various versions of the epic Ramayana found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hermann Johannes Pfannenstiel

Hermann Johannes Pfannenstiel (28 June 1862 – 3 July 1909) was a German gynecologist born in Berlin.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.

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A hysterotomy is an incision in the uterus, and is performed during a caesarean section.

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Hysterotomy abortion

Hysterotomy abortion is a form of abortion in which the uterus is opened through an abdominal incision and the fetus is removed, similar to a caesarean section, but requiring a smaller incision.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indication (medicine)

In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irish mythology

The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jakob Nufer

Jakob Nufer was a Swiss pig-gelder who, around 1500, reportedly performed the first successful Caesarean section in history in which the mother (his wife) survived.

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James Barry (surgeon)


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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jilian was the first recorded ruler of the ancient Chinese state that was later known as Chu.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Kemmental is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Labor induction

Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.

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Large for gestational age

Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate.

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Late termination of pregnancy

Late termination of pregnancy (TOP), also known as postviability abortion, induced termination of pregnancy (ITOP), or simply abortion is a termination of pregnancy that is performed during a later stage of pregnancy.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leges regiae

The leges regiae ("royal laws") were early Roman laws, which classical historians, such as Plutarch, mentioned had been introduced by the Kings of Rome.

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Linea nigra

Linea nigra (Latin for "black line"), better known as pregnancy line, is a dark vertical line that appears on the abdomen in about three quarters of all pregnancies.

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Local anesthesia

Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well.

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In the field of obstetrics, lochia is the vaginal discharge after giving birth (puerperium) containing blood, mucus, and uterine tissue.

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Lower segment Caesarean section

A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Maternal health

Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Max Saenger

Max Saenger (Max Sänger) (March 14, 1853, Bayreuth – January 12, 1903, Prague) was a German obstetrician and gynecologist who was a native of Bayreuth.

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Mayo Clinic

The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.

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Medb (pronounced)—later forms Meadhbh and Méabh—is queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology.

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Medical News Today

Medical News Today is a web-based outlet for medical news, targeted to both physicians and the general public.

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Medical Subject Headings

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.

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Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.

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Misgav Ladach

Misgav Ladach (מִשְׂגָּב לַדָּךְ) is a hospital in Jerusalem, Israel that belongs to Kupat Holim Meuhedet, Israel's third largest HMO.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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National Center for Health Statistics

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System which provides statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the American people.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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Nerve block

Nerve block or regional nerve blockade is any deliberate interruption of signals traveling along a nerve, often for the purpose of pain relief.

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NHS Direct

For the service in Wales, see NHS Direct Wales NHS Direct was the health advice and information service provided by the National Health Service (NHS), established in March 1998.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Numa Pompilius

Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

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Obstetrical forceps

Obstetrical Forceps is an instrument that can be used to assist the delivery of a baby as an alternative to the ventouse (vacuum extraction) method.

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Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Obstetrics & Gynecology (journal)

Obstetrics & Gynecology is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.

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Obstructed labour

Obstructed labour, also known as labour dystocia, is when, even though the uterus is contracting normally, the baby does not exit the pelvis during childbirth due to being physically blocked.

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Operating theater

An operating theater (also known as an operating room, operating suite, operation theatre, operation suite or OR) is a facility within a hospital where surgical operations are carried out in a sterile environment.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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Perinatal mortality

Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate.

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The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Pfannenstiel incision

A Pfannenstiel incision, Kerr incision, Pfannenstiel-Kerr incision or pubic incision is a type of abdominal surgical incision that allows access to the abdomen.

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Pidyon haben

The pidyon haben (פדיון הבן) or redemption of the first-born son is a mitzvah in Judaism whereby a Jewish firstborn son is "redeemed" by use of silver coins from his birth-state of sanctity, i.e. from being predestined by his firstborn status to serve as a priest.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta occurs when all or part of the placenta attaches abnormally to the myometrium (the muscular layer of the uterine wall).

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Placenta praevia

Placenta praevia is when the placenta attaches inside the uterus but near or over the cervical opening.

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Placental abruption

Placental abruption is when the placenta separates early from the uterus, in other words separates before childbirth.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.

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Post-dural-puncture headache

Post-dural-puncture headache (PDPH) is a complication of puncture of the dura mater (one of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord).

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Posthumous birth

A posthumous birth is a birth of a child after the death of a biological parent.

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Postpartum bleeding

Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.

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Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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The praenomen (plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Presentation (obstetrics)

In obstetrics, the presentation of a fetus about to be born refers to which anatomical part of the fetus is leading, that is, is closest to the pelvic inlet of the birth canal.

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Pulmonary aspiration

Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).

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Raymond Nonnatus

Raymund Nonnatus, O. de M. (Sant Ramon Nonat, San Ramón Nonato, Saint Raymond Nonnat, San Rajmondo Nonnato), (1204 – 31 August 1240) is a saint from Catalonia in Spain.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Resuscitation is the process of correcting physiological disorders (such as lack of breathing or heartbeat) in an acutely unwell patient.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rostam or Rustam (رُستَم, pronounced) is the most celebrated legendary hero in Shahnameh and Iranian mythology.

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Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) is professional association based in London, United Kingdom.

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Rūdāba or Roodabeh (رودابه) is a Persian mythological female figure in Ferdowsi's epic Shahnameh.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Self-inflicted caesarean section

A self-performed caesarean section is a form of self-surgery where a woman attempts to perform a caesarean section on herself.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Sexual function

Sexual function is how the body reacts in different stages of the sexual response cycle, or as a result of sexual dysfunction.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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--> --> Simurgh (سيمرغ), also spelled simorgh, simorg, simurg, simoorg, simorq or simourv, is a benevolent, mythical bird in Iranian mythology and literature.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Spinal anaesthesia

Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually long.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Surgical suture

Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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Tocolytics (also called anti-contraction medications or labor suppressants) are medications used to suppress premature labor (from the Greek tokos, childbirth, and lytic, capable of dissolving).

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Transient tachypnea of the newborn

Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN, TTNB, or "transitory tachypnea of newborn") is a respiratory problem that can be seen in the newborn shortly after delivery.

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Transverse plane

The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.

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Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Ulster Cycle

The Ulster Cycle (an Rúraíocht), formerly known as the Red Branch Cycle, one of the four great cycles of Irish mythology, is a body of medieval Irish heroic legends and sagas of the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster and northern Leinster, particularly counties Armagh, Down and Louth, and taking place around or before the 1st century AD.

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Umbilical cord

In placental mammals, the umbilical cord (also called the navel string, birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis) is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta.

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Umbilical cord prolapse

Umbilical cord prolapse occurs when the umbilical cord comes out of the uterus with or before the presenting part of the fetus.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary catheterization

In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a serious event during childbirth by which the integrity of the myometrial wall is breached.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vaginal delivery

A vaginal delivery is the birth of offspring (babies in humans) in mammals through the vagina.

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Vasa praevia

Vasa praevia, also spelled vasa previa, is a condition in which fetal blood vessels cross or run near the internal opening of the uterus.

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Ventouse, also known as vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction (VE), is a method to assist delivery of a baby using a vacuum device.

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WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Yellow Emperor

The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).

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Zāl (زال) is a legendary Iranian king from Sistan, and is recognized as one of the greatest warriors of the Shahnameh epic.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesarean_section

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