354 relations: Abdominal pain, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Activated carbon, Adenine, Adenosine, Adenosine A1 receptor, Adenosine A2A receptor, Adenosine A2B receptor, Adenosine A3 receptor, Adenosine receptor, Adsorption, Aerobic exercise, Alchemy, Alcohol intoxication, Alkaloid, Altitude sickness, Alzheimer's disease, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Psychiatric Association, Amide, Anaerobic exercise, Analgesic, Anhydrous, Anti-inflammatory, Anxiety disorder, Apnea of prematurity, Archaic period (North America), Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Aromaticity, Arthralgia, Aspirin/paracetamol/caffeine, Asthma, Atmosphere (unit), Autonomic nervous system, Axon terminal, Ban on caffeinated alcoholic drinks, Basal metabolic rate, Base (chemistry), Benzene, Biological half-life, Biosynthesis, Birth defect, Bixa orellana, Black drink, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Brewed coffee, ..., Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Bronchus, Caffeinated alcoholic drink, Caffeine citrate, Caffeine dependence, Caffeinism, Camellia sinensis, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Central nervous system, Central nervous system fatigue, Charles II of England, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Chemical classification, Chili pepper, Chirality (chemistry), Chlorobutanol, Chloroform, Chocolate, Chocolate bar, Cholinergic, Christian Science, Chromosome, Church of God (Restoration), Cinchonine, Cirrhosis, Clinical significance, Cmax (pharmacology), Coca-Cola, Cocoa bean, Coffea, Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffee, Coffee bean, Coffee enema, Coffee percolator, Cola, Conjugate acid, Convergent evolution, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Dark chocolate, Decaffeination, Dehydration, Delayed milestone, Depressant, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dichloromethane, Dietary supplement, Dimenhydrinate, Dimethylurea, Dipropylcyclopentylxanthine, Disinhibition, Dissociation constant, Distillation, DMPX, DNA, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Drink, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, DSM-5, DSST (standardized test), East Indies, Elemental analysis, Emperor of China, Endurance game, Energy drink, Ergotamine, Erowid, Espresso, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Eugeroic, Europe, Excipient, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Fatigue, Fatty acid, Fluvoxamine, Food and Drug Administration, Food Standards Agency, Frederick the Great, Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gastric acid, Gastrointestinal physiology, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Generally recognized as safe, Gerardus Johannes Mulder, Glaucoma, Glycerol, Glycine receptor, GPCR oligomer, Green tea, Guanine, Guarana, Guaraná Antarctica, Gyokuro, Hückel's rule, Headache, Health Canada, Heart, Hemodialysis, Hemofiltration, Hermann Emil Fischer, Hershey's Special Dark, Heterotetramer, Histamine, Honey bee, Hyperemesis gravidarum, ICD-10, Ilex guayusa, Ilex vomitoria, Imidazole, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infusion, Innate immune system, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), Intraocular pressure, Intravenous therapy, Islamic dietary laws, Islamism, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jolt Cola, Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, Kilogram, Knockout mouse, Kola nut, Lapsang souchong, Leukotriene, Ligand (biochemistry), Lip balm, Lipolysis, Litre, Liver, Liver disease, Liver function tests, Low birth weight, Major depressive disorder, Malonic acid, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mania, Mate (drink), Maya civilization, Mayo Clinic, Mecca, Mechanism of action, Median lethal dose, Medulla oblongata, Mental chronometry, Mesoamerica, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Methamphetamine, Migraine, Miscarriage, Misnomer, Mocha, Yemen, Modified-release dosage, Mollusca, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Motor coordination, Mountain Dew, Muscle fatigue, Muslim, Mutation, Natriuresis, Neurotransmission, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nootropic, Nucleus accumbens, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Orbital hybridisation, Orientation (mental), Orthostatic hypotension, Osteoporosis, Ottoman Empire, Palpitations, Paraxanthine, Parkinson's disease, Pepsi Zero Sugar, Performance-enhancing substance, Periodic Videos, Peritoneal dialysis, Pesticide, Pharmacodynamics, Phase (matter), Philippines, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Physical dependence, Pi bond, Pierre Jean Robiquet, Pierre Joseph Pelletier, Ploidy, Pollen, Polyphenol, Polyuria, Potency (pharmacology), Pre-Columbian era, Preterm birth, Propyphenazone/paracetamol/caffeine, Protein dimer, Protein kinase A, Pseudomonas putida, Psychoactive drug, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor agitation, Pure Food and Drug Act, Purine, Pyrimidinedione, Quinine, Receptor antagonist, Recrystallization (chemistry), Red Bull, Resonance (chemistry), Respiratory center, Reverse osmosis, Rhabdomyolysis, RNA, Ryanodine receptor, Ryanodine receptor 2, RYR1, RYR3, Safavid dynasty, Sensitization, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Shennong, Sleep, Smoking, Smooth muscle tissue, Soft drink, Solvent, Somnolence, Spaniards, SpazzStick, Spider, Steeping, Stereocenter, Stimulant, Striatum, Strychnine, Sublimation (phase transition), Substance dependence, Sufism, Suicide, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Supercritical fluid, Suppository, Sweden, Synapse, Systematic review, Tannin, Tartrate, Task switching (psychology), Tea, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Classic of Tea, The Hershey Company, Theanine, Theobroma cacao, Theobromine, Theophylline, Therapeutic index, TNF inhibitor, Total synthesis, Trichloroethylene, Tuberomammillary nucleus, United States House of Representatives, University of Bristol, Urine, Vacuole, Vanilla, Vasoconstriction, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Wakefulness, West Africa, West Indies, Wheat, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization, Xanthine, Ya ba, Yemen, Yerba mate, Zwitterion, 1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid, 8-Chlorotheophylline, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, 8-Phenyltheophylline. Expand index (304 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 126.96.36.199) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The adenosine A2B receptor, also known as ADORA2B, is a G-protein coupled adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human adenosine A2b receptor gene which encodes it.
The adenosine A3 receptor, also known as ADORA3, is an adenosine receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Apnea of prematurity is defined as cessation of breathing by a premature infant that lasts for more than 20 seconds and/or is accompanied by hypoxia or bradycardia.
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Aspirin/paracetamol/caffeine is a combination drug for the treatment of pain, especially tension headache and migraine.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
A ban on caffeinated alcoholic drinks is a ban which prevents the marketing and distribution of any prepackaged caffeinated alcoholic drink.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Achiote (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree originating from the tropical region of the Americas.
Black drink is a name for several kinds of ritual beverages brewed by Native Americans in the Southeastern United States.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; formerly chronic lung disease of infancy) is a chronic lung disease in which premature infants, usually those who were treated with supplemental oxygen, require long-term oxygen.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
A caffeinated alcoholic drink, or caffeinated alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains both alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) and caffeine.
Caffeine citrate, sold under the trade name Cafcit among others, is a medication used to treat a lack of breathing in premature babies.
Caffeine is a commonplace central nervous system stimulant drug which occurs in nature as part of the coffee, tea, yerba mate and other plants.
Caffeinism is a condition of intoxication due to the abuse of caffeine.
Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit watchdog and consumer advocacy group that advocates for safer and healthier foods.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central nervous system fatigue, or central fatigue, is a form of fatigue that is associated with changes in the synaptic concentration of neurotransmitters within the central nervous system (CNS; including the brain and spinal cord) which affects exercise performance and muscle function and cannot be explained by peripheral factors that affect muscle function.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Chattanooga is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, with a population of 177,571 in 2016.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chlorobutanol (trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) is a preservative, sedative, hypnotic and weak local anesthetic similar in nature to chloral hydrate.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
A chocolate bar is a chocolate confection in an oblong or rectangular form, which distinguishes it from bulk chocolate produced for commercial use or individually portioned chocolates such as pastilles, bon-bons, and truffles.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The Church of God (Restoration) is a Christian denomination that was founded in the 1980s by Daniel (Danny) Wilbur Layne (died September 21, 2011).
Cinchonine is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
In medicine and psychology, clinical significance is the practical importance of a treatment effect—whether it has a real genuine, palpable, noticeable effect on daily life.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products.
Coffea arabica, also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee", or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea.
Coffea canephora (syn. Coffea robusta), commonly known as robusta coffee, is a species of coffee that has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee.
A coffee enema is the enema-related procedure of injecting coffee via the anus to cleanse the rectum and large intestines.
A coffee percolator is a type of pot used for the brewing of coffee by continually cycling the boiling or nearly boiling brew through the grounds using gravity until the required strength is reached.
Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P4502C8 (abbreviated CYP2C8), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Dark chocolate (also known as black chocolate or plain chocolate) is a form of chocolate which contains a higher percentage of cocoa solids and cocoa butter than milk chocolate, and little to no dairy product.
Decaffeination is the removal of caffeine from coffee beans, cocoa, tea leaves, and other caffeine-containing materials.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Delayed milestone, also called developmental delays, is used to describe the condition where a child does not reach one of these stages at the expected age.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Dimethylurea (DMU) (IUPAC systematic name: 1,3-Dimethylurea) is a urea derivative and used as an intermediate in organic synthesis.
8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, PD-116,948) is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine A1 receptor.
In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) is a caffeine analog which displays affinity to A2 adenosine receptors, in contrast to the A1 subtype receptors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
DSST (formerly DANTES Subject Standardized Tests) are credit-by-examination tests originated by the United States Department of Defense's Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education Support (DANTES) program.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
An endurance game is a game where the object is to last as long as possible under some sort of stress.
An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy).
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Erowid, also called Erowid Center, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals as well as activities and technologies that can produce altered states of consciousness such as meditation, lucid dreaming, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroceuticals.
Espresso is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing out a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Friedlieb (or Friedlob, occasionally misnamed as "Friedrich") Ferdinand Runge (born near Hamburg on 8 February 1794, died in Oranienburg on 25 March 1867) was a German analytical chemist.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as (Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition, Bengali Vaishnavism, or Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement inspired by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in North India. "Gauḍīya" refers to the Gauḍa region (present day Bengal/Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of Vishnu or Krishna". Its theological basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gītā and Bhāgavata Purāṇa as interpreted by early disciples of Chaitanya such as Sanātana Gosvāmin, Rūpa Gosvāmin, Jīva Gosvāmin, Gopala Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmin, and others. The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the devotional worship (bhakti) of Radha and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, referring to its traditional origins in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) believed to originate from Brahma. It classifies itself as a monotheistic tradition, seeing the many forms of Vishnu or Krishna as expansions or incarnations of the one Supreme God, adipurusha.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
Gerardus Johannes Mulder (27 December 1802 – 18 April 1880) was a Dutch organic and analytical chemist.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.
A GPCR oligomer is a protein complex that consists of a small number (ὀλίγοι oligoi "a few", μέρος méros "part, piece, component") of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong teas and black teas.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Guarana (from the Portuguese guaraná), Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean. As a dietary supplement or herb, guarana seed is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds (about 2–4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds, compared to 1–2% for coffee seeds). The additive has gained notoriety for being used in energy drinks. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry and its seeds. The colour of the fruit ranges from brown to red and they contain black seeds that are partly covered by white arils. The colour contrast when the fruit is split open has been compared with the appearance of eyeballs, and has become the basis of an origin myth among the Sateré-Mawé people.
Guaraná Antarctica is a guaraná-flavoured soft drink, originating in Brazil and manufactured and distributed by AmBev, a subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev.
is a type of shaded green tea from Japan.
In organic chemistry, Hückel's rule estimates whether a planar ring molecule will have aromatic properties.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
In medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a renal replacement therapy which is used in the intensive care setting.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Hershey's special dark is a chocolate bar manufactured by The Hershey Company.
A heterotetramer is protein containing four non-covalently bound subunits, wherein the subunits are not all identical.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Ilex guayusa is a species of tree of the holly genus, native to the Amazon Rainforest.
Ilex vomitoria, commonly known as yaupon or yaupon holly, is a species of holly that is native to southeastern North America.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping).
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Islamic jurisprudence specifies which foods are halāl (حَلَال "lawful") and which are harām (حَرَامْ "unlawful").
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Jolt Cola is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Jolt Company, Inc.
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (30 June 1795 – 5 May 1877) was a French pharmacist.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.
Lapsang souchong, sometimes referred to as smoked tea (熏茶), is a black tea (Camellia sinensis) originally from the mountainous Wuyi region in the Chinese province of Fujian.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lip balm or lip salve is a wax-like substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth to moisturize and relieve chapped or dry lips, angular cheilitis, stomatitis, or cold sores.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Mate (sometimes spelled maté in English though not in Spanish or Portuguese), also known as chimarrão or cimarrón, is a traditional South American caffeine-rich infused drink, that was first consumed by the Guaraní and also spread by the Tupí people.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
A misnomer is a name or term that suggests an idea that is known to be wrong.
Mocha (المخا Yemeni pronunciation) is a port city on the Red Sea coast of Yemen.
Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Mountain Dew (stylized as Mtn Dew) is a carbonated soft drink brand produced and owned by PepsiCo.
Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to generate force.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natriuresis is the process of sodium excretion in the urine through the action of the kidneys.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethyl derivative of xanthine, structurally related to caffeine.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pepsi Zero Sugar (known as Diet Pepsi Max until early 2009 and Pepsi Max until August 2016), is a zero-calorie, sugar-free, carbohydrate-free, ginseng-infused cola sweetened with aspartame, marketed by PepsiCo.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
Pierre Jean Robiquet (13 January 1780 – 29 April 1840) was a French chemist.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Propyphenazone/paracetamol/caffeine (trade name Saridon) is an analgesic combination indicated for the management of headache.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of significant consumer protection laws which was enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidinediones are a class of chemical compounds characterized by a pyrimidine ring substituted with two carbonyl groups.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of intracellular calcium channels in various forms of excitable animal tissue like muscles and neurons.
Ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) is a protein found primarily in cardiac muscle.
Ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR-1) also known as skeletal muscle calcium release channel or skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor is a protein found primarily in skeletal muscle.
Ryanodine receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RYR3 gene.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
SpazzStick is a caffeinated lip balm.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Steeping is the soaking in liquid (usually water) of a solid so as to extract flavours or to soften it.
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (s) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
A tartrate is a salt or ester of the organic compound tartaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid.
Task switching, or set-shifting, is an executive function that involves the ability to unconsciously shift attention between one task and another.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Classic of Tea or Tea Classic is the first known monograph on tea in the world, by Chinese writer Lu Yu between 760 CE and 762 CE, during the Tang Dynasty.
The Hershey Company, known until April 2005 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is an American company and one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world.
Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.
Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of the Americas.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
The tuberomammillary nucleus is a histaminergic nucleus located within the posterior third of the hypothalamus.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), also known as the intermediate nucleus of the preoptic area (IPA), is a small cluster of neurons situated in the anterior hypothalamus, sitting just above and to the side of the optic chiasm in the brain of humans and other animals.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Ya ba (also yaba, yaa baa, ya baa or yah bah; ยาบ้า, literally "mad drug", formerly known as ya ma (ยาม้า; literally "horse drug"), are tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yerba mate (from Spanish; erva-mate or; ka'a) is a species of the holly genus (Ilex), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid, also referred to as trimethyluric acid and 8-oxy-caffeine, is a purine alkaloid that is produced in some plants and occurs as a minor metabolite of caffeine in humans.
8-Chlorotheophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethyl-8-chloroxanthine, is a stimulant drug of the xanthine chemical class, with physiological effects similar to caffeine.
8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-Cyclopentyltheophylline, 8-CPT, CPX) is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine receptors, with some selectivity for the A1 receptor subtype, as well as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor.
8-Phenyltheophylline (8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, 8-PT) is a drug derived from the xanthine family which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine receptors A1 and A2A, but unlike other xanthine derivatives has virtually no activity as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.
1, 3, 7 trimethylxanthine, 1,3,7 Trimethylxanthine, 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione, 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione, 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione, ATC code N06BC01, ATCvet code QN06BC01, Alert-Pep, Anoquan, Cafamil, Cafecon, Cafeine, Caffedrine, Caffedrine Caplets, Caffeien, Caffein, Caffeinated, Caffeine and Health, Caffeine and health, Caffeine anhydrous, Caffeine capsules, Caffeine intoxication, Caffeine overdose, Caffeine pill, Caffeine pills, Caffeine powder, Caffeine production, Caffeine sickness, Caffeine tablet, Caffeine tablets, Caffeine withdrawal, Caffeism, Caffene, Caffiene, Caffine, Cafipel, Coffein, Coffeine, C₈H₁₀N₄O₂, Darvon Compound-65, Dasin, Dexitac, Dhc Plus, Diurex, Durvitan, Eldiatric C, Enerjets, Ercatab, Esgic-Plus, Femcet, Guaranine, Guarnine, Health effects of caffeine, Invagesic Forte, Keep Alert, Kofein, Koffein, Lanorinal, Mateina, Mateine, Matteine, Medigesic Plus, Methyl-theobromine, Methyltheobromine, Migergot, Miudol, Natural Caffeinum, Nix Nap, No-Doz, No-Doze, No-doz, NoDoz, Nodaca, Norgesic Forte, Organex, Orphengesic, Orphengesic Forte, Overdosing on caffeine, Pep-Back, Phensal, ProPlus, Propoxyphene Compound 65, Propoxyphene Compound-65, Quick Pep, Refresh'n, SK 65 Compound, Synalgos-Dc, Theine, Trimethylxanthine, Ultra Pep-Back, Vivarin, Wake Ups, Wake-Up, Wigraine.