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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt. [1]

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'Amr ibn al-'As

'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abdeen Palace

Abdeen Palace (قصر عابدين) is a historic Cairo palace, and one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt.

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Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي,; born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the current sixth President of Egypt, in office since 2014.

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Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע; ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra, 1089–c.1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.

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Abu Sa'id al-Afif

Abu Sa'id al-Afif was a Samaritan physician in fifteenth century Cairo.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African Games

The African Games, formally known as the All-Africa Games or the Pan African Games, are a continental multi-sport event held every four years, organized by the African Union (AU) with the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa (ANOCA) and the Association of African Sports Confederations (AASC).

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Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia,Field, Henry. "", American Anthropologist, New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia, or nicknamed the World Island) is a landmass which can be subdivided into Africa and Eurasia (which can be further subdivided into Asia and Europe).

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Ahmad ibn Tulun

Ahmad ibn Tulun (translit; ca. 20 September 835 – 10 May 884) was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria between 868 and 905.

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Ahmed Sabri

Ahmed Sabri (أحمد صبري), sometimes Ahmad Sabry (20 April 1889 – 8 March 1955) was an Egyptian painter born in Cairo governance.

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Ahram Canadian University

Al-Ahram Canadian University (ACU; جامعة الاهرام الكندية) is a private university in 6th of October City, Egypt.

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Ain Shams

Ain, Ayn, or Ein Shams (عين شمس,, ⲱⲛ ⲡⲉⲧ ⲫⲣⲏ) is a suburb of Cairo, Egypt.

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Ain Shams University

Ain Shams University (جامعة عين شمس) is an institute of higher education located in Cairo, Egypt.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Al Ahly SC

Al Ahly Sporting Club (Classical Arabic: النادي الأهلي للألعاب الرياضية; النادي الأهلي الرياضي, El Nady El Ahly El Riady, English translation:The National Sporting Club) is an Egyptian sports club based in Cairo, Egypt.

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Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥāfiẓ (1149–1171), better known by his regnal name al-ʿĀḍid li-Dīn Allāh (العاضد لدين الله, "Support of God's Faith"), also known as al-Azid and al-Athid, was the fourteenth and last Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty, reigning from 1160 to 1171.

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Al-Ahram (الأهرام; The Pyramids), founded on 5 August 1875, is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqa'i`al-Masriya (The Egyptian Events, founded 1828).

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Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri

Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri (الأشرف قانصوه الغوري) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans.

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al-‘Askar (العسكر) was the capital of Egypt from 750-868, when Egypt was a province of the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Al-Azhar Mosque

Al-Azhar Mosque (جامع الأزهر, الأزهر, "mosque of the most resplendent") is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo.

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Al-Azhar Park

Al-Azhar Park is a public park located in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Hakim Mosque

The Mosque of al-Hakim (Masjid al-Ḥākim bi Amr Allāh), nicknamed al-Anwar (lit), is a major Islamic religious site in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Hussein Mosque

The Al-Hussain Mosque (مسجد الإمام الحسين; جامع سيدنا الحسين.) is a mosque built in 1154 (alternative transliterations include Husayn, Hussain, Husayn, and Hussayn; also, the mosque's name is prefixed by the honorific title Sayyidna).

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Al-Masry Al-Youm

Al-Masry Al-Youm (المصرى اليوم,, meaning The Egyptian Today) is an Egyptian privately owned daily newspaper that was first published in June 2004.

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Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah

Abu Tamim Maad al-Muizz li-Dinillah (26 September 932 – 19 December 975) (lit), also spelled as al-Moezz, was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and 14th Ismaili imam, and reigned from 953 to 975.

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Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque

The Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qala'un Mosque is an early 14th-century mosque at the Citadel in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Qaṭāʾi (القطائـع) was the short-lived Tulunid capital of Egypt, founded by Ahmad ibn Tulun in the year 868 CE.

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Al-Salih Tala'i Mosque

The Mosque of Al Salih Tala'i (مسجد الصالح طلائع) is a late Fatimid-era mosque commissioned by the vizir Tala'i ibn Ruzzik in 1160.

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Al-Sayeda Nafeesah Mosque

Al-Sayeda Nafeesah Mosque or Mashhad Al-Sayeda Nafeesah is a mosque in Al-Sayeda Nafeesah district (or Sebaa Valley) of Cairo, Egypt.

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Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).

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The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.

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Algiers Metro

The Algiers Metro (مترو الجزائر العاصمة, Métro d'Alger), serving Algiers, the capital of Algeria, is a transport project dating from the 1970s that was designed to address the need for mass transport caused by the city's growth.

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Amalric of Jerusalem

Amalric (Amalricus; Amaury; 113611 July 1174) was King of Jerusalem from 1163, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Anglo-Egyptian War

The Anglo-Egyptian War (al-āḥalāl al-Brīṭānnī al-Miṣr) occurred in 1882 between Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom.

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An apartment (American English), flat (British English) or unit (Australian English) is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building, generally on a single storey.

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Aqmar Mosque

Al-Jam`e Al-ِAqmar (الجامع الأقمر, literally: Moonlit mosque) or Al-Aqmar Mosque, also called Gray mosque, is a mosque in Cairo, Egypt dating from the Fatimid era.

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Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport

The Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport (الأكاديمية العربية للعلوم والتكنولوجيا والنقل البحري) is a regional university operated by the Arab League which runs programs in marine transportation, business, and engineering.

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Arab American Vehicles

Arab American Vehicles is an Egyptian automobile manufacturer based in Cairo, Egypt.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab Open University

The Arab Open University (AOU) is a non-profit university.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Arabic Oud House

The Arabic Oud House is an oud school.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Avi Cohen

Avraham "Avi" Cohen (אבי כהן; 14 November 1956 – 29 December 2010) was an Israeli footballer who played as a defender.

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Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.

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Bab al-Futuh

Bab al Futuh (Conquest Gate) is one of three remaining gates in the walls of the Old City of Cairo, Egypt.

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Bab al-Nasr (Cairo)

Bab al-Nasr (باب النصر, Gate of Victory), is one of three remaining gates in the walls of the Old City of Cairo Egypt, in Islamic Cairo, it is a massive fortified gate with rectangular stone towers flanking the semicircular arch of the eastern Portal.

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Bab Zuweila

Bab Zuweila is one of three remaining gates in the walls of the Old City of Cairo, the capital of Egypt.

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Babylon Fortress

Babylon Fortress was an ancient fortress city or castle in the Delta of Egypt, located in the area today known as Coptic Cairo.

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Badr al-Jamali

Abū'l-Najm Badr ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Jamālī al-Mustanṣirī, better known as Badr al-Jamali (بدر الجمالى) was a vizier and prominent statesman for the Fatimid Caliphate under Caliph al-Mustansir.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Baron Empain Palace

The Baron Empain Palace (قصر البارون إمبان, "Qasr el Baron"), better known as Le Palais Hindou (literally, The Hindu Palace), is a distinctive and historic Indian-inspired mansion in Heliopolis, a suburb northeast of central Cairo, Egypt.

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Bayn al-Qasrayn

Bayn al-Qasrayn is the district and plaza between two palaces constructed by the Fatimid dynasty in mediaeval Islamic Cairo, within present day Cairo, Egypt.

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A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.

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Ben Ezra Synagogue

The Ben Ezra Synagogue (בית כנסת בן עזרא, معبد بن عزرا), sometimes referred to as the El-Geniza Synagogue (בית כנסת אל גניזה) or the Synagogue of the Levantines (al-Shamiyin), is situated in Old Cairo, Egypt.

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A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Boutros Boutros-Ghali (بطرس بطرس غالي,; 14 November 1922 – 16 February 2016) was an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from January 1992 to December 1996.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British University in Egypt

The British University in Egypt is a private Egyptian university in El Sherouk, Cairo Governorate, Egypt.

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Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Bulaq (also spelled Boulaq, Bulak, and Beaulac; Arabic: بولاق / ALA-LC: Būlāq), is a district of Cairo, in Egypt.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group

The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) connects 90 of the world’s greatest cities, representing 650+ million people and one quarter of the global economy.

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Cairo Citadel

The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (قلعة صلاح الدين) is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, Egypt.

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Cairo fire

The Cairo fire, also known as Black Saturday,King 1989, p. 207Goldschmidt & Johnston 2004, p. 83 was a series of riots that took place on 26 January 1952, marked by the burning and looting of some 750 buildings —retail shops, cafes, cinemas, hotels, restaurants, theatres, nightclubs and the country's Opera House— in Downtown Cairo.

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Cairo Geniza

The Cairo Genizah, alternatively spelled Geniza, is a collection of some 300,000 Jewish manuscript fragments that were found in the genizah or storeroom of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat or Old Cairo, Egypt.

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Cairo Governorate

Cairo Governorate (محافظة القاهرة) is the most populated of the governorates of Egypt.

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Cairo International Airport

Cairo International Airport (Arabic:; Maṭār El Qāhira El Dawly) is the international airport of Cairo and the busiest airport in Egypt and serves as the primary hub for EgyptAir, EgyptAir Express and Nile Air as well as several other airlines.

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Cairo International Film Festival

The Cairo International Film Festival (مهرجان القاهرة السينمائي الدولي) is an annual internationally accredited film festival held in Cairo Opera House.

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Cairo International Stadium

The Cairo International Stadium or "Stad El Qahira El Dawly", is an Olympic-standard, multi-use stadium with an all-seated capacity of 75,000.

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Cairo Metro

The Cairo Metro (Metro Anfāq al-Qāhirah, lit. "Cairo Tunnel Metro" or مترو الأنفاق) is the rapid transit system in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

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Cairo Tower

The Cairo Tower (برج القاهرة, Borg Al-Qāhira) is a free-standing concrete tower located in Cairo, Egypt.

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Cairo Transportation Authority

Cairo Transportation Authority (CTA) is the operator of mass transit within Cairo, and the largest operator in Egypt.

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Cairo University

Cairo University (جامعة القاهرة, known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952) is Egypt's premier public university.

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Canadian International College

The Canadian International College (CIC) (المعهد الكندي العالي, transliteration: Al Maahad Al Canady Al Aaly), is an Egyptian Higher institute in Cairo, Egypt.

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A cantonment is a military or police quarters.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Catalytic converter

A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Charles Ayrout

Charles Habib Ayrout (Arabic: شارل حبيب عيروط) was an architect practicing in Cairo and is considered as one of that city's Belle Epoque/Art Déco (1920–1940) architects for his landmark buildings and villas.

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Chery Automobile Co., Ltd., trading as Chery and sometimes known by the pinyin transcription of its Chinese name, Qirui (奇瑞), is a Chinese automobile manufacturer headquartered in Wuhu, Anhui Province, China.

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Church of St. George (Cairo)

The Church of St.

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City of the Dead (Cairo)

The City of the Dead, or Cairo Necropolis (Qarafa, el-Arafa), is an Islamic necropolis and cemetery below the Mokattam Hills in southeastern Cairo, Egypt.

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.

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Complex of Sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay

The funerary complex of Sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay is an architectural complex built by Sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay in Cairo's Northern Cemetery, completed in 1474.

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Confederation of African Football

The Confederation of African Football or CAF (Confédération Africaine de Football) is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Coptic art

Coptic art is a term used either for the art of Egypt produced in the early Christian era or for the art produced by the Coptic Christians themselves.

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Coptic Cairo

Coptic Cairo is a part of Old Cairo which encompasses the Babylon Fortress, the Coptic Museum, the Hanging Church, the Greek Church of St. George and many other Coptic churches and historical sites.

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Coptic Museum

The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world.

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.

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A corniche is a road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side and falling away on the other.

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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cultural tourism in Egypt

Egypt has a thriving cultural tourism industry, built on the country's complex history, multicultural population and importance as a regional centre.

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Daimler AG

Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.

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Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti (17 January 1933 – 3 May 1987), better known as Dalida (داليدا), was a French-Italian-Egyptian singer and actress who spent most of her career in France.

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A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.

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Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.

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Diplomatic mission

A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.

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Director general

A director general or director-general (plural: directors generals, sometimes director generals) or general director is a senior executive officer, often the chief executive officer, within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution.

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Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.

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Downtown Cairo

Downtown Cairo (وسط البلد, "middle of town"), has been the urban center of Cairo, Egypt since the late 19th century, when the district was designed and built.

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Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Education in Egypt

Egypt has the largest overall education system in Africa, and it has grown rapidly since the early 1990s.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egypt in the Middle Ages

Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown.

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Egyptian Arabic

Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.

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Egyptian Football Association

The Egyptian Football Association (EFA; الإتحاد المصري لكرة القدم) is the governing body of football in Egypt.

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Egyptian Museum

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.

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Egyptian National Military Museum

The Egyptian National Military Museum is the official museum of the Egyptian Army.

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Egyptian revolution of 1919

The Egyptian revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan.

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Egyptian revolution of 1952

The Egyptian coup d'etat of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

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Egyptian revolution of 2011

The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.

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Farouk Hosny

Farouk Hosny (or Hosni) (فاروق حسنى; born 1938) is an Egyptian abstract painter who was Minister of Culture from 1987 to 2011.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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Fez, Morocco

Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.

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The FIAPF (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films; International Federation of Film Producers Associations) based in Paris, created in 1933, is an organization composed with 36 member associations from 30 of the leading audiovisual production countries.

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Film festival

A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region.

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Film studio


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Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.

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French campaign in Egypt and Syria

The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region.

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French University of Egypt

The French University of Egypt (French: Université française d’Égypte, UFE, Arabic: الجامعة الأهلية الفرنسية في مصر, lit. the French National University in Egypt) is a non-profit private university, established in 2002 at Cairo in El-Sherouk city.

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Fustat (الفسطاط al-Fusţāţ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule.

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Future University in Egypt

Future University in Egypt (FUE; Arabic: جامعة المستقبل) is a private university located in New Cairo, Egypt founded in 2006.

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Gaafar Nimeiry

Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Ga'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 1 January 193030 May 2009) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.

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Garden City, Cairo

Garden City (جاردن سيتى) is a wealthy residential district in Central Cairo that spans the east side of the Nile just south of downtown.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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German University in Cairo

The German University in Cairo (abbreviated to GUC; الجامعة الألمانية بالقاهرة, Deutsche Universität in Kairo"." German University in Cairo. Retrieved on June 4, 2014.) is a university in New Cairo City, Cairo, Egypt.

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Gezira (Cairo)

Gezira is an island in the Nile River, in central Cairo, Egypt.

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Ghabbour Group

The Ghabbour Group is an Egyptian manufacturer of automobiles, buses, trucks and motorcycles located in Cairo.

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Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.

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Giza Governorate

Giza Governorate (محافظة الجيزة) is one of the governorates of Egypt.

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Giza pyramid complex

The Giza pyramid complex (أهرامات الجيزة,, "pyramids of Giza") is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.

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Global health

Global health is the health of populations in the global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".

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Global Telecom Holding

Global Telecom Holding S.A.E. (formerly Orascom Telecom Holding S.A.E.) (GTH) is an international telecommunications company operating mobile networks in several nations. GTH is based in Amsterdam.

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Globalization and World Cities Research Network

The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

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GlobalPost is an online US digital journalism company that focuses on international news founded on January 12, 2009 by Philip S. Balboni and Charles M. Sennott.

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GM Korea

GM Korea CompanyFormerly GM Daewoo Auto & Technology. (한국지엠주식회사,Also spelled as 한국GM주식회사.) is South Korea's third largest automobile manufacturer and a subsidiary of General Motors.

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Governorates of Egypt

For administrative purposes, Egypt is divided into twenty-seven governorates (محافظة;; genitive case:; plural: محافظات). Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's jurisdiction hierarchy.

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Graupel (Enɡlish), also called soft hail or snow pellets, is precipitation that forms when supercooled water droplets are collected and freeze on falling snowflakes, forming balls of rime.

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Greater Cairo

The Greater Cairo Area (GCA) (القاهرة الكبرى) is the largest metropolitan area in Egypt and the largest urban area in Africa.

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Gulf of Suez

The Gulf of Suez (khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly بحر القلزم,, "Sea of Calm") is a gulf at the northern end of the Red Sea, to the west of the Sinai Peninsula.

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The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Hamish Hamilton

Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house, founded in 1931 eponymously by the half-Scot half-American Jamie Hamilton (Hamish is the vocative form of the Gaelic 'Seumas', James the English form – which was also his given name, and Jamie the diminutive form).

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Heliopolis, Cairo

Heliopolis (مصر الجديدة,,, "New Egypt") was a suburb outside Cairo, Egypt, which has since merged with Cairo as a district of the city and is one of the more affluent areas of Cairo.

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Helwan (حلوان,, Halouan) is a city in Egypt and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis.

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Helwan Governorate

Helwan Governorate was one of the governorates of Egypt.

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Helwan University

Helwan University is a public university based in Helwan, Egypt, which is part of Greater Cairo.

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High-rise building

A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions.

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Higher Technological Institute

Higher Technological Institute (often shortened to HTI), the first private technological institute in Egypt.

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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

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Husayn ibn Ali

Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.

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Hussein Fahmy

Hussein Mahmoud Fahmy (حسين فهمي; born 22 March 1940) is an Egyptian actor.

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Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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Inversion (meteorology)

In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Islamic Cairo

Islamic Cairo (قاهرة المعز, Qahirat al-Maez) is a part of central Cairo around the old walled city and around the Citadel of Cairo which is characterized by hundreds of mosques, tombs, madrasas, mansions, caravanserais, and fortifications dating from the Islamic era.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Islamic studies

Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.

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Islamica Magazine

Islamica Magazine was a quarterly magazine in the United States with editorial offices in Amman, Jordan, Cambridge, MA and London, UK., dedicated to presenting various perspectives and opinions on Islam and the Muslim world.

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Isma'il Pasha

Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.

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Ismaily SC

Ismaily Sporting Club (نادي الإسماعيلي الرياضي) (Egyptian Arabic: النادي الإسماعيلي, Egyptian pronunciation: El-Nady El-Ismaily) is an Egyptian professional football club, established on 13 April 1924 as El Nahda Sporting Club (Egyptian pronunciation: Nady El Nahda), based in Ismaïlia, Egypt.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jawhar (general)

Jawhar (جوهر; 966–d. 992) was a Fatimid general.

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Jewish Theological Seminary of America

The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) is a religious education organization located in New York, New York.

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Joint Commission

The Joint Commission is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501(c) organization that accredits more than 21,000 US health care organizations and programs.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Juyushi Mosque

The Juyushi Mosque (الجامع الجيوشى "Mosque of the Armies") was built by the vizier Badr al-Jamali who was "Amir al-Juyush" (امير الجيوش, "Commander of the Armies") for the Fatimid Caliphate.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Khamsīn, chamsin or hamsin (خمسين, derived from the Arabic word for "fifty"), more commonly known in Egypt as khamaseen (خماسين), is a dry, hot, sandy local wind affecting Egypt; similar winds, blowing in other parts of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the entire Mediterranean basin, have different local names, such as bist roz in Iran and Afghanistan, haboob in the Sudan, aajej in southern Morocco, ghibli in Tunis, harmattan in the western Maghreb, africo in Italy, sirocco (derived from the Arabic sharkiyya, “easterly”) which blows in winter over much of the Middle East,Philologos,, in The Forward, 4 April 2003.

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Khan el-Khalili

Khan el-Khalili (خان الخليلي) is a major souk in the historic center of Islamic Cairo.

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A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.

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Khedivial Opera House

The Khedivial Opera House or Royal Opera House (دار الأوبرا الخديوية / ALA-LC: Dār Awbirā al-Khudaywī) was an opera house in Cairo, Egypt.

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King of Jerusalem

The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.

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Land reclamation

Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.

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Largest metropolitan areas of the Middle East

This is a list of metropolitan areas in Middle East, with their population according to different sources.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Leasehold estate

A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord.

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List of buildings in Cairo

A list of buildings in Cairo, Egypt.

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List of cities and towns in Egypt

No description.

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List of largest cities

Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.

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List of mosques in Cairo

Cairo has always been known as the City of a Thousand Minarets due to the large number of mosques, and its well-known reputation of a beautiful skyline of minarets that can be seen from any high roof.

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List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.

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List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt

Cairo is twinned with.

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List of universities in Egypt

This is a list of universities in Egypt.

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List of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States

This is a list of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States, in Western Asia and North Africa, occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.

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Loughborough University

Loughborough University (abbreviated as Lough for post-nominals) is a public research university in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England.

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Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.

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Lulua Mosque

The Lulua Mosque (مسجد اللؤلؤة) (meaning:the Pearl) is a mosque in Cairo, Egypt, that was built in 1015–16 AD.

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Maadi or al-Ma'adi (معادي الخبيري - المعادي / transliterated) is an affluent, leafy suburban district south of Cairo, Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile about 12 km upriver from downtown Cairo.

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A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Madrassa of Al-Nasir Muhammad

The Madrassa of Al-Nasir Muhammad is a madrassa and mausoleum located in the Bayn al-Qasrayn region of Cairo, Egypt.

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Magdi Yacoub

Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub (د/مجدى حبيب يعقوب; born 16 November 1935) is an Egyptian-British cardiothoracic surgeon.

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Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.

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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.

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Manshiyat Naser

Manshiyat Naser (منشية ناصر) is a ward (kism) of Cairo, Egypt.

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Manufacturing Commercial Vehicles

Manufacturing Commercial Vehicles (MCV) is an Egyptian manufacturer for buses and trucks.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mashhad of Sayyida Ruqayya

The Mashhad of Sayyidah Ruqayyah (Mashhad al-Sayyidah Ruqayyah), also known as Sayyidah Ruqayyah Mashhad, and Ruqayyah Mashhad, is a 12th-century religious shrine in the madinah of Cairo, Egypt.

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Max Rodenbeck

Max Rodenbeck is an American journalist and author, based in Cairo.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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A megacity is a very large city, typically with a total population in excess of 10 million people.

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Memphis, Egypt

Memphis (مَنْف; ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.

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Mineral dust

Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates.

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Ministry of Culture (Egypt)

The Ministry of Culture of Egypt is a ministry responsible for maintaining and promoting the culture of Egypt.

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Misr International University

Misr International University (MIU) (جامعة مصر الدولية) is an undergraduate private university located in the suburbs of Cairo.

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Misr University for Science and Technology

Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST) is a university located in 6th of October City, Giza, Egypt.

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Mode of transport

Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish substantially different ways to perform.

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Modern Academy In Maadi

The Modern Academy In Maadi (MAM), Egypt, was founded in 1993 by a group of professional educationalists, Initially, The Modern Academy is located in Maadi, a southern suburb of Cairo known by its greenery and quietness.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Modern Sciences and Arts University

October University of Modern Sciences and Arts (جامعة أكتوبر للعلوم الحديثة والآداب) is located in Cairo, Egypt.

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Mohamed ElBaradei

Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.

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The Mokattam (المقطم, also spelled Muqattam), also known as the Mukattam Mountain or Hills, is the name of a range of hills and a suburb in them, located in southeastern Cairo, Egypt.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Mosque of Amir al-Maridani

The Mosque of Amir Altinbugha al-Maridani, dating from 1340 CE, is a mosque from the era of the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo, Egypt.

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Mosque of Amr ibn al-As

The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As (جامع عمرو بن العاص), also called the Mosque of Amr, was originally built in 641–642 AD, as the center of the newly founded capital of Egypt, Fustat.

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Mosque of Ibn Tulun

The Mosque of Ibn Tulun (Masjid Ibn Ṭūlūn) is located in Cairo, Egypt.

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Mosque of Muhammad Ali

The Great Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha or Alabaster Mosque (Arabic: مسجد محمد علي, Turkish: Mehmet Ali Paşa Camii) is a mosque situated in the Citadel of Cairo in Egypt and commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha between 1830 and 1848.

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Mosque of Sultan al-Muayyad

The Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad is a Mosque in Cairo, Egypt next to Bab Zuwayla built by the Mamluk sultan Al-Mu'ayyad Sayf ad-Din Shaykh from whom it takes its name.

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Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Barquq

Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Barquq or Mosque-Madrassa-Khanqah of Az-Zaher Barquq (مسجد ومدرسة وخانقاه الظاهر برقوق) is a religious complex in Islamic Cairo, the historic medieval district of Cairo, Egypt.

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Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan

The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is a massive mosque and madrassa located in the Old city of Cairo, it was built during the Mamluk Islamic era in Egypt.

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Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.

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Muizz Street

Muizz Street (شارع المعز, full name; Shariʻa al-Muizz li-Din Illah), also known as Al Moez Ldin Allah Al Fatimi Street in Islamic Cairo, Egypt is one of the oldest streets in Cairo, approximately one kilometer long.

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Municipal services

Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents of a city expect the city government to provide in exchange for the taxes which citizens pay.

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Music recording certification

Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units.

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Muslim conquest of Egypt

At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt or Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.

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Naguib Mahfouz

Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ,; December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Naguib Sawiris

Naguib Onsi Sawiris (or Sawires,, نجيب انسي ساويرس, or; born 17 June 1954) is a Coptic-Egyptian billionaire businessman.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nasr City

Nasr City (مدينة نصر) is a district of Cairo, Egypt.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Research Centre

The National Research Centre is an Egyptian research and development center for multiple disciplines including agriculture, chemistry, biology, medicine, engineering and genetics.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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New Cairo

New Cairo (القاهرة الجديدة) is a city covering an area of about on the southeastern edge of Cairo Governorate, 25 kilometres (15 mi) from Maadi.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Nile University

Nile University is the first non-profit, research university in Egypt.

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A nilometer was a structure for measuring the Nile River's clarity and water level during the annual flood season.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Old Cairo

Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: مصر القديمه, Masr el-Qadīma), also known as "Historic Cairo," or "Islamic Cairo," is a part of Cairo, Egypt which pre-dates the Fatimid city of Cairo, founded in 969 CE.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Outline of Egypt

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Egypt: Egypt (مصر) is a sovereign country located in eastern North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Peter Theroux

Peter Christopher Sebastian Theroux (born 1956) is an American writer and translator.

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Planned community

A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria

Pope Shenouda III (Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ϣⲉⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲅ̅; بابا الإسكندرية شنودة الثالث; 3 August 1921 – 17 March 2012) was the 117th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

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President of Egypt

The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.

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President of Tunisia

The President of Tunisia, formally known as the President of the Republic of Tunisia (رئيس الجمهورية التونسية, Président de la République tunisienne) is the head of state of Tunisia.

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Private hospital

A private hospital is a hospital owned by a for-profit company or a non-profit organization and privately funded through payment for medical services by patients themselves, by insurers, Governments through national health insurance programs, or by foreign embassies.

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Proposed new capital of Egypt

The proposed new capital of Egypt is a large-scale project announced by Egyptian housing minister Moustafa Madbouly at the Egypt Economic Development Conference on 13 March 2015.

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A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Public works

Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.

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Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.

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Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf ad-Din Qa'it Bay (السلطان أبو النصر سيف الدين الأشرف قايتباي) (c. 1416/14181496) was the eighteenth Burji Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from 872-901 A.H. (1468-1496 C.E.). (Other transliterations of his name include Qaytbay and Kait Bey.) He was Circassian (شركسيا) by birth, and was purchased by the ninth sultan Barsbay (1422 to 1438 C.E.) before being freed by the eleventh Sultan Jaqmaq (1438 to 1453 C.E.). During his reign, he stabilized the Mamluk state and economy, consolidated the northern boundaries of the Sultanate with the Ottoman Empire, engaged in trade with other contemporaneous polities, and emerged as a great patron of art and architecture.

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Qalawun complex

The Qalawun complex (مجمع قلاون) is a massive complex in Cairo, Egypt that includes a madrasa, a hospital and a mausoleum.

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Qalyubia Governorate

Qalyubia Governorate (محافظة القليوبية) is one of the governorates of Egypt.

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Qasr El Eyni Hospital

Kasr Al Ainy Hospital (Arabic: قصر العيني مستشفى) is a research and teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt.

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Qasr El Nil Bridge

The Qasr El Nil Bridge (originally named Khedive Ismail Bridge), also commonly spelled Kasr El Nil Bridge, is a historic structure dating to 1931 and replaced the first bridge to span the Nile River in central Cairo, Egypt.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Ramses Station

Ramses Railway Station (محطة رمسيس Maḥaṭṭat Ramsīs), also called Misr Station (محطة مصر Maḥaṭṭat Miṣr) is the main railway station of Cairo, Egypt.

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Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Renting, also known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another.

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Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.

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Road traffic control

Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public.

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Roda Island

Roda Island or Rawdah Island,, is an island located on the Nile in central Cairo.

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Roland Moreno

Roland Moreno (11 June 1945 – 29 April 2012) was a French inventor, engineer, humorist and author who was the inventor of the memory card.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rush hour

A rush hour (American English, British English) is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest.

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Sadat Academy for Management Sciences

Sadat Academy for Management Sciences (SAMS) (Arabic:أكاديمية السادات للعلوم الإدارية ʼAkādemyāt ʼal-sādāt lil-ʿoloom al ʼedāriāh), is an Egyptian Public Academy under the authorization of the Ministry of State for Administrative Development, SAMS was founded in Egypt in 1981.

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An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

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Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.

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Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.

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Satellite town

A satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly independent of larger metropolitan areas.

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Sebil (fountain)

A sebil or sabil (سبيل; Turkish: sebil) is a small kiosk where water is freely dispensed to members of the public.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Seoudi Group

The Seoudi Group is an Egyptian automobile manufacturer which was founded in 1975 with its current head office in Cairo.

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Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.

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The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Shawar ibn Mujir al-Sa'di (Shāwar ibn Mudjīr as-Saʿdī; died January 18, 1169) was the de facto ruler of Fatimid Egypt, as vizier, from December 1162 until his assassination in 1169 by the general Shirkuh, the uncle of the Kurdish leader Saladin, with whom he was engaged in a three-way power struggle against the Crusader Amalric I of Jerusalem.

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Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (in أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Shêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin.

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Shoubra (شبرا,; Coptic:; also written Shubra or Shobra) is one of the largest districts of Cairo, Egypt and it is administratively divided into three areas: Shubra, Road El Farag, and Elsahel.

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Siege of Cairo

The Siege of Cairo also known as the Cairo Campaign was a siege that took place during the French Revolutionary Wars, between French and British with Ottoman forces and was the penultimate action of the Egyptian Campaign.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Smart card

A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Smog is a type of air pollutant.

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Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).

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Speranza Motors

Speranza Motors, Ltd is an Egyptian auto manufacturer based in Maadi, Cairo.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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Sports club

A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Sufi whirling

Sufi whirling (or Sufi turning) (Semazen) is a form of Sama or physically active meditation which originated among Sufis, and which is still practiced by the Sufi Dervishes of the Mevlevi order and other orders such as the Rifa'i-Marufi.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sultan Al-Ghuri Complex

The Sultan Al-Ghuri Complex was built between the years 1503 and 1505.

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Sultan of Egypt

Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Suspended solids

Suspended solids refers to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a colloid or due to the motion of the water.

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A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.

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Tahrir Square

Tahrir Square (ميدان التحرير,, English: Liberation Square), also known as "Martyr Square", is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt.

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Talaat Harb Street

Talaat Harb Street (طلعت حرب) is a historic street in downtown Cairo, Egypt, connecting Tahrir Square—Liberation Square and Talaat Harb Square.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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The American University in Cairo

The American University in Cairo (abbreviated to AUC; الجامعة الأمريكية بالقاهرة) is an independent, English language, private, research university located in Cairo, Egypt.

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The Hanging Church

Saint Virgin Mary's Coptic Orthodox Church also known as the Hanging Church (El Muallaqa) is one of the oldest churches in Egypt and the history of a church on this site dates to the 3rd century AD.

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The Mogamma

The Mogamma (Arabic: مجمع التحرير, also spelled Mugamma, roughly translated as 'the complex') is a government building in Cairo, Egypt.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Townhouse Gallery

The Townhouse Gallery was established in 1998 as an independent, non-profit art space in Egypt with a goal of making contemporary arts accessible to all without compromising creative practice.

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Thomson Reuters Foundation

Thomson Reuters Foundation is the London-based charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, a Canadian global information and news network.

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Time-lapse photography

Time-lapse photography is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence.

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Trams in Greater Cairo

Constructed near the beginning of the 20th century, until 2014, the Cairo tramway network was still used in modern-day Cairo, especially in modern areas, like Heliopolis, Nasr City.

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Transport in Cairo

Transport in Cairo comprises an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services for the more than 15.2 million inhabitants of the city.

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Transport network

A transport network, or transportation network is a realisation of a spatial network, describing a structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tunisian Revolution

The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.

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Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.

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The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence

The Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 28 February 1922.

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University of Al Quaraouiyine

The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

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Vehicle emissions control

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

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A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.

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Waste collection

Waste collection is a part of the process of waste management.

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Waste management

Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.

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Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.

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World Rugby

World Rugby is the world governing body for the sport of rugby union and rugby sevens.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu

Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (March 27, 1889 – December 13, 1974) was a Turkish novelist, journalist, diplomat, and senator.

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Yasser Arafat

Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.

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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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The Zabbaleen (زبالين) is a word which literally means "garbage people" in Egyptian Arabic.

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Zamalek (الزمالك which is originally derived from Turkish: üzümlük, meaning vineyard) is an affluent district of western Cairo encompassing the northern portion of Gezira Island in the Nile River.

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Zamalek SC

Zamalek Sporting Club (نادى الزمالك للألعاب الرياضية) is an Egyptian sports club based in Meet Okba, Giza, Egypt.

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Zengid dynasty

The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.

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Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي,; born 3 September 1936) is a Tunisian former politician who served as President of Tunisia from 1987 until his ousting in 2011.

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1992 Cairo earthquake

The 1992 Cairo earthquake occurred at 15:09 local time (13:09 UTC) on 12 October, with an epicenter near Dahshur, south of Cairo.

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2006 Africa Cup of Nations

The 2006 Africa Cup of Nations was the 25th edition of the Africa Cup of Nations, the association football championship of Africa.

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2007 Pan Arab Games

The 11th Pan Arab Games took place in Cairo, Egypt from 11 – 26 November 2007.

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2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.

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6th October Bridge

The 6th October Bridge (جسر 6 أكتوبر, Kubri 6 uktubar) is an elevated highway in central Cairo, Egypt.

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6th of October (city)

6th of October Cityمدينة السادس من أكتوبر is a city in Giza Governorate, a satellite town and part of the urban area of Cairo, Egypt, 32 km (20 miles) outside the city.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo

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