110 relations: Acid, Alabaster, Algae, Amino acid, Anaerobic oxidation of methane, Aragonite, Aragonite sea, Archaeology, Aspartic acid, Ångström, Bastet, Bipyramid, Birefringence, Bivalvia, Brachiopod, Bryozoa, Calcite, Calcite sea, Calcium carbonate, Carbonate hardgrounds, Carbonate minerals, Carbonatite, Carrara marble, Catalysis, Cave, Chalk, Chirality, Cloak of invisibility, Coccolith, Conchoidal fracture, Crystal, Crystal twinning, Denmark, Durango, Echinoderm, Echinosphaerites, Estonia, Fluorescence, Foraminifera, Formose reaction, Gypsum, Hardness comparison, Hermann–Mauguin notation, Hexagonal crystal family, Homochirality, Hot spring, Iceland spar, Ikaite, International Atomic Energy Agency, Ion, ..., Iron, Isotopes of carbon, Jurassic, Karst, Kimberlite, Lime (material), Limestone, List of minerals, Lysocline, Manganoan calcite, Mantle (geology), Mapimí Municipality, Marble, Marine biology, Mass spectrometry, Metamorphic rock, Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation, Miller index, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Monohydrocalcite, New Mexico, Ocean acidification, Ooid, Ordovician, Ostwald ripening, Oyster, Peridotite, Permeability (earth sciences), Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petrography, Phosphorescence, Plankton, Polymorphism (materials science), Porosity, Precipitation (chemistry), Prism (geometry), Pyrite, Rasmus Bartholin, Refractive index, Rudists, Scratch hardness, Seashell, Sedimentary rock, Serpulidae, Snowy River Cave, Solvation, Specific gravity, Sponge, Stalactite, Terrace ledge kink model, The New York Times, Thin section, Transparency and translucency, Trilobite, Ulexite, Vaterite, Vein (geology), Volcano, X-ray crystallography, Yule Marble. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a microbial process occurring in anoxic marine and freshwater sediments.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
An aragonite sea contains aragonite and high-magnesium calcite as the primary inorganic calcium carbonate precipitates.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Bastet or Bast (bꜣstjt "She of the Ointment Jar", Ⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥⲧⲉ) was a goddess of ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the Second Dynasty (2890 BCE).
An n-gonal bipyramid or dipyramid is a polyhedron formed by joining an n-gonal pyramid and its mirror image base-to-base.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
A calcite sea is one in which low-magnesium calcite is the primary inorganic marine calcium carbonate precipitate.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Carbonate hardgrounds are surfaces of synsedimentarily cemented carbonate layers that have been exposed on the seafloor (Wilson and Palmer, 1992).
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
Carrara marble is a type of white or blue-grey marble of high quality, popular for use in sculpture and building decor.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.
A cloak of invisibility is a fictional theme and a device under some scientific inquiry.
Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere.
Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break or fracture when they do not follow any natural planes of separation.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Echinosphaerites is a genus of rhombiferan cystoid echinoderms that lived in the Early to Middle Ordovician of North America and Europe (Bockelie, 1981).
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
The formose reaction, discovered by Aleksandr Butlerov in 1861 and hence, also known as the Butlerov reaction, involves the formation of sugars from formaldehyde.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
There are a large number of hardness testing methods available (e.g. Vickers, Brinell, Rockwell, Meyer and Leeb).
In geometry, Hermann–Mauguin notation is used to represent the symmetry elements in point groups, plane groups and space groups.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Homochirality is a uniformity of chirality, or handedness.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Iceland spar, formerly known as Iceland crystal (silfurberg; lit. silver-rock), is a transparent variety of calcite, or crystallized calcium carbonate, originally brought from Iceland, and used in demonstrating the polarization of light (see polarimetry).
Ikaite is the mineral name for the hexahydrate of calcium carbonate, CaCO3·6H2O.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Carbon (6C) has 15 known isotopes, from 8C to 22C, of which 12C and 13C are stable.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kimberlite is an igneous rock, which sometimes contains diamonds.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.
The lysocline is the depth in the ocean below which the rate of dissolution of calcite increases dramatically.
Manganoan calcite or Manganocalcite is a variety of calcite rich in manganese, which gives the mineral a pink color.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mapimí is one of the 39 municipalities of Durango, in north-western Mexico.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a bio-geochemical process that induces calcium carbonate precipitation within the soil matrix.
Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Monohydrocalcite is a mineral that is a hydrous form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3·H2O.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Ooids are small (commonly ≤2 mm in diameter), spheroidal, "coated" (layered) sedimentary grains, usually composed of calcium carbonate, but sometimes made up of iron- or phosphate-based minerals.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Ostwald ripening is an observed phenomenon in solid solutions or liquid sols that describes the change of an inhomogeneous structure over time, i.e., small crystals or sol particles dissolve, and redeposit onto larger crystals or sol particles.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Peridotite is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy (rigidly moved without rotation) of the first, and n other faces (necessarily all parallelograms) joining corresponding sides of the two bases.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Rasmus Bartholin (Latinized: Erasmus Bartholinus; 13 August 1625 – 4 November 1698) was a Danish scientist, physician and grammarian.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Rudists are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.
Scratch hardness tests are used to determine the hardness of a material to scratches and abrasion.
A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
The Serpulidae are a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta.
Snowy River Cave is a cave passage within Fort Stanton Cave in Lincoln County, New Mexico, obtaining its name from a stream bed of white calcite.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
A stalactite (from the Greek stalasso, (σταλάσσω), "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines.
In chemistry, the Terrace Ledge Kink model (TLK), which is also referred to as the Terrace Step Kink model (TSK), describes the thermodynamics of crystal surface formation and transformation, as well as the energetics of surface defect formation.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
Ulexite (NaCaB5O6(OH)6·5H2O, hydrated sodium calcium borate hydroxide), sometimes known as TV rock, is a mineral occurring in silky white rounded crystalline masses or in parallel fibers.
Vaterite is a mineral, a polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yule Marble is a marble of metamorphosed limestone found only in the Yule Creek Valley, in the West Elk Mountains of Colorado, southeast of the town of Marble, Colorado.