129 relations: ACE inhibitor, Action potential, Active ingredient, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Afterload, Albrecht Fleckenstein, Alcohol (drug), Aldosterone, Amlodipine, Analgesic, Angina, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antihypertensive drug, Aplysia, Aranidipine, Artery, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Avicenna, Azelnidipine, Barnidipine, Baroreflex, Benidipine, Bepridil, Beta blocker, Biosynthesis, Blood pressure, Blood–brain barrier, Bradycardia, CACNA2D1, Calcium, Calcium channel, Cardiac action potential, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiomyopathy, Cell membrane, Cerebral vasospasm, Chest pain, Chronotropic, Cilnidipine, Circulatory system, Clevidipine, Cluster headache, Conotoxin, Constipation, Cooperative binding, Coronary artery disease, Cortisol, ..., Detrusor muscle, Dihydropyridine, Diltiazem, Edema, Efonidipine, Elderly care, Endocrine system, Epilepsy, Felodipine, Fendiline, Flunarizine, Fluspirilene, Gabapentin, Gabapentinoid, Gallopamil, Gingival enlargement, Headache (journal), Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart block, Heart rate, Herbalism, Hill equation (biochemistry), Hypertension, Inotrope, Ischemia, Isradipine, Kidney disease, L-type calcium channel, Lacidipine, Lercanidipine, Magnesium aspartate, Magnesium chloride, Magnesium lactate, Manidipine, Mibefradil, Morphine, Mortality rate, Muscle contraction, N-type calcium channel, Neuron, Neuropathic pain, Neurotransmitter, Nicardipine, Nifedipine, Nilvadipine, Nimodipine, Nisoldipine, Nitrate, Nitrendipine, Patch clamp, Peptide, Polyethylene glycol, Pranidipine, Pregabalin, Proteinuria, Second messenger system, Side effect, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse, Systole, T-type calcium channel, Tachycardia, Taxus baccata, The Canon of Medicine, Thiazepine, Vascular smooth muscle, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Vein, Verapamil, Voltage clamp, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Western blot, Wiley-Blackwell, Ziconotide, Zona glomerulosa. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Afterload is the pressure against which the heart must work to eject blood during systole.
Albrecht Fleckenstein (3 March 1917 – 4 April 1992) was a German pharmacologist and physiologist best known for his discovery of calcium channel blockers.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Aplysia is a genus of medium-sized to extremely large sea slugs, specifically sea hares, which are one clade of large sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks.
Aranidipine (INN, trade name Sapresta) is a calcium channel blocker.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Azelnidipine (INN; marketed under the brand name CalBlock — カルブロック) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker.
Barnidipine (INN) or mepirodipine is a calcium channel blocker.
The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels.
Benidipine (INN), also known as Benidipinum or benidipine hydrochloride, is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension).
Bepridil (trade name Vascor) is an amine calcium channel blocker once used to treat angina.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA2D1 gene.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cerebral vasospasm is the prolonged, intense vasoconstriction of the larger conducting arteries in the subarachnoid space which is initially surrounded by a clot.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time, and tropos, "a turn") are those that change the heart rate.
Cilnidipine (INN) is a calcium channel blocker.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clevidipine (INN, trade name Cleviprex) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker indicated for the reduction of blood pressure when oral therapy is not feasible or not desirable.
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
A conotoxin is one of a group of neurotoxic peptides isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail, genus Conus.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Molecular binding is an interaction between molecules that results in a stable physical association between those molecules.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
The detrusor muscle, also detrusor urinae muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder.
Dihydropyridine is a molecule based upon pyridine, and the parent of a class of molecules that have been semi-saturated with two substituents replacing one double bond.
Diltiazem (INN) is a nondihydropyridine (non-DHP) calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Efonidipine (INN) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker marketed by Shionogi & Co.
Elderly care, or simply eldercare (also known in parts of the English speaking world as aged care), is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Felodipine is a medication of the calcium channel blocker type which is used to treat high blood pressure.
Fendiline is a calcium channel blocker.
Flunarizine, sold under the brand name Sibelium among others, is a drug classified as a calcium antagonist which is used for various indications.
Fluspirilene (Redeptin, Imap, R6218) is a diphenylbutylpiperidine typical antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gabapentinoids, also known as α2δ ligands, are a class of drugs that are derivatives of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (i.e., GABA analogues) which block α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs).
Gallopamil (INN) is an L-type calcium channel blocker that is an analog of verapamil.
Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, or gingival hypertrophy, and sometimes abbreviated to GO), is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums).
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of head and face pain.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Isradipine (tradenames DynaCirc, Prescal) is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine class.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
Lacidipine (tradenames Lacipil (GSK) or Motens (Boehringer Ingelheim)) is a calcium channel blocker.
Lercanidipine (trade name Zanidip, among others) is an antihypertensive (blood pressure lowering) drug.
Magnesium aspartate, the chelated magnesium salt of aspartic acid, it is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
Magnesium lactate, the magnesium salt of lactic acid, is a mineral supplement.
Manidipine (INN) is a calcium channel blocker (dihydropyridine type) that is used clinically as an antihypertensive.
Mibefradil (Posicor) is a drug for the treatment of hypertension and chronic angina pectoris.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicardipine (Cardene) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and angina.
Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.
Nilvadipine is a calcium channel blocker (CCB) used for the treatment of hypertension and chronic major cerebral artery occlusion.
Nimodipine (marketed by Bayer as Nimotop) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker originally developed for the treatment of high blood pressure.
Nisoldipine (INN) is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine class.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrendipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker.
The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology used to study ionic currents in individual isolated living cells, tissue sections, or patches of cell membrane.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Pranidipine is a calcium channel blocker.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.
T-type calcium channels are low-voltage activated calcium channels that open during membrane depolarization.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Thiazepines are substituted thiepins, with a nitrogen replacing a carbon in the seven-membered heterocyclic compound.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Verapamil, sold under various trade names, is a medication used for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina (chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart), and supraventricular tachycardia.
The voltage clamp is an experimental method used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents through the membranes of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Ziconotide (SNX-111; Prialt) is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
Ca antagonist, Ca plus plus antagonist, Calcium Channel Blocker, Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity, Calcium antagonism, Calcium antagonist, Calcium blocker, Calcium channel antagonist, Calcium channel antagonists, Calcium channel blockers, Calcium-channel blocker, Calciumantagonist, Dihydropyridine CCB, Non-dihydropyridine CCB, Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, Nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, Non–dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker.