260 relations: Abacus, Addition, Adventure game, Algorithm, Alphanumeric, American Heritage of Invention & Technology, Ancient Egypt, Ancient UNIX, Antikythera mechanism, Approximation, Arithmetic, Arithmetic logic unit, Arithmometer, ARM architecture, Array data structure, Astronomy, Barcode, Bell Labs, Bell Punch, Binary code, Binary decoder, Binary number, Binary-coded decimal, Blaise Pascal, Boolean algebra, Branch (computer science), British Computer Society, Buje, Busicom, Button cell, Calculated Industries, Calculation, Calculator spelling, Canon Inc., Capacitance, Capacitor, Casio, Casio fx-7000G, Cathode ray tube, Central processing unit, Chipset, Clock rate, Clock signal, CMOS, Comma, Command (computing), Comparison of HP graphing calculators, Comparison of Texas Instruments graphing calculators, Comptometer, Computer, ..., Computer algebra, Computer keyboard, Computer memory, Computer program, Computer programming, Continuous memory, CORDIC, Counting board, Crank (mechanism), Croatia, Curta, Dc (computer program), Decimal, Decimal separator, Dekatron, Delay line memory, Department for Education, Derivative, Differential equation, Digitron (company), Division (mathematics), Dot matrix, Dynamic random-access memory, Edith Clarke, Edmund Gunter, EEPROM, Electric battery, Electric power transmission, Electronics, Electronika, Elektronika B3-21, Elektronika B3-34, Elektronika MK-52, Elementary arithmetic, Elka 22, Encoder, Epoxy, Euclidean space, Floating-point arithmetic, Floppy disk, Formula, Formula calculator, Fraction (mathematics), Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Friden, Inc., Function (mathematics), Galileo Galilei, General Instrument, George Stibitz, Giovanni Poleni, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Graphical user interface, Graphing calculator, Hertz, Hewlett-Packard, History of computing hardware, Hoc (programming language), HP 49/50 series, HP calculators, HP-12C, HP-25, HP-28 series, HP-35, HP-41C, HP-65, HP-IL, IEEE-488, Incandescent light bulb, Inductance, Industrial Revolution, Infix notation, Infrared, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Instruction set architecture, Integral, Integrated circuit, Integrated circuit design, Intel, Intel 4004, International System of Units, ISO/IEC 7810, Jack Kilby, Japan, John Napier, Keyboard shortcut, Keypad, Latin script, Leibniz wheel, Lid, Light-emitting diode, Liquid-crystal display, Logarithm, Luigi Torchi (inventor), Magnetic-core memory, Mainframe computer, Mains electricity, Market (economics), Mathematics, Mechanical calculator, Memory address, Microcassette, Microprocessor, Mobile device, Monroe Epic, Mostek, Motorola 68000, Multiplication, Napier's bones, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), Nauka i Zhizn, NEC, Nick Gibb, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nixie tube, Non-volatile memory, Number, Numerical digit, Olivetti, Operating system, Operation (mathematics), Parallel communication, Pascal's calculator, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Percentage, Personal digital assistant, Personal information manager, Petroleum industry, Photomath, Pi, Pilot ACE, Polling (computer science), Printed circuit board, Processor register, Programma 101, Programmable calculator, Programming language, Push-button, Random-access memory, Read-only memory, Relay, Renaissance, Resistor, Reverse Polish notation, Rockwell International, RPL (programming language), RS-232, Sanyo, School, Science (journal), Scientific calculator, Scientific notation, Sector (instrument), Semiconductor, Serial communication, Seven-segment display, Sharp Corporation, Sharp EL-8, Sharp QT-8B, Signal, Significant figures, Sinclair Cambridge, Sinclair Executive, Slide rule, Smartphone, Smith Corona, Sofia, Software calculator, Solar cell, Solar-powered calculator, Solid-state electronics, Sony, Soviet Union, Soyuz TM-7, Square root, Statistics, Status register, Stepped reckoner, Student, Subtraction, Sumer, Sumlock ANITA calculator, Switch, Synthetic Programming (HP-41), Texas Instruments, Texas Monthly, The Guardian, Thermal printing, TI SR-50, TI-30, TI-89 series, TI-92 series, TI-BASIC, Toshiba, Transcendental function, Transistor, Trigonometric functions, Trigonometry, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States, Vacuum fluorescent display, Vacuum tube, Variable (mathematics), Wang Laboratories, Wilhelm Schickard, Windows Calculator, Word processor, Yugoslavia, Zilog Z80. Expand index (210 more) »

## Abacus

The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

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## Addition

Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.

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## Adventure game

An adventure game is a video game in which the player assumes the role of a protagonist in an interactive story driven by exploration and puzzle-solving.

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## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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## Alphanumeric

Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.

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## American Heritage of Invention & Technology

American Heritage of Invention & Technology was a quarterly magazine dedicated to the history of technology.

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## Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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## Ancient UNIX

Ancient UNIX is a term coined by Santa Cruz Operation, to describe early releases of the Unix code base released prior to Unix System III, particularly the Research Unix releases prior to and including Version 7 (the base for UNIX/32V as well as later developments of AT&T Unix).

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## Antikythera mechanism

The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.

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## Approximation

An approximation is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else.

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## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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## Arithmetic logic unit

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.

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## Arithmometer

The Arithmometer or Arithmomètre was the first digital mechanical calculator strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.

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## ARM architecture

ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

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## Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

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## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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## Barcode

A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.

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## Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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## Bell Punch

The Bell Punch Company was a British company manufacturing a variety of business machines, most notably several generations of public transport ticket machines and the world's first desktop electronic calculator, the Sumlock ANITA.

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## Binary code

A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system.

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## Binary decoder

In digital electronics, a binary decoder is a combinational logic circuit that converts binary information from the n coded inputs to a maximum of 2n unique outputs.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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## Binary-coded decimal

In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.

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## Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

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## Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

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## Branch (computer science)

A branch is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of executing instructions in order.

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## British Computer Society

Sir Maurice Wilkes served as first President of BCS in 1957. The British Computer Society (BCS) is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in Information Technology, both in the United Kingdom and internationally.

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## Buje

Buje (Buie) is a town situated in Istria, Croatia's westernmost peninsula.

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## Busicom

Busicom was a Japanese company that owned the rights to Intel's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which they created in partnership with Intel in 1970.

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## Button cell

A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically in diameter and high — like a button on a garment, hence the name.

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## Calculated Industries

Calculated Industries, sometimes referred to as CI, is a company that specializes in industry specific calculators.

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## Calculation

A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change.

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## Calculator spelling

Calculator spelling is an unintended characteristic of the seven-segment display traditionally used by calculators, in which, when read upside-down, the digits resemble letters of the Latin alphabet.

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## Canon Inc.

is a Japanese multinational corporation specializing in the manufacture of imaging and optical products, including cameras, camcorders, photocopiers, steppers, computer printers and medical equipment. It's headquartered in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan."." Canon. Retrieved on 13 January 2009. Canon has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the TOPIX index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.

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## Capacitance

Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

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## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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## Casio

is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and commercial electronics manufacturing company headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

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## Casio fx-7000G

The Casio FX-7000G is a calculator which is widely known as being the world's first graphing calculator available to the public.

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## Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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## Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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## Chipset

In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.

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## Clock rate

The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.

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## Clock signal

In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.

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## CMOS

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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## Comma

The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.

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## Command (computing)

In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task.

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## Comparison of HP graphing calculators

A graphing calculator is a class of hand-held calculator that is capable of plotting graphs and solving complex functions.

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## Comparison of Texas Instruments graphing calculators

A graphing calculator is a class of hand-held calculator that is capable of plotting graphs and solving complex functions.

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## Comptometer

The comptometer was the first commercially successful key-driven mechanical calculator, patented in the United States by Dorr E. Felt in 1887.

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## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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## Computer algebra

In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.

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## Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

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## Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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## Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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## Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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## Continuous memory

The term continuous memory was coined by Hewlett-Packard (HP) to describe a unique feature of certain HP calculators whereby the calculator could internally sustain most, or in later models - all, of the contents of user memory (via battery-backed CMOS memory).

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## CORDIC

CORDIC (for COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer), also known as Volder's algorithm, is a simple and efficient algorithm to calculate hyperbolic and trigonometric functions, typically converging with one digit (or bit) per iteration.

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## Counting board

The counting board is the precursor of the abacus, and the earliest known form of a counting device (excluding fingers and other very simple methods).

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## Crank (mechanism)

A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.

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## Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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## Curta

The Curta is a small mechanical calculator developed by Curt Herzstark.

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## Dc (computer program)

dc (desk calculator) is a cross-platform reverse-polish calculator which supports arbitrary-precision arithmetic.

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## Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

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## Decimal separator

A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.

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## Dekatron

In electronics, a Dekatron (or Decatron, or generically three-phase gas counting tube or glow-transfer counting tube or cold cathode tube) is a gas-filled decade counting tube.

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## Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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## Department for Education

The Department for Education (DfE) is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education (compulsory, further and higher education), apprenticeships and wider skills in England.

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## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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## Digitron (company)

Digitron is a Croatian electronics company located in Buje, Istria.

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## Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

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## Dot matrix

A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional patterned array, used to represent characters, symbols and images.

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## Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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## Edith Clarke

Edith Clarke (February 10, 1883 – October 29, 1959) was the first female electrical engineer and the first female professor of electrical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.

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## Edmund Gunter

Edmund Gunter (1581 – 10 December 1626), was an English clergyman, mathematician, geometer and astronomer of Welsh descent.

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## EEPROM

EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

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## Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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## Electric power transmission

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.

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## Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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## Electronika

Electronika, also spelt Electronica, (Электроника) is the brand name used for many different electronic products built by factories belonging to the Soviet Ministry of Electronic Industry, including calculators, electronic watches, portable games, and radios.

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## Elektronika B3-21

Elektronika B3-21 (Cyrillic: Электроника Б3-21) was the first Soviet programmable calculator.

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## Elektronika B3-34

Elektronika B3-34 (Cyrillic: Электроника Б3-34) was a Soviet programmable calculator.

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## Elektronika MK-52

The Elektronika MK-52 (Электро́ника МК-52) is an RPN-programmable calculator manufactured in the Soviet Union during the years 1983 to 1992.

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## Elementary arithmetic

Elementary arithmetic is the simplified portion of arithmetic that includes the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

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## Elka 22

The Elka 22 was the second Bulgarian electronic calculator; it was released in 1966 and its serial production began in 1967 in the town of Silistra.

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## Encoder

An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or person that converts information from one format or code to another, for the purposes of standardization, speed or compression.

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## Epoxy

Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.

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## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

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## Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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## Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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## Formula

In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula.

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## Formula calculator

A formula calculator is a software calculator that can perform a calculation in two steps.

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## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

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## Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt General Newspaper), abbreviated FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).

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## Friden, Inc.

Friden Calculating Machine Company (Friden, Inc.) was an American manufacturer of typewriters and mechanical, later electronic calculators.

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## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

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## Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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## General Instrument

General Instrument (GI) was an American electronics manufacturer based in Horsham, Pennsylvania, specializing in semiconductors and cable television equipment.

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## George Stibitz

George Robert Stibitz (April 30, 1904 – January 31, 1995) was a Bell Labs researcher internationally recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer.

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## Giovanni Poleni

Giovanni Poleni (b. Venice, around 1683; d. Padua, Nov., 1761) was a Marquess, physicist, mathematician and antiquarian.

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## Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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## Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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## Graphing calculator

A graphing calculator (also graphics / graphic display calculator) is a handheld computer that is capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing other tasks with variables.

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## Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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## Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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## History of computing hardware

The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.

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## Hoc (programming language)

hoc, an acronym for High Order Calculator, is an interpreted programming language that was used in the 1984 book The Unix Programming Environment to demonstrate how to build interpreters using Yacc.

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## HP 49/50 series

The HP 49/50 series are Hewlett-Packard (HP) manufactured graphing calculators.

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## HP calculators

HP calculators are various calculators manufactured by the Hewlett-Packard company over the years.

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## HP-12C

The HP-12C is a financial calculator made by Hewlett-Packard (HP) and its successor HP Inc'''.''' as part of the HP Voyager series.

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## HP-25

The HP-25 was a hand-held programmable scientific/engineering calculator made by Hewlett-Packard between 1975 and 1978.

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## HP-28 series

The HP-28C and HP-28S were two graphing calculators produced by Hewlett-Packard from 1986 to 1992.

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## HP-35

The HP-35 was Hewlett-Packard's first pocket calculator and the world's first scientific pocket calculator – a calculator with trigonometric and exponential functions.

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## HP-41C

The HP-41C series are programmable, expandable, continuous memory handheld RPN calculators made by Hewlett-Packard from 1979 to 1990.

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## HP-65

The HP-65 is the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator.

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## HP-IL

The HP-IL (Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop), was a short-range interconnection bus or network introduced by Hewlett-Packard in the early 1980s.

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## IEEE-488

IEEE 488 is a short-range digital communications 8-bit parallel multi-master interface bus specification.

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## Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

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## Inductance

In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.

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## Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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## Infix notation

Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.

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## Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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## Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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## Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

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## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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## Integrated circuit design

Integrated circuit design, or IC design, is a subset of electronics engineering, encompassing the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits, or ICs.

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## Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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## Intel 4004

The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## ISO/IEC 7810

ISO/IEC 7810 Identification cards — Physical characteristics is an international standard that defines the physical characteristics for identification cards.

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## Jack Kilby

Jack St.

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## Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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## John Napier

John Napier of Merchiston (1550 – 4 April 1617); also signed as Neper, Nepair; nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston) was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He was the 8th Laird of Merchiston. His Latinized name was Ioannes Neper. John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napier's birthplace, Merchiston Tower in Edinburgh, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh Napier University. Napier died from the effects of gout at home at Merchiston Castle and his remains were buried in the kirkyard of St Giles. Following the loss of the kirkyard there to build Parliament House, he was memorialised at St Cuthbert's at the west side of Edinburgh.

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## Keyboard shortcut

In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a series of one or several keys, such as Ctrl+F to search a character string.

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## Keypad

A keypad is a set of buttons arranged in a block or "pad" which bear digits, symbols or alphabetical letters.

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## Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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## Leibniz wheel

A Leibniz wheel or stepped drum is a cylinder with a set of teeth of incremental lengths which, when coupled to a counting wheel, can be used in the calculating engine of a class of mechanical calculators.

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## Lid

A lid, also known as a cover, is part of a container, and serves as the closure or seal, usually one that completely closes the object.

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## Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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## Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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## Luigi Torchi (inventor)

Luigi Torchi invented the first direct multiplication machine in 1834.

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## Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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## Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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## Mains electricity

Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.

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## Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

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## Memory address

In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.

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## Microcassette

The Microcassette (often written generically as microcassette) is an audio storage medium, introduced by Olympus in 1969.

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## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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## Mobile device

A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

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## Monroe Epic

The Monroe EPIC was a programmable calculator that came on the market in the 1960s.

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## Mostek

Mostek was an integrated circuit manufacturer, founded in 1969 by L. J. Sevin, Louay E. Sharif, Richard L. Petritz and other ex-employees of Texas Instruments.

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## Motorola 68000

The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.

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## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

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## Napier's bones

Napier's bones is a manually-operated calculating device created by John Napier of Merchiston for calculation of products and quotients of numbers.

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## National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) was founded in 1920.

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## National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)

The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act (1988).

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## Nauka i Zhizn

Nauka i Zhizn (Science and Life, Наука и жизнь) is a science magazine first issued during the years 1890-1900 in Imperial Russia, and then since 1934 in the Soviet Union (and continued in the Russian Federation today).

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## NEC

is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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## Nick Gibb

Nicolas John Gibb (born 3 September 1960) is a British Conservative Party politician.

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## Nickel–cadmium battery

The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.

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## Nixie tube

A Nixie tube, or cold cathode display, is an electronic device for displaying numerals or other information using glow discharge.

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## Non-volatile memory

Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.

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## Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.

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## Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

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## Olivetti

Olivetti S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of typewriters, computers, tablets, smartphones, printers and other such business products as calculators and fax machines.

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## Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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## Operation (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.

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## Parallel communication

In data transmission, parallel communication is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously.

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## Pascal's calculator

A Pascaline signed by Pascal in 1652 Top view and overview of the entire mechanism''Œuvres de Pascal'' in 5 volumes, ''La Haye'', 1779 Pascal's calculator (also known as the arithmetic machine or Pascaline) is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century.

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## People's Republic of Bulgaria

The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.

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## Percentage

In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

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## Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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## Personal information manager

A personal information manager (often referred to as a PIM tool or, more simply, a PIM) is a type of application software that functions as a personal organizer.

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## Petroleum industry

The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.

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## Photomath

Photomath is a mobile application described as a "camera calculator", which utilizes a phone's camera to recognise mathematical equations and to display the step-by-step solution onscreen.

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## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

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## Pilot ACE

The Pilot ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the early 1950s.

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## Polling (computer science)

Polling, or polled operation, in computer science, refers to actively sampling the status of an external device by a client program as a synchronous activity.

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## Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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## Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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## Programma 101

The Olivetti Programma 101, also known as Perottina or P101, is the first commercial programmable "desktop computer" Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti, based in Ivrea, Piedmont, and invented by the Italian engineer Pier Giorgio Perotto, the P101 had the main features of large computers of that period.

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## Programmable calculator

Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer.

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## Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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## Push-button

A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process.

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## Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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## Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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## Relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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## Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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## Reverse Polish notation

Reverse Polish notation (RPN), also known as Polish postfix notation or simply postfix notation, is a mathematical notation in which operators follow their operands, in contrast to Polish notation (PN), in which operators precede their operands.

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## Rockwell International

Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation.

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## RPL (programming language)

http://www.calculatrices-hp.com/index.php?page.

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## RS-232

In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232 is a standard introduced in 1960 for serial communication transmission of data.

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## Sanyo

is a Japanese major electronics company and formerly a member of the Fortune Global 500 whose headquarters was located in Moriguchi, Osaka prefecture, Japan.

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## School

A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.

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## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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## Scientific calculator

A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

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## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.

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## Sector (instrument)

The sector, also known as a proportional compass or military compass, was a major calculating instrument in use from the end of the sixteenth century until the nineteenth century.

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## Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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## Serial communication

In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.

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## Seven-segment display

A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

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## Sharp Corporation

is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.

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## Sharp EL-8

The Sharp EL-8, also known as the ELSI-8, was one of the earliest mass-produced hand-held electronic calculators and the first hand-held calculator to be made by Sharp.

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## Sharp QT-8B

The Sharp QT-8B Micro Compet, a portable electronic desktop calculator, was the first mass-produced calculator to be battery-powered.

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## Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

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## Significant figures

The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

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## Sinclair Cambridge

The Sinclair Cambridge was a pocket-sized calculator introduced in August 1973 by Sinclair Radionics.

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## Sinclair Executive

The Sinclair Executive was the world's first "slimline" pocket calculator, and the first to be produced by Clive Sinclair's company Sinclair Radionics.

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## Slide rule

The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.

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## Smartphone

A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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## Smith Corona

Smith Corona is a US manufacturer of thermal labels, direct thermal labels, and thermal ribbons used in warehouses for primarily barcode labels.

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## Sofia

Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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## Software calculator

A software calculator is a calculator that has been implemented as a computer program, rather than as a physical hardware device.

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## Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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## Solar-powered calculator

Solar-powered calculators are hand-held electronic calculators powered by solar cells mounted on the device.

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## Solid-state electronics

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).

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## Sony

is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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## Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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## Soyuz TM-7

Soyuz TM-7 was the seventh manned spacecraft to dock with the Soviet Space Station Mir.

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## Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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## Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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## Status register

A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.

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## Stepped reckoner

The step reckoner (or stepped reckoner) was a digital mechanical calculator invented by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and completed in 1694.

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## Student

A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.

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## Subtraction

Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

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## Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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## Sumlock ANITA calculator

The ANITA Mark VII and ANITA Mark VIII calculators were launched simultaneously in late 1961 as the world's first all-electronic desktop calculators.

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## Switch

In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

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## Synthetic Programming (HP-41)

Synthetic programming is an advanced technique for programming the HP-41C and Elektronika B3-34 calculators, involving creating instructions (or combinations of instructions and operands) that cannot be obtained using the standard capabilities of the calculator.

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## Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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## Texas Monthly

Texas Monthly is a monthly American magazine headquartered in Downtown Austin, Texas.

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## The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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## Thermal printing

Thermal printing (or direct thermal printing) is a digital printing process which produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head.

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## TI SR-50

The SR-50 was Texas Instruments' first scientific pocket calculator with trigonometric and logarithm functions.

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## TI-30

The TI-30 was a scientific calculator manufactured by Texas Instruments, the first model of which was introduced in 1976.

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## TI-89 series

The TI-89 and the TI-89 Titanium are graphing calculators developed by Texas Instruments (TI).

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## TI-92 series

The TI-92 series of graphing calculators are a line of calculators produced by Texas Instruments.

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## TI-BASIC

TI-BASIC is the official name of a BASIC-like language built into Texas Instruments (TI)'s graphing calculators, including the TI-83 series, TI-84 Plus series, TI-89 series, TI-92 series (including Voyage 200), TI-73, and TI-Nspire.

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## Toshiba

, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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## Transcendental function

A transcendental function is an analytic function that does not satisfy a polynomial equation, in contrast to an algebraic function.

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## Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

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## Trigonometry

Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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## Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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## United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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## United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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## Vacuum fluorescent display

A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a display device used commonly on consumer electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens.

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## Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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## Variable (mathematics)

In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.

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## Wang Laboratories

Wang Laboratories was a computer company founded in 1951, by An Wang and G. Y. Chu.

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## Wilhelm Schickard

Wilhelm Schickard (22 April 1592 – 24 October 1635) was a German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy who became famous in the second part of the 20th century after Dr.

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## Windows Calculator

Windows Calculator is a software calculator included in all versions of Windows.

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## Word processor

A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.

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## Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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## Zilog Z80

The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.

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## Redirects here:

Automatic calculator, Bowmar Brain, Caculator, Cal Tech (calculator), Calculater, Calculating device, Calculators, Claculator, Desk calculator, Desk calculators, Desktop calculator, Digital calculator, Division button, Division key, Electronic Calculator, Electronic calculating machine, Electronic calculator, Equals button, Equals key, Fraction to Decimals, Handheld calculator, Math calculator, Math calculators, Minus button, Minus key, Multiplication button, Multiplication key, Plus button, Plus key, Pocket calculator, Pocket calculators, Printing Calculator, TI Cal Tech, Texas Instruments Cal Tech, 🖩.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calculator