173 relations: Ab urbe condita, Akitu, Aleister Crowley, Alexander the Great, Ancient Olympic Games, Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius, Anno Domini, Anno Lucis, Anno Mundi, Ardashir I, Armenian calendar, Assyria, Assyrian calendar, Assyrian eclipse, Astronomical year numbering, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Augustus, Babylon, Bahá'í calendar, Bangkok, Báb, Before Present, Buddhist calendar, Burmese calendar, Byzantine calendar, Byzantine Empire, Calendar, Calendar reform, Caliphate, Cambodia, Canon of Kings, Cesare Emiliani, Chinese calendar, Chinese era name, Chronology of the ancient Near East, Chula Sakarat, Chulalongkorn, Common Era, Consul, Coordinated Universal Time, Coptic calendar, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Crown of Castile, Decapolis, Dianetics, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, Diocletian, Dionysius Exiguus, Discordian calendar, Discordianism, ..., Early Middle Ages, Easter, Egypt, Emperor of Japan, Epoch (reference date), Eponym dating system, Era, Era Fascista, Era of the Martyrs, Eris (mythology), Ethiopia, Ethiopian calendar, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Fascism, Freemasonry, French First Republic, French Republican Calendar, Gaul, Greater India, Gregorian calendar, Hebrew calendar, Hegira, Hijri year, Hindu calendar, History of Iran, HM Nautical Almanac Office, Holocene, Holocene calendar, Incarnation (Christianity), Independence Day (United States), Indian national calendar, Indiction, Iranian calendars, Islamic calendar, Italian Social Republic, Japan, Japanese calendar, Jesus, Johannes Kepler, Julian calendar, Julian day, Justinian I, Kali Yuga, Kültepe, Kim Il-sung, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Valencia, Laos, Late antiquity, Latin, Limmu, List of calendars, Livy, London, Lunar calendar, Lunisolar calendar, Maimonides, March on Rome, Marcus Terentius Varro, Minguo calendar, Morris Jacob Raphall, Muhammad, Muslim conquest of Egypt, Myanmar, Nativity of Jesus, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neolithic Revolution, Nisan, North Korea, Old Style and New Style dates, Orosius, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, Pompeian era, Pompey, Pope Boniface IV, Positivist calendar, Presidential proclamation (United States), Proleptic Gregorian calendar, Proleptic Julian calendar, Radiocarbon dating, Regnal year, Roman calendar, Roman consul, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Roman numerals, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Saka, Sasanian Empire, Scientology, Secularism, Seder Olam Rabbah, Seleucus I Nicator, Shaka era, Solar calendar, Spanish era, Sri Lanka, Sumerian King List, Taiwan, Tell Halaf, Thai solar calendar, Thailand, The Nautical Almanac, The Stationery Office, Thelema, Thoth, Tishrei, Tribune, United States, United States Constitution, United States Government Publishing Office, United States Naval Observatory, Unix time, Vajiravudh, Vikram Samvat, Washington, D.C., Yazdegerd III, Year zero, Yellow Emperor, Zoroastrian calendar, 776 BC. Expand index (123 more) » « Shrink index
Ab urbe condita or Anno urbis conditae (abbreviated: A.U.C. or AUC) is a convention that was used in antiquity and by classical historians to refer to a given year in Ancient Rome.
Akitu or Akitum (Sumerian:, akiti-šekinku,, "the barley-cutting", akiti-šununum, "barley-sowing"; Akkadian: akitu or rêš-šattim, "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia.The Babylonian Akitu festival has played a pivotal role in the development of theories of religion, myth and ritual, yet the purpose of the festival remains a point of contention among both historians of religion and Assyriologists.
Aleister Crowley (born Edward Alexander Crowley; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius was a high official of the Eastern Roman Empire and the last ordinary consul of Roman history, holding the office in 541.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anno Lucis (“in the Year of Light”) is a dating system used in Masonic ceremonial or commemorative proceedings, which is equivalent to the Gregorian year plus 4000.
Anno Mundi (Latin for "in the year of the world"; Hebrew:, "to the creation of the world"), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia and still used by the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian calendar is a lunar calendar which begins in the year 4750 BC, begun by the internal date of the foundation of Assur.
The Assyrian eclipse, also known as "Bur-Sagale eclipse", is a solar eclipse recorded in Assyrian eponym lists, most likely ¨dating the ninth year of the reign of king Ashur-dan III.
Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badíʿ calendar (Badíʿ means wondrous or unique), is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days".
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions.
The Burmese calendar (မြန်မာသက္ကရာဇ်,, or ကောဇာသက္ကရာဇ်,; Burmese Era (BE) or Myanmar Era (ME)) is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on sidereal years.
The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" (Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
Calendar reform, properly calendrical reform, is any significant revision of a calendar system.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by ancient astronomers as a convenient means to date astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses.
Cesare Emiliani (8 December 1922 – 20 July 1995) was an Italian-American scientist, geologist, micropaleontologist, and the founder of paleoceanography, developing the timescale of marine isotope stages, which despite modifications remains in use today.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
The chronology of the ancient Near East provides a framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties.
Chula Sakarat or Chulasakarat (Culāsakaraj; ကောဇာသက္ကရာဇ်,; ចុល្លសករាជ "Chulasakarach"; จุลศักราช,,, abbrv. จ.ศ. Choso) is a lunisolar calendar derived from the Burmese calendar, whose variants were in use by most mainland Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the late 19th century.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama V (20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910), was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is a liturgical calendar that was used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and is still used in Egypt.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant.
Dianetics (from Greek dia, meaning "through", and nous, meaning "mind") is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard.
Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health (sometimes abbreviated as DMSMH) is a book by L. Ron Hubbard about Dianetics, a system of psychotherapy he developed from a combination of personal experience, basic principles of Eastern philosophy, and the work of psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Dionysius Exiguus (Latin for "Dionysius the Humble"; –) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania and Bulgaria).
The Discordian or Erisian calendar is an alternative calendar used by some adherents of Discordianism.
Discordianism is a paradigm based upon the book Principia Discordia, written by Greg Hill with Kerry Wendell Thornley in 1963, the two working under the pseudonyms Malaclypse the Younger and Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era.
The Eponym dating system was a calendar system for Assyria, for a period of over one thousand years.
An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.
The Era Fascista was a calendar used in Fascist Italy.
The Era of the Martyrs (anno martyrum), also known as the Diocletian era (anno Diocletiani), is a method of numbering years used by the Church of Alexandria beginning in the 4th centuryAD and by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the 5th century to the present.
Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of strife and discord.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zämän aḳoṭaṭär) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various lunisolar calendars traditionally used in India.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO), now part of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, was established in 1832 on the site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), where The Nautical Almanac had been published since 1767.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant (AD or CE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements.
In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.
Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar, is used along with the Vikram Samvat calendar.
An indiction is any of the years in a 15-year cycle used to date medieval documents throughout Europe, both East and West.
The Iranian calendars (گاهشماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kali Yuga (Devanāgarī: कलियुग, lit. "age of Kali") is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. Mahayuga) described in the Sanskrit scriptures.
Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Limmu was an Assyrian eponym.
This is a list of calendars.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
The Republic of China calendar is the method of numbering years currently used in Taiwan by officials and other territories under the control of the Republic of China.
Morris Jacob Raphall (October 3, 1798 – June 23, 1868) was a rabbi and author born at Stockholm, Sweden.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt or Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (แปลก พิบูลสงคราม;; alternatively transcribed as Pibulsongkram or Pibulsonggram; 銮披汶·颂堪; 14 July 1897 – 11 June 1964), locally known as Chomphon Por (อมพล ป.), contemporarily known as Phibun (Pibul) in the West, was the longest serving 3rd Prime Minister of Thailand and fascist leader of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957.
The Pompeian Era was a calendar era used by Hellenistic cities in Roman Palestine, in particular the cities of the Decapolis.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pope Boniface IV (Bonifatius IV; d. 8 May 615) was Pope from 25 September 608 to his death in 615.
The positivist calendar was a calendar reform proposal by Auguste Comte in 1849.
A presidential proclamation is a statement issued by a President on an issue of public policy, and is a kind of Presidential directive.
The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian calendar backward to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582.
The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar backwards to dates preceding AD 4 when the quadrennial leap year stabilized.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.
The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Scientology is a body of religious beliefs and practices launched in May 1952 by American author L. Ron Hubbard (1911–86).
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Seder Olam Rabbah (סדר עולם רבה, "The Great Order of the World") is a 2nd-century CE Hebrew language chronology detailing the dates of biblical events from the Creation to Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
The Shaka era (IAST: Śaka era) is a historical calendar era, corresponding to Julian year 78.
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.
The Spanish era or era of Caesar was a dating system commonly used in the states of the Iberian peninsula until the 14th–15th centuries, when it was phased out in favour the Anno Domini system.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sumerian King List is an ancient stone tablet originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of the kingship.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tell Halaf (تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpınar.
The Thai solar calendar (ปฏิทินสุริยคติ,, "solar calendar") was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in AD 1888 as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand (though the latter is still also used, especially for traditional and religious events).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Nautical Almanac has been the familiar name for a series of official British almanacs published under various titles since the first issue of The Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris, for 1767: this was the first nautical almanac ever to contain data dedicated to the convenient determination of longitude at sea.
The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.
Thelema is a social or spiritual philosophy derived from Western esotericism.
Thoth (from Greek Θώθ; derived from Egyptian ḏḥw.ty) is one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
Tishrei (or Tishri; תִּשְׁרֵי tishré or tishrí); from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar. In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (אֵתָנִים -). Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
Unix time (also known as POSIX time or UNIX Epoch time) is a system for describing a point in time, defined as the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Thursday, 1 January 1970,.
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Phra Bat Somdet Phra Ramathibodi Si Sinthra Maha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระรามาธิบดีศรีสินทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama VI (1 January 1880 – 26 November 1925), was the sixth monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1910 until his death.
Vikram Samvat (विक्रम सम्वत्, विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS))) (also called the Bikrami calendar or sometimes just Hindu calendar) is the historical Hindu calendar of India and Nepal. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. It is used as the official calendar in Nepal.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
Year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Adherents of Zoroastrianism use three distinct versions of traditional calendars for liturgical purposes, all derived from medieval Iranian calendars, ultimately based on the Babylonian calendar as used in the Achaemenid empire.