946 relations: Abies magnifica, Acacia, Academic Press, Active duty, Adaptive radiation, Admission to the Union, Aerospace manufacturer, Afghan Americans, African Americans, African immigration to the United States, Agriculture, Alaska, Alaska Natives, Albanian Americans, Alien (law), Almond, Alpine climate, Alta California, Altamont Corridor Express, Altamont Pass Wind Farm, Amadís de Gaula, Amazons, American ancestry, American black bear, American bushtit, American Civil War, American Community Survey, American English, American football, American Independent Party, American Jewish Year Book, American Jews, Americans, Amtrak California, Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach, Anaheim Ducks, Anglo-Americans, Appalachia, Appellate court, Aquilegia flavescens, Arab Americans, Arabic, Arabis blepharophylla, Arbutus, Argentine Americans, Arizona, Armenian Americans, Armenian language, Arms industry, Arnold Schwarzenegger, ..., Arroyo Seco Parkway, Asia, Asian Americans, Association football, Association of Religion Data Archives, Assyrian Americans, Aster (genus), Attorney General of California, Australian Americans, Austrian Americans, Azalea, ‘Aziziya, Badwater Basin, Bahamian Americans, Baja California, Baja California Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Bakersfield, California, Bangladeshi Americans, Barbadian Americans, Barracuda, Baseball, Basketball, Basque Americans, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Beale Air Force Base, Belgian Americans, Belizean Americans, Bell's sparrow, Benicia, California, Benitoite, Berkeley, California, Bermudian Americans, Big Sur, Bighorn sheep, Bird migration, Bixby Creek Bridge, Black-tailed deer, Board of supervisors, Bobcat, Boca, California, Bolivian Americans, Brazilian Americans, Bristlecone pine, British Americans, British people, British West Indies, Buddhism, Bulgarian Americans, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Bus, Business Insider, Buttonwillow, California, Cactus wren, Cajuns, Calafia, California Admission Day, California Aqueduct, California ballot proposition, California Cadet Corps, California Coastal Commission, California Community Colleges System, California condor, California courts of appeal, California Current, California Democratic Party, California Department of Finance, California Department of Transportation, California English, California executive branch, California Genocide, California gnatcatcher, California Gold Rush, California grizzly bear, California gubernatorial recall election, California High-Speed Rail, California Highway Patrol, California in the American Civil War, California Institute of Technology, California Insurance Commissioner, California least tern, California Master Plan for Higher Education, California National Guard, California Proposition 13 (1978), California Proposition 14 (2010), California Proposition 30, 2012, California Proposition 71 (2004), California Proposition 8 (2008), California Proposition 98 (1988), California quail, California red-legged frog, California Republican Party, California slender salamander, California State Assembly, California State Controller, California State Legislature, California State Library, California State Military Reserve, California State Senate, California State Superintendent of Public Instruction, California State Tartan, California State Treasurer, California State University, California State Water Project, California superior courts, California thrasher, California Trail, California unemployment statistics, California water wars, California's congressional districts, Californio, Caliphate, Caltrain, Calvatia sculpta, Cambodian Americans, Canadian Americans, Cape Verdean Americans, Capital punishment in California, Capitol Corridor, Carquinez Strait, Cascade Range, Catalonia, Catholic Church, Ceanothus, Celtic diaspora, Center of population, Central California, Central Coast (California), Central Valley (California), Central Valley Project, Centrism, Chamorro people, Channel Islands (California), Charter city, Chiefdom, Chilean Americans, China, Chinese Americans, Chinese language, Chivalric romance, Chumash people, Civil law (legal system), Claremont Colleges, Clark's nutcracker, Clear Lake (California), Climate of Los Angeles, Coast Guard Island, Coastal California, Coaster (commuter rail), Cold War, Colombian Americans, Colorado, Colorado River, Common law, Community college, Community property, Commuter rail, Comparison between U.S. states and countries by GDP (nominal), Comparison between U.S. states and countries by GDP (PPP), Compromise of 1850, Congressional Research Service, Consolidated city-county, Constitution of California, Consul (representative), Contiguous United States, Controlled-access highway, Cordylanthus maritimus, Corporate services, Costa Rican Americans, Cougar, Council–manager government, County (United States), Coyote, Cream, Croatian Americans, Crotalus cerastes, Cuban Americans, Culture of the United States, Cutthroat trout, Cylindropuntia bigelovii, Cypriot Americans, Cytisus scoparius, Czech Americans, Czechoslovakia, Danish Americans, Davis, California, Daylight saving time, De facto, De jure, Death row, Death Valley, Death Valley National Park, Decline to State, Delphinium variegatum, Democratic Party (United States), Demographics of California, Desert, Desert climate, Desert tortoise, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Dianne Feinstein, Dipper, Dodecatheon alpinum, Dominican Americans, Dot-com bubble, Douglas fir, Dudleya traskiae, Dusky-footed woodrat, Dutch Americans, Dutch West Indian Americans, Earthquake, Eastern California, Eastern Europe, Economy of California, Ecoregion, Ecuadorian Americans, Ed Castillo, Eel River (California), Effects of the car on societies, Egyptian Americans, Electoral College (United States), Endangered language, Endemism, Energy (journal), English Americans, English language, Epimedium, Erysimum capitatum, Eschscholzia californica, Escondido, California, Estonian Americans, Ethiopian Americans, Eucalyptus, Eureka (word), Eureka, California, European Americans, Executive (government), Farallon Islands, Feather River, Fijian Americans, Filipino Americans, Filipino language, Film industry, Finance, Finnish Americans, First language, First Transcontinental Railroad, Flag of California, Flood, Fog, Fort Irwin National Training Center, Fort Ross, California, Four Level Interchange, Francis Drake, Francisco de Ulloa, Frederic M. Scherer, Frederick Terman, French Americans, French Canadian Americans, French language, Fresno, California, Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, Garden Grove, California, Garibaldi (fish), Gavin Newsom, General aviation, George R. Stewart, German Americans, Germany, Gerrymandering, Ghanaian Americans, Gold, Golden Gate, Golden Gate Bridge, Golden State Warriors, Golden trout, Government, Government of San Francisco, Governor of California, Grape, Gray fox, Gray whale, Great Flood of 1862, Greater Los Angeles, Greek Americans, Green Party of California, Greyhound Lines, Griffin, Gross regional domestic product, Guatemalan Americans, Guyanese Americans, Haitian Americans, Hare, Harvard Business School, Hermit thrush, High school (North America), High-level radioactive waste management, Higher education, Hindi, Hinduism, Hippie, Hispanic, Hispanic and Latino Americans, History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, Hmong Americans, Honduran Americans, Horned lizard, Huckleberry, Humboldt Bay, Hungarian Americans, Hydroelectricity, I Love You, California, Ice hockey, Icelandic Americans, Illegal immigrant population of the United States, Illegal immigration, Illegal immigration to the United States, Immigration to the United States, Imperial County, California, Income tax, Independent politician, Index of California-related articles, India, Indian Americans, Indigenous peoples of California, Indonesian Americans, Inglewood, California, Initiative, Inland Empire, Inter-city rail, Internet, Interwar period, Introduced species, Invasive species, Iranian Americans, Iraqi Americans, Irish Americans, Irreligion, Isaac Graham, Islam, Island of California, ISO 3166, Israeli Americans, Italian Americans, Jamaican Americans, Japan, Japanese Americans, Japanese language, Jeffrey pine, Jerry Brown, John D. Sloat, John Marsh (pioneer), Jordanian Americans, Joshua Tree National Park, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, Judaism, Judicial Council of California, Judiciary, Judiciary of California, Jurupa Valley, California, Kamala Harris, Kangaroo rat, Köppen climate classification, KCET, Kenyan Americans, Kern County, California, Kingfisher, Kit fox, Klamath Mountains, Klamath River, Korean Americans, Korean language, Korean War, LA Galaxy, Laguna Beach, California, Lake Tahoe, Lamiaceae, Landslide, Language revitalization, Laotian Americans, Las sergas de Esplandián, Latin America, Latvian Americans, Law of Louisiana, Lebanese Americans, Legislature, Levi's Stadium, Liberian Americans, Libertarian Party of California, Liberty ship, Libya, Lieutenant Governor of California, Light rail, Lilium columbianum, Lilium pardalinum, Limited-access road, Lincoln Highway, List of airports in California, List of Alsatians and Lotharingians, List of busiest airports by passenger traffic, List of California locations by income, List of earthquakes in California, List of largest California cities by population, List of longest suspension bridge spans, List of primary statistical areas of the United States, List of states of Mexico, List of the largest counties in the United States by area, List of the most populous counties in the United States, List of U.S. state abbreviations, List of U.S. states and territories by area, List of U.S. states and territories by population, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, List of U.S. states by GDP per capita, List of United States cities by population, Lithuanian Americans, Loggerhead shrike, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Angels, Los Angeles Aqueduct, Los Angeles Chargers, Los Angeles Clippers, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles FC, Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles Kings, Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Los Angeles Rams, Los Angeles Sparks, Luxembourgish Americans, Lyonothamnus, Macedonian Americans, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada, Majority minority, Malaysian Americans, Maltese Americans, Mammoth Lakes, California, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Manila galleon, Manzanita, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Mark Z. Jacobson, Mayor of San Francisco, Mediterranean climate, Megabus (North America), Melanesians, Metrolink (California), Metropolitan area, Mexican Americans, Mexican War of Independence, Mexican–American War, Mexico, Michigan, Microclimate, Micronesian Americans, Midway-Sunset Oil Field, Migrant worker, Military service, Milk, Minimum wage, Minnesota, Mission San Francisco de Asís, Missionary, Modern Language Association, Modern liberalism in the United States, Mojave Desert, Mojave National Preserve, Mojave River, Mongolian Americans, Mono Lake, Monterey Bay, Monterey County, California, Monterey, California, Mormonism, Moroccan Americans, Morro Bay kangaroo rat, Morro Bay, California, Mount Shasta, Mount Whitney, Mountain beaver, Mountain weasel, Mule deer, Multiracial Americans, Municipal corporation, Napa County, California, Nassella pulchra, National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Native Americans in the United States, Native Hawaiians, Naval Air Station North Island, Nearctic realm, Nemophila, Nepalese Americans, Net migration rate, Nevada, New Mexico, New Spain, New York (state), New York City, New York metropolitan area, New Zealand Americans, Nicaraguan Americans, Nigerian Americans, Non-Hispanic whites, North America, North American Vertical Datum of 1988, North Coast (California), Northeast Corridor, Northern California, Northern Europe, Northern flicker, Northern spotted owl, Norwegian Americans, Notholithocarpus, Nuclear power, Nuclear-free zone, Oakland Athletics, Oakland Raiders, Oakland, California, Oenothera deltoides subsp. howellii, Official language, Old Spanish Trail (trade route), Orange County, California, Orange, California, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Oregon, Oregon Trail, Oroville Dam, Outline of California, Overgrazing, Overseas Filipinos, Owens Valley, Owl, Oxford University Press, Pacific Coast Ranges, Pacific Islander, Pacific Islands Americans, Pacific Ocean, Pacific pocket mouse, Pacific states, Pacific Surfliner, Pacific Time Zone, Paiute cutthroat trout, Pakistani Americans, Palestinian Americans, Palisade Glacier, Panamanian Americans, Paraguayan Americans, Pasadena, California, Path 15, Path 46, Path 66, Pío Pico, Peace and Freedom Party, Pennsylvania Dutch, Per capita personal income in the United States, Perennial plant, Persian language, Personal computer, Peruvian Americans, Pew Research Center, Phacelia, Philippines, Pinus contorta, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus longaeva, Pit River, Poecile, Point Arena, California, Polar climate, Polish Americans, Polynesians, Polystichum, Pomo, Populus fremontii, Port, Port of Los Angeles, Port of Oakland, Port of Stockton, Portolá expedition, Portuguese Americans, Poverty in the United States, Power station, Pre-Columbian era, Presidio, Primary election, Primary elections in the United States, Primula suffrutescens, Pronghorn, Property tax, Proteidae, Protestantism, Public Policy Institute of California, Public university, Puerto Ricans, Pump (water), Punjabi language, Purchasing power parity, Quercus lobata, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, Rain shadow, Rainbow trout, Ranchos of California, Ranunculus, Rapid transit, Ratification, Real estate, Real property, Recall election, Redwood National and State Parks, Referendum, Relict (biology), Religious denomination, Renewable energy, Republican Party (United States), Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, Ring of Fire, Ring-tailed cat, Riverside, California, Roadrunner, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco, Romanian Americans, Roosevelt elk, Rose Bowl (stadium), Rose Bowl Game, Rowman & Littlefield, Russian Americans, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian River (California), Ryukyuan people, Sacramento Kings, Sacramento metropolitan area, Sacramento River, Sacramento RT Light Rail, Sacramento Valley, Sacramento, California, Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, Salinan, Salinas River (California), Salt marsh harvest mouse, Salton Sea, Salvadoran Americans, Samoan Americans, San Andreas Fault, San Benito County, California, San Bernardino County, California, San Diego, San Diego County, California, San Diego Padres, San Diego Trolley, San Diego–Tijuana, San Francisco, San Francisco 49ers, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco Bay Area, San Francisco Board of Supervisors, San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco garter snake, San Francisco Giants, San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco Municipal Railway, San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm, San Joaquin (soil), San Joaquin (train), San Joaquin River, San Joaquin Valley, San Jose Earthquakes, San Jose Sharks, San Jose, California, San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, San Mateo County, California, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Pablo Bay, Santa Ana River, Santa Ana winds, Santa Clara County, California, Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority light rail, Santa Clara, California, Santa Cruz Island, São Paulo (state), Scandinavian Americans, Schinus, School district, Scotch-Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, SDCCU Stadium, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Secondary education in the United States, Secretary of State of California, Secularization, Senegalese Americans, Separation of powers, Sequoia National Park, Sequoia sempervirens, Sequoiadendron giganteum, Serbian Americans, Serpentine subgroup, Shasta Dam, Sierra Leonean Americans, Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Silicon Valley, Simi Valley, California, Singaporean Americans, Siskiyou Trail, Sister city, Slave states and free states, Slavery in the United States, Slavic Americans, Slovak Americans, Slovene Americans, Smilodon, Snowshoe hare, Social programs in the United States, Solar Energy Generating Systems, Solar power, Somali Americans, Sonoma, California, Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit, South African Americans, South Coast (California), Southern Baptist Convention, Southern Border Region (California), Southern California, Soviet people, Spain, Spanish Americans, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spanish missions in California, Special district (United States), Sprinter (light rail), Square dance, Squaw Valley Ski Resort, Sri Lankan Americans, St. Francis Dam, Stack interchange, Stanford Stadium, Stanford University, Stanford University Press, State Bar of California, State school, Steller's jay, Stem cell, Student, Studio system, Subtropics, Sudanese Americans, Suisun Bay, Summer Olympic Games, Super Bowl, Super Bowl 50, Supreme Court of California, Swedish Americans, Swiss Americans, Syrian Americans, Tagalog language, Taiwanese Americans, Tax bracket, Tax resistance, Technology, Tehachapi Mountains, Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm, Temperate climate, Temperate rainforest, Term limit, Texas, Thai Americans, The Beach Boys, The Californias, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The New York Times, The Press-Enterprise, The San Diego Union-Tribune, Thomas Hill (painter), Thomas O. Larkin, Tomales Bay, Tongan Americans, Towhee, Townsend's solitaire, Traffic congestion, Transverse Ranges, Treaty of Cahuenga, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Trial court, Trillium, Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans, Trinity River (California), Tsunami, Tuctoria mucronata, Tulip, Tuolumne River, Turkish Americans, U.S. News & World Report, U.S. Route 66 in California, U.S. state, UCSF Medical Center, Ugandan Americans, Ukrainian Americans, Umbellularia, Unincorporated area, United States, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Census Bureau, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Geological Survey, United States House of Representatives, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States presidential election, 1960, United States presidential election, 1964, United States presidential election, 1968, United States presidential election, 1972, United States presidential election, 1976, United States presidential election, 1980, United States presidential election, 1984, United States presidential election, 1988, United States presidential election, 1992, United States presidential election, 1996, United States presidential election, 2000, United States presidential election, 2004, United States presidential election, 2008, United States presidential election, 2012, United States presidential election, 2016, United States Senate, University of California, University of California Press, University of California, San Francisco, University of Nebraska Press, University of Southern California, Uruguayan Americans, Utah, UTC−07:00, UTC−08:00, Vallejo, California, Venezuelan Americans, Victory ship, Vietnam War, Vietnamese Americans, Vietnamese language, Viola (plant), Virgin Islands Americans, Volcano, Vowel shift, Washington, D.C., Welsh Americans, West Coast Swing, West Indian Americans, Western culture, Western Hemisphere, White Americans, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Mountains (California), White seabass, White-tailed jackrabbit, Whiz Kids (Department of Defense), Wildfire, William B. Ide, Wind power in California, Winter Olympic Games, Wisconsin, Women's National Basketball Association, World Meteorological Organization, World War II, Wyoming, Yellowfin tuna, Yerba Buena Island, Yosemite National Park, Yosemite Valley, Yucca brevifolia, Yugoslav Americans, Zerene eurydice, Zimbabwean Americans, 110th United States Congress, 1906 San Francisco earthquake, 1932 Summer Olympics, 1960 Winter Olympics, 1984 Summer Olympics, 1994 FIFA World Cup, 1994 FIFA World Cup Final, 2010 United States Census, 2028 Summer Olympics, 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, Massachusetts Volunteers. Expand index (896 more) » « Shrink index
Abies magnifica, the red fir or silvertip fir, is a western North American fir, native to the mountains of southwest Oregon and California in the United States.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Active duty is a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
The Admission to the Union Clause of the United States Constitution, oftentimes called the New States Clause, and found at Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1, authorizes the Congress to admit new states into the United States beyond the thirteen already in existence at the time the Constitution went into effect.
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.
Afghan Americans are Americans of Afghan descent or Americans who originated from Afghanistan.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of modern African countries.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.
American Albanians (singular: Shqiptar i Amerikes / plural: Shqiptaret e Amerikes) are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
Alta California (Upper California), founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain, and, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico.
The Altamont Corridor Express (also known as ACE, formerly Altamont Commuter Express) is a commuter rail service in California, connecting Stockton and San Jose.
The Altamont Pass Wind Farm is located in the Altamont Pass of the Diablo Range in Northern California.
Amadís de Gaula (original Old Spanish and Galician-Portuguese spelling; Amadís de Gaula,; Amadis de Gaula) is a landmark work among the chivalric romances which were in vogue in sixteenth-century Spain, although its first version, much revised before printing, was written at the onset of the 14th century.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.
American ancestry refers to people in the United States who self-identify their ancestry as "American", rather than the more common officially recognized racial and ethnic groups that make up the bulk of the American people.
The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.
The American bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus) is the only species in the family Aegithalidae found in the New World, and the only member of the genus Psaltriparus.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American Independent Party (AIP) is a far-right political party in the United States that was established in 1967.
The American Jewish Year Book (AJYB) has been published since 1899.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
Amtrak California is a brand name used by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Division of Rail on three state-supported Amtrak rail routes within the US State of California, the Capitol Corridor, the Pacific Surfliner, and the San Joaquin.
Thruway Motorcoach is Amtrak's system of Amtrak-owned intercity coaches, locally contracted transit buses, through-ticketed local bus routes, and taxi services to connect Amtrak train stations to areas not served by its railroads, or stations which are disconnected temporarily due to service delays or track maintenance issues.
The Anaheim Ducks are a professional ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California.
Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Aquilegia flavescens, the yellow columbine, is a wildflower native to mountain meadows, open woods, and alpine slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Utah north to British Columbia and Alberta.
Arab Americans (عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِيُّونَ or أمريكيون من أصل عربي) are Americans of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identify themselves as Arab.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabis blepharophylla is a species of rock cress known by the common names coast rock cress and rose rock cress.
Arbutus is a genus of 12 accepted speciesAct.
Argentine Americans (Argentino Americanos) are Americans whose full or partial origin is in Argentina.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Armenian Americans (ամերիկահայեր, amerikahayer) are citizens or residents of the United States who have total or partial Armenian ancestry.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
The Arroyo Seco Parkway, also known as the Pasadena Freeway, is the first freeway in the Western United States.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) is a free source of online information related to American and international religion.
Assyrian Americans or Chaldean Americans refers to people born in or residing in the United States of full or partial Assyrian origin.
Aster is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae.
The Attorney General of California is the state attorney general of the Government of California.
Australian Americans are Americans who have Australian ancestry.
Austrian Americans (German: Austroamerikaner) are European Americans of Austrian descent.
Azaleas are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji (evergreen) and Pentanthera (deciduous).
‘Aziziya (Anglicized:; العزيزية / /), sometimes spelled El Azizia, is a small town and it was the capital of the Jafara district in northwestern Libya, southwest of the capital Tripoli.
Badwater Basin is an endorheic basin in Death Valley National Park, Death Valley, Inyo County, California, noted as the lowest point in North America, with a depth of below sea level.
Bahamian Americans are Americans of Bahamian ancestry.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
The Baja California Peninsula (Lower California Peninsula, Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico.
Baja California Sur, (South Lower California), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California Sur (Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur), is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, California, United States.
Bangladeshi Americans (Bengali: বাংলাদেশী মার্কিনী) are Americans of Bangladeshi descent.
Barbadian (or Bajan) Americans are Americans of Barbadian heritage or ancestry.
The barracuda is a ray-finned fish known for its large size, fearsome appearance and ferocious behaviour.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Basque Americans (euskal estatubatuarrak, Inmigración vasca en Estados Unidos, Basco-Américains) are Americans of Basque descent.
Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), is a rapid transit public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area in California.
Beale Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force base located approximately east of Marysville, California.
Belgian Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to immigrants of Belgium who emigrated to the United States.
Belizean Americans are Americans who are of Belizean ancestry.
Bell's sparrow (Artemisiospiza belli) is a medium-sized sparrow of the western United States and northwestern Mexico.
Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area.
Benitoite is a rare blue barium titanium silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
Bermudian Americans are Americans of full or partial Bermudian ancestry.
Big Sur is a rugged section of California's Central Coast between Carmel Highlands and San Simeon, where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean, that is frequently praised for its dramatic views.
The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep native to North America named for its large horns.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
Bixby Creek Bridge, also known as Bixby Bridge, on the Big Sur coast of California, is one of the most photographed bridges in California due to its aesthetic design, "graceful architecture and magnificent setting".
Two forms of black-tailed deer or blacktail deer that occupy coastal woodlands in the Pacific Northwest are subspecies of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).
A board of supervisors is a governing body that oversees the operation of county government in the American states of Arizona, California, Iowa, Mississippi, Virginia, and Wisconsin, as well as 16 counties in New York.
The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American cat that appeared during the Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago (AEO).
Boca is a former settlement in Nevada County, California.
A Bolivian American (bolivio-americanos, norteamericanos de origen boliviano or estadounidenses de origen boliviano) is an American of Bolivian descent.
Brazilian Americans (brasilo-americanos, norte-americanos de origem brasileira or estadunidenses de origem brasileira) are Americans who are of full or partial Brazilian ancestry.
The term bristlecone pine covers three species of pine tree (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae).
British Americans usually refers to Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland).
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgarian Americans are Americans of Bulgarian descent.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the United States Department of Commerce is a U.S. government agency that provides official macroeconomic and industry statistics, most notably reports about the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States and its various units—states, cities/towns/townships/villages/counties and metropolitan areas.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Buttonwillow is an unincorporated community in the San Joaquin Valley, in Kern County, California.
The cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) is a species of wren that is native to the southwestern United States southwards to central Mexico.
The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.
Calafia is a fictional warrior queen who ruled over a kingdom of Moorish (Moor/Muur) black women living on the mythical Island of California.
California Admission Day is a legal holiday in the state of California in the United States.
The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals, tunnels, and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California.
In California, a ballot proposition can be a referendum or an initiative measure that is submitted to the electorate for a direct decision or direct vote (or plebiscite).
The California Cadet Corps (CACC), originally called the California High School Cadets, is a paramilitary youth organization in California open to students in the college, high school, middle school and elementary school grades.
The California Coastal Commission is a state agency in the U.S. state of California with quasi-judicial regulatory oversight over land use and public access in the California coastal zone.
The California Community Colleges is "a postsecondary education system" in the U.S. state of California.
The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird.
The California courts of appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U.S. state of California.
The California Current is a Pacific Ocean current that moves southward along the western coast of North America, beginning off southern British Columbia and ending off southern Baja California Peninsula.
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California.
The California Department of Finance is a state cabinet-level agency within the government of California.
The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is an executive department of the US state of California.
California English (or Californian English) collectively refers to American English in California, particularly an emerging youthful variety, mostly associated with speakers of urban and coastal California.
The California executive branch consists of elected officers and other offices and officers.
The California Genocide refers to the violence, relocation, and starvation that led to a decrease in the indigenous population of California as a result of the US occupation of California.
The California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica) is a small long insectivorous bird which frequents dense coastal sage scrub growth.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
The California grizzly bear (Ursus arctos californicus) is an extinct subspecies of the grizzly bear, the very large North American brown bear.
The 2003 California gubernatorial recall election was a special election permitted under California state law.
California High-Speed Rail (abbreviated CAHSR or CHSR) is a high-speed rail system under construction in California in the United States.
The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is the highway patrol agency for the state of California and has jurisdiction anywhere in the state.
California's involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting volunteer combat units to replace regular forces in territories of the Western United States, maintaining and building numerous camps and fortifications, suppressing secessionist activity (many of these secessionists went east to fight for the Confederacy) and securing the New Mexico Territory against the Confederacy.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
California Insurance Commissioner has been an elected executive office position in California since 1991.
The California least tern, Sternula antillarum browni, is a subspecies of least tern that breeds primarily in bays of the Pacific Ocean within a very limited range of Southern California, in San Francisco Bay and in northern regions of Mexico.
The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 was developed by a survey team appointed by the UC Regents and the State Board of Education during the administration of Governor Pat Brown.
The California National Guard is a federally funded California military force, part of the National Guard of the United States.
Proposition 13 (officially named the People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation) was an amendment of the Constitution of California enacted during 1978, by means of the initiative process.
Proposition 14 is a California ballot proposition that appeared on the ballot during the June 2010 state elections.
Proposition 30, officially titled Temporary Taxes to Fund Education, is a California ballot measure that was decided by California voters at the statewide election on November 6, 2012.
Proposition 71 of 2004 (or the California Stem Cell Research and Cures Act) is a law enacted by California voters to support stem cell research in the state.
Proposition 8, known informally as Prop 8, was a California ballot proposition and a state constitutional amendment passed in the November 2008 California state elections.
California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-12 education.
The California quail (Callipepla californica), also known as the California valley quail or valley quail, is a small ground-dwelling bird in the New World quail family.
The California red legged frog (Rana draytonii) is a species of frog that is now endemic to California.
The California Republican Party (CAGOP) is the California affiliate of the United States Republican Party.
The California slender salamander (Batrachoseps attenuatus) is a lungless salamanderStebbins, Robert C. (2003).
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature.
The State Controller of California is the Chief Financial Officer of the U.S. state of California.
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California.
The California State Library collects, preserves, generates and disseminates a wide array of information.
The California State Military Reserve (CSMR) is the state defense force of California, and one of three branches of the Active Militia of the State.
The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature.
The State Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI) of California is the nonpartisan (originally partisan) elected executive officer of the California Department of Education.
The California State Tartan is the official Scottish Tartan pattern of California, created July 23, 2001 and defined under law in California state government code 424.3, (a) The tartan defined in subdivision (b) is the official State Tartan, and may be claimed by any resident of the state.
The California State Treasurer is responsible for the state's investment and finance.
California State University (Cal State or CSU) is a public university system in California.
The California State Water Project, commonly known as the SWP, is a state water management project in the U.S. state of California under the supervision of the California Department of Water Resources.
Superior courts in California are the state trial courts with general jurisdiction to hear and decide any civil or criminal action which is not specially designated to be heard in some other court or before a governmental agency.
The California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum) is a large thrasher found primarily in chaparral habitat in California and Baja California.
The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California.
The following is a list of California unemployment statistics.
The California water wars were a series of political conflicts between the city of Los Angeles and farmers and ranchers in the Owens Valley of Eastern California over water rights.
California is the most populous U.S. state and as a result has the most representation in the United States House of Representatives, with 53 Representatives.
Californio (historical and regional Spanish for "Californian") is a Spanish term with widely varying interpretations.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Caltrain (Reporting mark JPBX) is a California commuter rail line on the San Francisco Peninsula and in the Santa Clara Valley (Silicon Valley).
Calvatia sculpta, commonly known as the sculpted puffball, the sculptured puffball, the pyramid puffball, and the Sierran puffball, is a species of puffball fungus in the family Agaricaceae.
Cambodian Americans (ជនជាតិខ្មែរអាមេរិកាំង) are Americans of Khmer descent.
Canadian Americans are American citizens whose ancestry is wholly or partly Canadian.
Cape Verdean Americans are Americans whose ancestors were Cape Verdean.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of California.
The Capitol Corridor is a 168-mile (275 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in California.
The Carquinez Strait is a narrow tidal strait in northern California.
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Ceanothus L. is a genus of about 50–60 species of nitrogen-fixing shrubs or small trees in the family Rhamnaceae.
Celtic diaspora may refer to any of the following diasporas of Celtic people.
In demographics, the center of population (or population center) of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population.
Central California is a subregion of Northern California, generally thought of as the middle third of the state, north of Southern California.
The Central Coast is an area of California, United States, roughly spanning the coastal region between Point Mugu and Monterey Bay.
The Central Valley is a flat valley that dominates the geographical center of the U.S. state of California.
The Central Valley Project (CVP) is a federal water management project in the U.S. state of California under the supervision of the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR).
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
The Chamorro people (/tʃɑˈmɔroʊ/) are the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands; politically divided between the United States territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Micronesia.
The Channel Islands are an archipelago of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America.
In the United States, a charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by general law.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
Chilean Americans (chileno-americanos, norteamericanos de origen chileno or estadounidenses de origen chileno) are Americans who have full or partial origin from Chile.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Chumash are a Native American people who historically inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
The Claremont Colleges are an American consortium of five undergraduate and two graduate schools of higher education located in Claremont, California, a city east of downtown Los Angeles and west of downtown San Bernardino.
Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), sometimes referred to as Clark's crow or woodpecker crow, is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae.
Clear Lake is a natural freshwater lake in Lake County in the U.S. state of California, north of Napa County and San Francisco.
The Climate of Los Angeles is a year-round mild-to-hot and mostly dry climate for the Los Angeles metropolitan area in California.
Coast Guard Base Alameda also referred to as Coast Guard Island is an artificial island in the Oakland Estuary between Oakland and Alameda, California.
Coastal California, also known as the California Coastline and the Golden Coast, refers to the coastal regions of the U.S. state of California.
The Coaster (stylized as COASTER) is a commuter rail service that operates in the central and northern coastal regions of San Diego County, California, United States.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colombian Americans (Colomboamericanos), are Americans who trace their ancestry to Colombia.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A community college is a type of educational institution.
Community property is a marital property regime under which most property acquired during the marriage (except for gifts or inheritances), the community, or communio bonorum, is owned jointly by both spouses and is divided upon divorce, annulment, or death.
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
This is a comparison between US states and countries' nominal Gross Domestic Product for the Alternative Future as based on International Monetary Fund and Bureau of Economic Analysis data.
This is a comparison between U.S. states and countries by Gross Domestic Product (PPP).
The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
In United States local government, a consolidated city-county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.
The Constitution of the State of California is the constitution of California, describing the duties, powers, structure and function of the government of California.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Cordylanthus maritimus is a rare species of flowering plant in the broomrape family known by the common names salt marsh bird's beak and Point Reyes bird's beak.
Corporate services are activities that combine or consolidate certain enterprise-wide needed support services, provided based on specialized knowledge, best practices, and technology to serve internal (and sometimes external) customers and business partners.
Costa Rican Americans (costarrico-americano or estadounidenses de origen costarricense) are Americans of Costa Rican descent.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
Croatian Americans or Croat Americans (Američki Hrvati or Hrvati u Americi) are Americans who have full or partial Croatian ancestry.
The sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes), also known as the horned rattlesnake and sidewinder rattlesnake,Wright AH, Wright AA.
Cuban Americans (Cubanoamericanos) are Americans who trace their ancestry to Cuba.
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.
The cutthroat trout is a fish species of the family Salmonidae native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin in North America.
Cylindropuntia bigelovii, the teddy bear cholla, is a cholla cactus species native to Northwestern Mexico, and to the United States in California, Arizona, and Nevada.
Cypriot Americans are Americans of full or partial Cypriot ancestry.
Cytisus scoparius, the common broom or Scotch broom, syn. Sarothamnus scoparius, is a perennial leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe.
Czech Americans (Čechoameričané), known in the 19th and early 20th century as Bohemian Americans, are citizens of the United States who are of Czech descent.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Danish Americans (Dansk-amerikanere) are Americans who have ancestral roots originated fully or partially from Denmark.
Davis, formerly known as Davisville, is a city in the U.S. state of California and the most populous city in Yolo County.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes.
Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California, in the northern Mojave Desert bordering the Great Basin Desert.
Death Valley National Park is an American national park that straddles the California—Nevada border, east of the Sierra Nevada.
Decline to State (DTS) is an affiliation designation on the California voter registration form that allows voters to register to vote without choosing a party affiliation.
Delphinium variegatum is a species of larkspur known by the common name royal larkspur.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
California is the most populous U.S. state, with an estimated 2017 population of 39.497 million.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
The desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii and Gopherus morafkai) are two species of tortoise native to the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and the Sinaloan thornscrub of northwestern Mexico.
The Diablo Canyon Power Plant is an electricity-generating nuclear power plant near Avila Beach in San Luis Obispo County, California.
Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (born Dianne Emiel Goldman, June 22, 1933) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from California, a seat she has held since 1992.
Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the bird family Cinclidae, named for their bobbing or dipping movements.
Dodecatheon alpinum is a perennial plant in the primrose family, Primulaceae, known by the common name alpine shooting star.
Dominican Americans (domínico-americanos, norteamericanos de origen dominicano or estadounidenses de origen dominicano) are Americans who trace their ancestry to the Dominican Republic.
The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.
Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon pine, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America.
Dudleya traskiae (originally spelled Dudleya traskae) is a rare succulent plant known by the common name Santa Barbara Island liveforever.
The dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) is a species of nocturnal rodent in the family Cricetidae.
Dutch Americans are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past.
Dutch West Indian Americans or Dutch Antillean Americans are Americans of Dutch Antillean descent.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Eastern California is a region defined as either the strip to the east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada or as the easternmost counties of California in the United States.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The economy of California is dominated by farming, science and technology, trade, media and tourism.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Ecuadorian Americans (ecuatorio-americanos, norteamericanos de origen ecuatoriano or estadounidenses de origen ecuatoriano) are Americans of full or partial Ecuadorian ancestry.
Edward D. Castillo, of the Luiseño-Cahuilla tribes, is a Native American activist who participated in the American Indian occupation of Alcatraz in 1969.
The Eel River (Cahto: Taanchow) is a major river, about long, of northwestern California.
Since the twentieth century, the role of the car has become highly important though controversial.
Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian ancestry.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Energy is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on energy engineering that was established in 1976.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epimedium, also known as barrenwort, bishop's hat, fairy wings, horny goat weed, or yin yang huo, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Berberidaceae.
Erysimum capitatum is a species of wallflower known commonly as the sanddune wallflower, western wallflower, or prairie rocket.
Eschscholzia californica (California poppy, golden poppy, California sunlight, cup of gold) is a species of flowering plant in the Papaveraceae family, native to the United States and Mexico.
Escondido is a city located in San Diego County's North County region, northeast of Downtown San Diego, California.
Estonian Americans (Ameerika eestlased) are Americans who are of Estonian ancestry, mainly descendants of people who left Estonia before and especially during World War II.
Ethiopian Americans are Americans of Ethiopian descent, as well as individuals of American and Ethiopian ancestry.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
Eureka (Εύρηκα) is an interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention.
Eureka (Hupa: do'-wi-lotl-ding, Karuk: uuth) is the principal city and county seat of Humboldt County in the Redwood Empire region of California.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Farallon Islands, or Farallones (from the Spanish farallón meaning "pillar" or "sea cliff"), are a group of islands and sea stacks in the Gulf of the Farallones, off the coast of San Francisco, California, United States.
The Feather River is the principal tributary of the Sacramento River, in the Sacramento Valley of Northern California.
Fijian Americans are Americans of Fijian origin.
Filipino Americans (Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, animation, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors, and other film crew personnel.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
Finnish Americans (Finnish: Amerikansuomalaiset) comprise Americans with ancestral roots from Finland or Finnish people who emigrated to and reside in the United States.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First Transcontinental Railroad (also called the Great Transcontinental Railroad, known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.
The Bear Flag is the official flag of the state of California.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
Fort Irwin National Training Center is a major training area for the United States Military and is a census-designated place located in the Mojave Desert in northern San Bernardino County, California.
Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, tr. Krepostʹ Ross), is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.
The Four Level Interchange (officially the Bill Keene Memorial Interchange) was the first stack interchange in the world.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
Francisco de Ulloa (died 1540) was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés.
Frederic Michael Scherer (born 1932 in Ottawa, Illinois) is an American economist and expert on industrial organization.
Frederick Emmons Terman (June 7, 1900 – December 19, 1982) was an American professor and academic administrator.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
French-Canadian Americans are Americans of French Canadian descent.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fresno (Spanish for "ash tree") is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Fresno County.
Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo (not Garci Ordóñez de Montalvo) (c.1450–1504) was a Castilian author who arranged the modern version of the chivalric romance Amadis of Gaul, written in three books in the 14th century by an unknown author.
Garden Grove is a city in northern Orange County, California, United States, located southeast of the city of Los Angeles.
The Garibaldi or Garibaldi damselfish (Hypsypops rubicundus) is a species of bright orange fish in the damselfish family.
Gavin Christopher Newsom (born October 10, 1967) is an American businessman and politician serving as the 49th and current Lieutenant Governor of California, elected in 2010.
General aviation (GA) is all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire.
George Rippey Stewart (May 31, 1895 – August 22, 1980) was an American historian, toponymist, novelist, and a professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
Ghanaian Americans are Americans of full or partial Ghanaian ancestry or Ghanaians who became naturalized citizen of the United States.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean.
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the strait connecting San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean.
The Golden State Warriors are an American professional basketball team based in the San Francisco Bay Area in Oakland, California.
The California golden trout, or simply the golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita), is a subspecies of the rainbow trout native to California.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The government of the City and County of San Francisco utilizes the "strong mayor" form of mayoral/council government, composed of the Mayor, Board of Supervisors, several elected officers, and numerous other entities.
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), or grey fox, is a carnivorous mammal of the family Canidae, widespread throughout North America and Central America.
The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), also known as the grey whale,Britannica Micro.: v. IV, p. 693.
The Great Flood of 1862 was the largest flood in the recorded history of Oregon, Nevada, and California, occurring from December 1861 to January 1862.
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast.
Greek Americans (Ελληνοαμερικανοί, Ellinoamerikanoi) are Americans of full or partial Greek ancestry.
The Green Party of California (GPCA) is the California affiliate of the Green Party of the United States.
Greyhound Lines, Inc., usually shortened to Greyhound, is an intercity bus common carrier serving over 3,800 destinations across North America.
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.
Gross regional domestic product (GRDP) or gross domestic product of region (GDPR) is a subnational gross domestic product for measuring the size of that region's economy.
Guatemalan Americans (guatemalo-americanos, norteamericanos de origen guatemalteco or estadounidenses de origen guatemalteco) are Americans of full or partial Guatemalan descent.
Guyanese Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry back to Guyana.
Haitian Americans (haïtien américain; ayisyen ameriken) are Americans of Haitian descent.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.
The hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) is a medium-sized North American thrush.
High school is a term primarily used in the United States to describe the level of education students receive from approximately 14 to 18 years old, although there is some variation.
High-level radioactive waste management concerns how radioactive materials created during production of nuclear power and nuclear weapons are dealt with.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
Hmong Americans are Americans of Hmong or Miao descent from China, Southeast Asia, most notably from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos.
Honduran Americans (honduro-americano, norteamericano de origen hondureño or estadounidense de origen hondureño) are Americans of Honduran descent.
Horned lizards (Phrynosoma), also known as horny toads or horntoads, are a genus of North American lizards and the type genus of the subfamily Phrynosomatinae.
Huckleberry is a name used in North America for several plants in the family Ericaceae, in two closely related genera: Vaccinium and Gaylussacia.
Humboldt Bay is a natural bay and a multi-basin, bar-built coastal lagoon located on the rugged North Coast of California, entirely within Humboldt County.
Hungarian Americans (Hungarian: amerikai magyarok) are Americans of Hungarian descent.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
"I Love You, California" (1913) is the official state song of California.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Icelandic Americans are Americans of Icelandic descent or Iceland-born people who reside in the United States.
The actual size and the origin of the illegal immigrant population in the United States is uncertain and is difficult to ascertain because of difficulty in accurately counting individuals in this population.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Illegal immigration to the United States is the entry into the United States of foreign nationals in violation of United States immigration laws and also the remaining in the country of foreign nationals after their visa, or other authority to be in the country, has expired.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
Imperial County is a county in the U.S. state of California.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of California.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India.
The Indigenous peoples of California (known as Native Californians) are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or currently live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans.
Indonesian Americans (Orang Amerika Indonesia) are migrants from the multiethnic country of Indonesia to the United States, and their U.S.-born descendants.
Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California.
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (referendum, sometimes called a plebiscite).
The Inland Empire (IE) is a metropolitan area and region in Southern California.
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Iranian Americans or Persian Americans are U.S. citizens who are of Iranian ancestry or who hold Iranian citizenship.
Iraqi Americans are Americans who identify as being of Iraqi ancestry.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isaac Graham (April 15, 1800 – November 8, 1863) was a fur trader, mountain man, and land grant owner in 19th century California.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Island of California refers to a long-held Spanish misconception, dating from the 16th century, that the Baja California Peninsula was not part of mainland North America but rather a large island separated from the continent by a strait now known as the Gulf of California.
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states).
Israeli Americans (אָמֵרִיקאים יִשׂרָאֵלים lit. Ameriqaim Yisra'elim) are Americans who have Israeli citizenship either by descent or naturalization.
Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.
Jamaican Americans are Americans who have full or partial Jamaican ancestry.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) also known as Jeffrey's pine, yellow pine and black pine, is a North American pine tree.
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.
John Drake Sloat (July 6, 1781 – November 28, 1867) was a commodore in the United States Navy who, in 1846, claimed California for the United States.
John Marsh (born 1799 in South Danvers, Massachusetts - died in Pacheco, California in 1856).
Jordanian Americans are Americans who are descended from the Jordanian people.
Joshua Tree National Park is located in southeastern California.
Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo (February 14, 1809 – July 13, 1882) was a Californio and Governor of Las Californias from 1837 to 1842.
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Portuguese:João Rodrigues Cabrilho) (born 1499, died January 3, 1543) was a maritime navigator, known for exploring the West Coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Judicial Council of California is the rule-making arm of the California court system.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Judiciary of California is defined under the California Constitution, law, and regulations as part of the Government of California.
Jurupa Valley is a city in Riverside County, California.
Kamala Devi Harris (born October 20, 1964) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from California since 2017.
Kangaroo rats, small rodents of genus Dipodomys, are native to western North America.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
KCET, channel 28, is a non-commercial educational, independent television station located in Los Angeles, California, United States owned by KCETLink.
Kenyan Americans are Americans of Kenyan descent.
Kern County is a county in the U.S. state of California.
Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.
The kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) is a fox species of North America.
The Klamath Mountains are a rugged and lightly populated mountain range in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the western United States.
The Klamath River (Karuk: Ishkêesh, Klamath: Koke, Yurok: Hehlkeek 'We-Roy) flows through Oregon and northern California in the United States, emptying into the Pacific Ocean.
Korean Americans (Hangul: 한국계 미국인, Hanja: 韓國系美國人, Hangukgye Migukin) are Americans of Korean heritage or descent, mostly from South Korea, and with a very small minority from North Korea, China, Japan and Post-Soviet states.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
LA Galaxy, also known as the Los Angeles Galaxy, is an American professional soccer franchise based in the Los Angeles suburb of Carson, California that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), as a member of the Western Conference.
Laguna Beach is a seaside resort city located in southern Orange County, California, in the United States.
Lake Tahoe (Washo: dáʔaw) is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States.
The Lamiaceae or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
Laotian Americans are Americans of Lao descent.
Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián) is the fifth book in a series of Spanish chivalric romance novels by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, which began with Amadís de Gaula.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latvian Americans are Americans who are of Latvian ancestry.
Law in the state of Louisiana is based on a more diverse set of sources than the laws of the other forty-nine states of the United States.
Lebanese Americans (أمريكيون لبنانيون) are Americans of Lebanese descent.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Levi's Stadium is a football stadium located in Santa Clara, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Liberian Americans are Americans of full or partial Liberian ancestry.
The Libertarian Party of California (LPC) is the California affiliate of the United States Libertarian Party.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer and vice-executive of the State of California.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
Lilium columbianum is a lily native to western North America.
Lilium pardalinum, also known as the leopard lily or panther lily, is a flowering bulbous perennial plant in the lily family, native to Oregon, California, and Baja California.
A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway), including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses, and very few or no intersecting cross-streets.
The Lincoln Highway was one of the earliest transcontinental highways for automobiles across the United States of America.
This is a list of airports in California (a U.S. state), grouped by type and sorted by location.
This is an incomplete list of well-known Alsatians and Lorrainians (people from the region of Alsace and the region of Lorraine).
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.
The following is a list of California locations by income.
Although the written history of California is not long, records of earthquakes exist that affected the Spanish missions that were constructed beginning in the late 18th century.
This is a list of the 100 largest cities in the U.S. State of California ranked by population, based on estimates for July 1, 2015 by the United States Census Bureau.
The world's longest suspension bridges are listed according to the length of their main span (i.e. the length of suspended roadway between the bridge's towers).
This article defines a "primary" metropolitan area as a metropolitan area that is not a component of a more extensive defined metropolitan area.
The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States.
This is a list of the 100 largest counties in the United States by area.
This is a list of the 100 largest counties in the United States by population based on the national decennial US census conducted on 1 April 2010 and subsequent mid-2010 and mid-2014 official estimates released by the United States Census Bureau (USCB).
Several sets of codes and abbreviations are used to represent the political divisions of the United States for postal addresses, data processing, general abbreviations, and other purposes.
This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area.
As of April 1, 2010, the date of the 2010 United States Census, the nine most populous U.S. states contain slightly more than half of the total population.
A state of the United States is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government.
This is a list of U.S. states sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States.
Lithuanian Americans refers to American citizens and residents who are Lithuanian and were born in Lithuania, or are of Lithuanian descent.
The loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) is a passerine bird in the family Laniidae.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball franchise based in Anaheim, California.
The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, comprising the Los Angeles Aqueduct (Owens Valley aqueduct) and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct, is a water conveyance system, built and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power.
The Los Angeles Chargers are a professional American football team based in the Greater Los Angeles Area.
The Los Angeles Clippers, abbreviated by the team as the LA Clippers, are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles.
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (branded as Metro; formerly branded as MTA or LACMTA) is the agency that operates public transportation for the County of Los Angeles.
Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017.
The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California.
Los Angeles Football Club is an American professional soccer franchise based in Los Angeles, California that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member of the Western Conference.
Los Angeles International Airport is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles, California.
The Los Angeles Kings are a professional ice hockey team based in Los Angeles.
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American outdoor sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area, also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland, is the 18th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football team based in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
The Los Angeles Sparks are a professional basketball team based in Los Angeles, California, playing in the Western Conference in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA).
Luxembourgish Americans (sometimes hyphenated) are Americans of Luxembourgish ancestry.
Lyonothamnus is a monotypic genus of trees in the rose family containing the single living species Lyonothamnus floribundus, which is known by the common name Catalina ironwood, and the subspecies L. f. ssp.
Macedonian Americans (Македонски Американци, Makedonski Amerikanci) are Americans of ethnic Macedonian heritage.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by U.S. Soccer that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.
The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in those countries.
A majority–minority or minority–majority area is a term used in the United States to refer to a jurisdiction in which one or more racial and/or ethnic minorities (relative to the whole country's population) make up a majority of the local population.
Malaysian Americans (Orang Malaysia di Amerika) are Americans of Malaysian ancestry.
Maltese Americans are Americans with Maltese ancestry.
Mammoth Lakes is a town in Mono County, California, the county's only incorporated community.
The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (renamed in 1981 from the International Center for Economic Policy Studies) is a conservative 501(c)(3) non-profit American think tank focused on domestic policy and urban affairs, established in New York City in 1977 by Antony Fisher and William J. Casey.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Manzanita is a common name for many species of the genus Arctostaphylos.
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton is the major West Coast base of the United States Marine Corps.
Mark Zachary Jacobson (born 1965) is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University and director of its Atmosphere/Energy Program.
The Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the San Francisco city and county government.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Megabus, branded as megabus.com, is an intercity bus service of Coach USA/Coach Canada and DATTCO (a non Stagecoach company, under contract) providing discount travel services since 2006, operating throughout the eastern, southern, midwestern, and western United States and in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.
Metrolink is a commuter or regional rail system in Southern California; it consists of seven lines and 62 stations operating on of rail network.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.
The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Micronesian Americans are Americans who are descended from people of the Federated States of Micronesia.
The Midway-Sunset Oil Field is a large oil field in Kern County, San Joaquin Valley, California in the United States.
A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Mission San Francisco de Asís, or Mission Dolores, is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco and the sixth religious settlement established as part of the California chain of missions.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America.
Mojave National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located in the Mojave Desert of San Bernardino County, California, USA, between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40.
The Mojave River is an intermittent river in the eastern San Bernardino Mountains and the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County, California, United States.
Mongolian Americans are American citizens who are of full or partial Mongolian ancestry.
Mono Lake is a large, shallow saline soda lake in Mono County, California, formed at least 760,000 years ago as a terminal lake in an endorheic basin.
Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U.S. state of California.
Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California.
Monterey is a city located in Monterey County in the U.S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast.
Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.
Moroccan Americans are Americans of Moroccan ancestry, as well as persons who have dual Moroccan and United States citizenship.
The Morro Bay kangaroo rat, Dipodomys heermanni morroensis, is endemic to San Luis Obispo County, California.
Morro Bay is a waterfront city in San Luis Obispo County, California located along California State Route 1 on California's Central Coast.
Mount Shasta (Karuk: Úytaahkoo or "White Mountain") is a potentially active volcano at the southern end of the Cascade Range in Siskiyou County, California.
Mount Whitney is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada—with an elevation of.
The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa)Other names include mountain boomer, ground bear, giant mole, gehalis, sewellel, suwellel, showhurll, showtl, and showte, as well as a number of Chinookan and other Native American terms; "mountain boomer" is a misnomer, and the animal does not make the characteristic tail slapping sound of the true beaver species.
The mountain weasel (Mustela altaica), also known as the pale weasel, Altai weasel or solongoi, primarily lives in high-altitude environments, as well as rocky tundra and grassy woodlands.
The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.
Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races".
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.
Nassella pulchra, basionym Stipa pulchra, is a species of grass known by the common names purple needlegrass and purple tussockgrass.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.
Naval Air Station North Island or NAS North Island is located at the north end of the Coronado peninsula on San Diego Bay and is the home port of several aircraft carriers of the United States Navy.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
Nemophila is a genus found in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae.
Nepalese Americans or Nepali Americans are Americans whose ethnic origins lie fully or partially in any part of Nepal.
The net migration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).
New Zealand Americans are Americans who have New Zealand ancestry.
A Nicaraguan American (nicaraguo-americano, norteamericano de origen nicaragüense or estadounidense de origen nicaragüense) is an American of Nicaraguan descent.
Nigerian Americans are Americans who are of Nigerian ancestry.
Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin (commonly referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86 are European Americans who are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity, as defined by the United States Census Bureau.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.
The North Coast of California (also called the Redwood Empire or the Redwood Coast) is the region in Northern California that lies on the Pacific coast between San Francisco Bay and the Oregon border.
The Northeast Corridor (NEC) is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States.
Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal or "The Northstate" for the northern interior counties north of Sacramento to the Oregon stateline) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The northern flicker (Colaptes auratus) is a medium-sized bird of the woodpecker family.
The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of three spotted owl subspecies.
Norwegian Americans (norskamerikanere) are Americans with ancestral roots from Norway.
Notholithocarpus densiflorus, commonly known as the tanoak or tanbark-oak, is an evergreen tree in the beech family (Fagaceae), native to the western United States, in California as far south as the Transverse Ranges, north to southwest Oregon, and east in the Sierra Nevada.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear-free zone is an area in which nuclear weapons (see nuclear-weapon-free zone) and nuclear power plants are banned.
The Oakland Athletics, often referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California.
The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
Oenothera deltoides subsp.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Old Spanish Trail (Viejo Sendero Español) is a historical trade route that connected the northern New Mexico settlements of (or near) Santa Fe, New Mexico with those of Los Angeles, California and southern California.
Orange County is a county in the U.S. state of California.
Orange is a city located in Orange County, California.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Oregon Trail is a historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon.
Oroville Dam is an earthfill embankment dam on the Feather River east of the city of Oroville, California, in the Sierra Nevada foothills east of the Sacramento Valley.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. state of California.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
An Overseas Filipino (Pilipino sa Ibayong-dagat) is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside the Philippines.
Owens Valley is the colonial name of Payahǖǖnadǖ (Numic: place of flowing water), the, now, arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin section.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Coast Ranges (officially gazetted as the Pacific Mountain System in the United States but referred to as the Pacific Coast Ranges), are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the West Coast of North America from Alaska south to Northern and Central Mexico.
Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands.
Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians).
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris pacificus, is endemic to California.
The Pacific States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that country's census bureau.
The Pacific Surfliner is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak, serving the communities on the coast of Southern California between San Diego and San Luis Obispo.
The Pacific Time Zone (PT) is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, and western Mexico.
Paiute cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris) is one of fourteen subspecies of cutthroat trout.
Pakistani Americans (پاکستانی نژاد امریکی) are Americans whose ancestry originates from Pakistan or Pakistanis who migrated to and reside in the United States.
Palestinian Americans (فلسطينيو أمريكا), are Americans descended from the Palestinian people.
The Palisade Glacier is located on the northeast side of the Palisades within the John Muir Wilderness in the central Sierra Nevada of California.
Panamanian Americans (panameño-americano, norteamericano de origen panameño or estadounidense de origen panameño) are Americans of Panamanian descent.
A Paraguayan American (paraguayo-americano, norteamericano de origen paraguayo or estadounidense de origen paraguayo) are Americans of Paraguayan descent.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
Path 15 is an portion of the north-south power transmission corridor in California, U.S. It forms a part of the Pacific AC Intertie and the California-Oregon Transmission Project.
Path 46, also called West of Colorado River, Arizona-California West-of-the-River Path (WOR), is a set of many high-voltage alternating-current transmission lines that are located in southeast California and Nevada up to the Colorado River.
California Oregon Intertie (COI), identified as Path 66 by Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), is a corridor of three roughly parallel 500 kV alternating current power lines connecting the electric grids of Oregon and California.
Pío de Jesús Pico (May 5, 1801 – September 11, 1894) was a Californio rancher and politician, the last governor of Alta California (now the State of California) under Mexican rule.
The Peace and Freedom Party (PFP) is a left-wing political party with affiliates and former members in more than a dozen American states, including California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana and Utah, but none now have ballot status besides California.
The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
The per capita personal income of the United States is the income that is received by persons from all sources.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Peruvian Americans (peruano americanos) are Americans of Peruvian descent.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phacelia (phacelia, scorpionweed, heliotrope) is a genus of about 200 species of annual or perennial herbaceous plants, native to North and South America.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and also known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America.
Pinus lambertiana (commonly known as the sugar pine or sugar cone pine) is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer.
Pinus longaeva (commonly referred to as the Great Basin bristlecone pine, intermountain bristlecone pine, or western bristlecone pine) is a long-living species of bristlecone pine tree found in the higher mountains of California, Nevada, and Utah.
The Pit River is a major river draining from northeastern California into the state's Central Valley.
Poecile is a genus of birds in the tit family Paridae.
Point Arena (formerly, Punta Arenas and Puntas Arenas) is a small coastal city in Mendocino County, California, United States.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
Polystichum is a genus of about 260 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution.
The Pomo are an indigenous people of California.
Populus fremontii, commonly known as Fremont's cottonwood or the Alamo cottonwood, is a cottonwood (and thus a poplar) native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port of Los Angeles, also called America's Port, is a port complex that occupies of land and water along of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach.
The Port of Oakland is a major container ship facility located in Oakland, California, in the San Francisco Bay.
The Port of Stockton is a major inland deepwater port in Stockton, California located on the San Joaquin River before it joins the Sacramento River to empty into Suisun Bay, eighty miles inland.
Point of San Francisco Bay Discovery The Portolá expedition was the first recorded Spanish (or any European) land entry and exploration of the present-day state of California, in 1769–1770, that led to the founding of Alta California.
Portuguese Americans (portugueses-americanos), also known as Luso-americans (luso-americanos), are American citizens and residents of the United States who are connected to the country of Portugal by birth, ancestry, or citizenship.
Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
A presidio (from the Spanish, presidio, meaning "jail" or "fortification") is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence.
A primary election is the process by which the general public can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.
Primary elections in the United States are elections in which the candidates for a particular office at federal, state or local level are chosen by registered voters in a particular jurisdiction.
Primula suffrutescens is a species of primrose known by the common name Sierra primrose.
The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
The family Proteidae is a group of aquatic salamanders found today in the Balkan Peninsula and North America.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Public Policy Institute of California is an independent, nonpartisan, non-profit research institution.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.
Pump is a brand of bottled spring water available in Australia and New Zealand.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quercus lobata, commonly called the valley oak or roble, grows into the largest of North American oaks.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.
The Spanish and later Mexican governments encouraged settlement of the coastal region of Alta California (now known as California) by giving prominent men large land grants called ranchos, usually two or more square leagues, or.
Ranunculus is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.
A recall election (also called a recall referendum or representative recall) is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended.
The Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) are a complex of several state and national parks located in the United States, along the coast of northern California.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
In biogeography and paleontology a relict is a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past.
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The reserve components of the United States Armed Forces are military organizations whose members generally perform a minimum of 39 days of military duty per year and who augment the active duty (or full-time) military when necessary.
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
The ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) is a mammal of the raccoon family, native to arid regions of North America.
Riverside is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, located in the Inland Empire metropolitan area.
The roadrunners (genus Geococcyx), also known as chaparral birds or chaparral cocks, are two species of fast-running ground cuckoos with long tails and crests.
The Archdiocese of Los Angeles (Archidioecesis Angelorum in California, Arquidiócesis de Los Ángeles) is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the U.S. state of California.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco (Latin: Archdioecesis Sancti Francisci; Spanish: Archidiócesis de San Francisco) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in the northern California region of the United States.
Romanian Americans (Romanian: Români americani) are Americans who have Romanian ancestry.
The Roosevelt elk (Cervus canadensis roosevelti), also known as Olympic elk, is the largest of the four surviving subspecies of elk in North America.
The Rose Bowl is a United States outdoor athletic stadium, located in Pasadena, California, a northeast suburb of Los Angeles.
The Rose Bowl Game, officially the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual for sponsorship purposes, and more frequently known as simply the Rose Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Russian Americans are Americans who trace their ancestry to Russia, the Russian Empire, or the former Soviet Union.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian River, a southward-flowing river, drains 1,485 square miles (3,846 km2) of Sonoma and Mendocino counties in Northern California.
The; also Lewchewan or) are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Prefecture or Kagoshima Prefecture. Their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people and Ainu. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is also a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora. As many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide; mostly in Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, in other territories where there is also a sizable Japanese diaspora. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former. Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are significantly related to the Ainu people and share the ancestry with the indigenous prehistoric Jōmon period (pre 10,000–1,000 BCE) people, who arrived from Southeast Asia, and with the Yamato people who are mostly an admixture of the Yayoi period (1,000 BCE–300 CE) migrants from East Asia (specifically China and the Korean peninsula). The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, and cuisine which had fairly late 12th century introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, and in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because the Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain (1872–1879), after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition, culture and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese (Yamato). After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945–1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.
The Sacramento Kings are an American professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California.
The Greater Sacramento area, or officially Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Yuba City, CA–NV Combined Statistical Area, is a combined statistical area consisting of several metropolitan statistical areas and seven counties in Northern California and one in Western Nevada, namely Sacramento, Yolo, El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Yuba, and Nevada counties in California, and Douglas County in Nevada.
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California.
The Sacramento RT Light Rail system is a light rail system, consisting of three rail lines, 54 stations, and 76 vehicles.
The Sacramento Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies north of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the Sacramento River.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.
The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California.
The Salinan Native Americans are a Native American tribe whose ancestral territory is in the southern Salinas Valley and the Santa Lucia range in the Central Coast of California, in the Salinas Valley.
The Salinas River is the longest river of the central coast of California, running and draining 4,160 square miles.
The salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), also known as the red-bellied harvest mouse and sometimes called the saltmarsh harvest mouse, is an endangered rodent endemic to the San Francisco Bay Area salt marshes in California.
The Salton Sea is a shallow, saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault, predominantly in California's Imperial and Coachella valleys.
Salvadoran Americans (salvadoreño-americanos, norteamericanos de origen salvadoreño or estadounidenses de origen salvadoreño) are Americans of full or partial Salvadoran descent.
Samoan Americans are Americans of Samoan origin, including those who emigrated from the Independent State of Samoa or American Samoa to the United States.
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly through California.
San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U.S. state of California.
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
San Diego County is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States.
The San Diego Padres are an American professional baseball franchise based in San Diego, California.
The San Diego Trolley is a light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego.
San Diego–Tijuana is an international metropolitan conurbation, straddling the border of the adjacent North American coastal cities of San Diego, California, United States and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
The San Francisco 49ers are a professional American football team located in the San Francisco Bay Area.
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California.
The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body within the government of the City and County of San Francisco, California, United States.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
The San Francisco garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) is a slender multi-colored subspecies of the common garter snake.
The San Francisco Giants are an American professional baseball franchise based in San Francisco, California.
San Francisco International Airport is an international airport south of downtown San Francisco, California, United States, near Millbrae and San Bruno in unincorporated San Mateo County.
The San Francisco Municipal Railway (SF Muni or Muni) is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California.
The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, known locally as the Bay Bridge, is a complex of bridges spanning San Francisco Bay in California.
The San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm is a wind farm located on the eastern slope of the San Gorgonio Pass in Riverside County, just east of White Water, California, United States.
San Joaquin is an officially designated state insignia, the state soil of the U.S. state of California.
The San Joaquin (sometimes referred to as San Joaquins) is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak in California's Central Valley.
The San Joaquin River is the longest river of Central California in the United States.
The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River.
San Jose Earthquakes are an American professional soccer team based in San Jose, California, United States, that competes as a member of the Western Conference of Major League Soccer (MLS).
The San Jose Sharks are a professional ice hockey team based in San Jose, California.
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
The San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area is a 12-county Combined Statistical Area (CSA) designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget in Northern California that includes the San Francisco Bay Area.
San Mateo County (Spanish for "Saint Matthew") is a county located in the U.S. state of California.
The San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) is a now-closed nuclear power plant located south of San Clemente, California, on the Pacific coast, in Nuclear Regulatory Commission Region IV.
San Pablo Bay is a tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in the East Bay and North Bay regions of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California.
The Santa Ana River is the largest river entirely within Southern California in the United States.
The Santa Ana winds are strong, extremely dry down-slope winds that originate inland and affect coastal Southern California and northern Baja California.
Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's 6th most populous county, with a population was 1,781,642, as of the 2010 census.
VTA Light Rail is a light rail system serving San Jose, California and its suburbs in Silicon Valley. It is operated by the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority, or VTA, and consists of of network comprising two main lines and a spur line on standard gauge tracks. Originally opened in 1987, the light rail system has gradually expanded since then, and currently has 62 light rail stations in operation on the three lines. VTA operates a fleet of 99 Kinki Sharyo Low Floor Light Rail Vehicles (LFLRV) to service its passengers. The system's average weekday daily ridership as of Q4 2015 is 33,400 passengers; the greatest daily average recorded over a month was 37,536 in June 2008.
Santa Clara is a city in Santa Clara County, California.
Santa Cruz Island (Chumash: Limuw) is the largest of the eight islands in the Channel Islands and also the largest island in California, located off the coast of California.
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
Scandinavian Americans or Nordic Americans are Americans of Scandinavian (in the broad sense), or part-Scandinavian ancestry, defined in this article to include Danish Americans (estimate: 1,453,897), Faroese Americans (no estimates), Finnish Americans (estimate: 677,272), Greenlandic Americans (estimate: 352), Icelandic Americans (estimate: 51,234), Norwegian Americans (estimate: 4,602,337), Sami Americans (estimate: 30,000), Swedish Americans (estimate: 4,293,208).
Schinus is a genus of flowering trees and tall shrubs in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae.
A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic: Ameireaganaich Albannach; Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Scotland.
San Diego County Credit Union Stadium, commonly known as SDCCU Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium in San Diego, California, United States.
Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548–1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, the California coast and Japan.
In most jurisdictions, secondary education in the United States refers to the last four years of statutory formal education (grade nine through grade twelve) either at high school or split between a final year of 'junior high school' and three in high school.
The Secretary of State of California is the chief clerk of the U.S. State of California, overseeing a department of 500 people.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Senegalese Americans are Americans of Senegalese descent.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States.
Sequoia sempervirens Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae).
Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia; also known as giant redwood, Sierra redwood, Sierran redwood, Wellingtonia or simply Big Treea nickname used by John Muir) is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, and one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae in the subfamily Sequoioideae, together with Sequoia sempervirens (coast redwood) and Metasequoia glyptostroboides (dawn redwood).
Serbian Americans (Амерички Срби/Američki Srbi) are United States citizens of Serb ethnic ancestry.
The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.
Shasta Dam (called Kennett Dam before its construction) is a concrete arch-gravity dam across the Sacramento River in Northern California in the United States.
Sierra Leonean Americans are Americans who are descended from Sierra Leoneans.
The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
The city of Simi Valley (from the Chumash word, Shimiyi), in the eponymous valley, is in the southeast corner of Ventura County, California, United States, from Downtown Los Angeles, making it part of the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Singaporean Americans are Americans who have Singaporean ancestry.
The Siskiyou Trail stretched from California's Central Valley to Oregon's Willamette Valley; modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
In the history of the United States, a slave state was a U.S. state in which the practice of slavery was legal, and a free state was one in which slavery was prohibited or being legally phased out.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavic Americans are Americans of Slavic descent.
Slovak Americans are Americans of Slovak descent.
Slovene Americans or Slovenian Americans are Americans of full or partial Slovene or Slovenian ancestry.
Smilodon is an extinct genus of machairodont felid.
The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), also called the varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit, is a species of hare found in North America.
Social programs in the United States are welfare subsidies designed to meet needs of the American population.
Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) in California, with the combined capacity from three separate locations at 354 megawatts (MW, 474,700 hp), is now the world's second largest solar thermal energy generating facility, after the commissioning of the even larger Ivanpah facility in 2014.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
Somali Americans are Americans of Somali ancestry.
Sonoma is a city in Sonoma Valley, Sonoma County, California, United States, surrounding its historic town plaza, a remnant of the town's Mexican colonial past.
Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) is a passenger rail service and bicycle-pedestrian pathway project in Sonoma and Marin counties of the U.S. state of California.
South African Americans are Americans who have full or partial ancestry from South Africa.
The South Coast is a term used in the West Coast region of the United States to refer to both the south Pacific Coast of California and the adjacent resort and residential communities.
The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination based in the United States.
The Southern Border Region is one of nine such geopolitical designations in the State of California, United States, used for economic analysis.
Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.
Soviet people (r) or citizens of the USSR (Grázhdane SSSR) was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Americans (españoles estadounidenses, hispanoestadounidenses, españoles americanos or hispanonorteamericanos) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly from Spain.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious outposts or missions established between 1769 and 1833 in today's U.S. State of California.
Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts in the United States) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such as county, municipal, and township governments, with substantial administrative and fiscal independence.
The Sprinter (stylized as SPRINTER) is a DMU-operated light rail line operating between Oceanside and Escondido, California, United States.
A square dance is a dance for four couples (eight dancers in total) arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square.
Squaw Valley Ski Resort in Olympic Valley, California, is one of the largest ski areas in the United States, and was the host site of the entire 1960 Winter Olympics.
Sri Lankan-Americans (Sinhala: Sri Lankika Amerikanu); (Tamil: Ilangkaī Amerikan) are Americans of full or partial Sri Lankan ancestry. Sri Lankan Americans are persons of Sri Lankan origin from various Sri Lankan ethnic backgrounds. The people are classified as South Asian in origin.
A stack interchange, or colloquially butterfly junction, is a particular, free-flowing type of designs for interchanges, meaning grade-separated road junctions.
Stanford Stadium is an outdoor athletic stadium in Stanford, California, on the campus of Stanford University.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State Bar of California is California's official.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
The Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) is a jay native to western North America, closely related to the blue jay found in the rest of the continent, but with a black head and upper body.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
The studio system (which was used during a period known as the Golden Age of Hollywood) is a method of film production and distribution dominated by a small number of "major" studios in Hollywood.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sudanese Americans are Americans of Sudanese ancestry, or Sudanese who have American citizenship.
Suisun Bay is a shallow tidal estuary (a northeastern extension of the San Francisco Bay) in northern California.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).
Super Bowl 50 was an American football game to determine the champion of the National Football League (NFL) for the 2015 season.
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
Swedish Americans (Svenskamerikaner) are an American ethnic group of people who have ancestral roots from Sweden.
Swiss Americans are Americans of Swiss descent.
Syrian Americans are Americans of Syrian descent or background.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Taiwanese Americans are Americans who have full or partial Taiwanese heritage.
Tax brackets are the divisions at which tax rates change in a progressive tax system (or an explicitly regressive tax system, although this is much rarer).
Tax resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax, or to government policy, or as opposition to taxation in itself.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Tehachapi Mountains are a mountain range in the Transverse Ranges system of California in the Western United States.
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm is one of the first large-scale wind farms installed in the U.S., with around 700 MW capacity.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thai Americans ชาวอเมริกันเชื้อสายไทย (formerly referred to as Siamese Americans) are Americans who, or whose ancestors, came from Thailand.
The Beach Boys are an American rock band formed in Hawthorne, California, in 1961.
The Californias (Spanish: Las Californias), occasionally known as the Three Californias or Two Californias, are a region of North America, shared between Mexico and the United States of America, consisting of the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Press-Enterprise is a paid daily newspaper published by Digital First Media that serves the Inland Empire in Southern California.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
Thomas Hill (September 11, 1829 – June 30, 1908) was an American artist of the 19th century.
Thomas Oliver Larkin (September 16, 1802-October 27,1858) was an early American businessman in Alta California, and was appointed to be the United States' first and only consul to Mexican Alta California.
Tomales Bay is a long narrow inlet of the Pacific Ocean in Marin County in northern California in the United States.
Tongan Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to Tonga, officially known as the Kingdom of Tonga.
A towhee is any one of a number of species of birds in the genus Pipilo or Melozone within the family Passerellidae (which also includes American sparrows, and juncos).
Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) is a medium-sized thrush, the only solitaire native to America north of Mexico.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region in North America.
The Treaty of Cahuenga, also called the "Capitulation of Cahuenga," ended the fighting of the Mexican–American War in Alta California in 1847.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.
Trillium (trillium, wakerobin, tri flower, birthroot, birthwort) is a genus of perennial flowering plants native to temperate regions of North America and Asia.
Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans (also known as Trinbagonian Americans) are Americans of full or partial Trinidadian or Tobagonian ancestry or immigrants born in Trinidad and Tobago.
The Trinity River (originally called the Hoopa or Hupa by the Yurok, and hun' by the Natinixwe/Hupa people) is a major river in northwestern California in the United States, and is the principal tributary of the Klamath River.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
The grass Tuctoria mucronata, which is known by several common names including prickly spiralgrass, Solano grass, and Crampton's tuctoria, is a federally listed endangered plant species endemic to two counties in northern California.
Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).
The Tuolumne River (Yokutsan: Tawalimnu) flows for through Central California, from the high Sierra Nevada to join the San Joaquin River in the Central Valley.
Turkish Americans (Amerikalı Türkler) are Americans of Turkish descent or origin.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
U.S. Route 66 (US 66, Route 66) is a part of a former United States Numbered Highway in the state of California that ran from the west in Santa Monica on the Pacific Ocean through Los Angeles and San Bernardino to Needles at the Arizona state line.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The University of California, San Francisco Medical Center is a research and teaching hospital in San Francisco, California and is the medical center of the University of California, San Francisco.
Ugandan Americans are Americans of Ugandan descent.
Ukrainian Americans (translit) are Americans who are of Ukrainian ancestry.
Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California, as well as to coastal forests extending into Oregon.
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960.
The United States presidential election of 1964, the 45th quadrennial American presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964.
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968.
The United States presidential election of 1972, the 47th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972.
The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1984 was the 50th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1988 was the 51st quadrennial United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1992 was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1996 was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.
Uruguayan Americans (uruguayo-americanos, norteamericanos de origen uruguayo or estadounidenses de origen uruguayo) are Americans of Uruguayan ancestry or birth.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
UTC−07:00 is a time offset that subtracts 7 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −08.
Vallejo is a waterfront city in Solano County, California, located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area.
Venezuelan Americans (venezolano-americanos or estadounidenses de origen venezolano) are Americans who trace their heritage, or part of their heritage, to the nation of Venezuela.
The Victory ship was a class of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vietnamese Americans (Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans of Vietnamese descent.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Viola (and) is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.
Virgin Islands Americans (stateside) are Americans from the U.S. Virgin Islands who reside in the continental United States, or continental-born Americans of Virgin Islands heritage.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
A vowel shift is a systematic sound change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Welsh Americans are an American ethnic group whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales.
West Coast Swing is a partner dance with roots in the Lindy Hop.
West Indian Americans or Caribbean Americans are Americans who can trace their recent ancestry to the Caribbean, unless they are of native descent.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
In the United States, a White Hispanic is an American citizen or resident who is racially white and of Hispanic descent.
The White Mountains of California and Nevada are a triangular fault-block mountain range facing the Sierra Nevada across the upper Owens Valley.
White seabass or white weakfish, Atractoscion nobilis, is a species of croaker occurring from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Juneau, Alaska.
The white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), also known as the prairie hare and the white jack, is a species of hare found in western North America.
Whiz Kids was a name given to a group of experts from RAND Corporation with which Robert McNamara surrounded himself in order to turn around the management of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) in the 1960s.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
William Brown Ide (March 28, 1796 – December 19 or 20, 1852) was a California pioneer who headed the short-lived California Republic in 1846.
Wind power has a long history in the state of California, with the initiative and early development occurring during Governor Jerry Brown's first two terms in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
The Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) is a women's professional basketball league in the United States.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
The yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a species of tuna found in pelagic waters of tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide.
Yerba Buena Island sits in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland, California.
Yosemite National Park is an American national park lying in the western Sierra Nevada of California.
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California.
Yucca brevifolia is a plant species belonging to the genus Yucca.
Yugoslav Americans are Americans of full or partial Yugoslav ancestry.
Zerene eurydice, the California dogface butterfly, is sometimes placed in the related genus as Colias eurydice.
Zimbabwean Americans are Americans of full or partial Zimbabwean ancestry.
The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, between January 3, 2007, and January 3, 2009, during the last two years of the second term of President George W. Bush.
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme).
The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, California, United States.
The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event held between February 18–28, 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.
The 1994 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match that took place at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, United States, on 17 July 1994 to determine the winner of the 1994 FIFA World Cup.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 2028 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, and commonly known as LA 2028, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from July 21 to August 6, 2028, in Los Angeles, California, United States.
The 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, Massachusetts Volunteers was a regiment of cavalry troops in the Union army during the American Civil War.
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