96 relations: Ad libitum, Adolescence, Ageing, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, Ancel Keys, Anemia, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Avicenna, Baker's yeast, Binge eating, Biosphere 2, Blood sugar level, Body mass index, Bone density, Brain, C-reactive protein, Cachexia, Caenorhabditis elegans, CALERIE, Caloric restriction mimetic, Carbohydrate, Carnegie Institution for Science, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Child, Chromatin, Clive McCay, Cold sensitivity, Conscientious objector, Conserved sequence, Cornell University, CR Society International, Cytokine, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Diet (nutrition), Dietary Reference Intake, Edema, Enzyme, Fasting, Fat, Francis Gano Benedict, Galen, Gene, Growth hormone, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, High-density lipoprotein, Hippocrates, Histone deacetylase, Hormesis, ..., Hypertension, IGFBP3, Infertility, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Intermittent fasting, Irregular menstruation, Laboratory animal sources, Life extension, Low-density lipoprotein, Luigi Cornaro, Malnutrition, Maximum life span, Median, Metabolism, Minnesota Starvation Experiment, Mitochondrion, Muscle, Muscle atrophy, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute on Aging, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nutrient, Okinawa diet, Oxidative stress, Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Protein, Public health, Radical (chemistry), Resveratrol, Rhesus macaque, Ribosomal DNA, Sarcopenia, Senescence, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sirtuin, Sirtuin 1, Starvation response, Stem cell, Stereotypy (non-human), Triglyceride, Triiodothyronine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Very-low-calorie diet, Youth. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
Ad libitum is Latin for "at one's pleasure" or "as you desire"; it is often shortened to "ad lib" (as an adjective or adverb) or "ad-lib" (as a verb or noun).
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Ancel Benjamin Keys (January 26, 1904 – November 20, 2004) was an American physiologist who studied the influence of diet on health.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating.
Biosphere 2 is an American Earth system science research facility located in Oracle, Arizona.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) is a trial currently underway in the U.S. to study the effects of prolonged calorie restriction on healthy human subjects.
Calorie restriction mimetics (CRM), also known as energy restriction mimetics, are a hypothetical class of dietary supplements or drug candidates that would, in principle, mimic the substantial anti-aging effects that calorie restriction (CR) has on many laboratory animals.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
Clive Maine, McCay (18981967) was an American biochemist, nutritionist, gerontologist, and professor of animal husbandry at Cornell University from 1927-1963.
Cold sensitivity or cold intolerance is unusual discomfort felt by some people when in a cool environment.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The CR Society International is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization that was previously known as the CR Society or Calorie Restriction Society. It is the fruit of the labor of several thousand workers who are practicing, supporting, and conducting research into calorie restriction as a means of slowing the aging process.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Francis Gano Benedict (October 3, 1870 – April 14, 1957) was an American chemist, physiologist, and nutritionist who developed a calorimeter and a spirometer used to determine oxygen consumption and measure metabolic rate.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, also known as IGFBP-3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP3 gene.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Intermittent fasting (IF) is an umbrella term for various diets that cycle between a period of fasting and non-fasting during a defined period.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
Animals used by laboratories for testing purposes are largely supplied by dealers who specialize in selling them to universities, medical and veterinary schools, and companies that provide contract animal-testing services.
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Alvise Cornaro, often Italianised Luigi (1467 or 1464 gives a birth date of 1467 – 8 May 1566), was a Venetian nobleman and patron of arts, also remembered for his four books of Discorsi (published 1583–95) about the secrets to living long and well with measure and sobriety.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Minnesota Starvation Experiment, also known as the Minnesota Semi-Starvation Experiment, the Minnesota Starvation-Recovery Experiment and the Starvation Study, was a clinical study performed at the University of Minnesota between November 19, 1944 and December 20, 1945.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is part of the United States National Institutes of Health, which in turn is part of the Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) is a division of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), located in Bethesda, Maryland.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The Okinawa diet describes the eating habits of the indigenous people of the Ryukyu Islands (belonging to Japan), which is believed to cause their exceptional longevity.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA.
Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5–1% loss per year after the age of 50), quality, and strength associated with aging.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sirtuins are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity.
Sirtuin 1, also known as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene.
Starvation response in animals is a set of adaptive biochemical and physiological changes that reduce metabolism in response to a lack of food.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
In animal behaviour, stereotypy, stereotypical or stereotyped behaviour has several meanings, leading to ambiguity in the scientific literature.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is a diet with very or extremely low daily food energy consumption.
Youth is the time of life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity).
Caloric restriction, Calorically restricted, Calorie Restriction, Calorie Restrictions, Calorie diet, Calorie reduction, Calorie restricted diet, Calorie restriction diet, Calorie restriction with adequate nutrition, Calorie restrictions, Low Calorie Diet, Low calorie, Low calorie diet, Low-Calorie Diet, Low-calorie diet, Undernutrition without malnutrition.