221 relations: Alphonse Giroux, Anastigmat, Aperture, Arri Alexa, Asahiflex, Autochrome Lumière, Autofocus, Bellows (photography), Box camera, British Journal of Photography, Bronica, Brownie (camera), Bulb (photography), Calotype, Camera angle, Camera lens, Camera matrix, Camera obscura, Camera phone, Canon EOS-1Ds, Canon Inc., Canon PowerShot A, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carl Zeiss, Carte de visite, Celluloid, Charge-coupled device, Cinematography, CMOS, Collodion process, Color balance, Color temperature, Compact Cassette, Computer, Contax, Contax N Digital, Contrast (vision), Cropping (image), Daguerreotype, Dark slide (photography), Darkroom, Depth of field, Dew shield, Diaphragm (optics), Diffraction, Diffraction-limited system, Diffuser (optics), Digital camera, Digital camera back, Digital image, ..., Digital image processing, Digital photo frame, Digital Photography Review, Digital single-lens reflex camera, Direct-to-video, Documentary photography, Dodging and burning, Electromagnetic spectrum, Enlarger, Exposure (photography), Extension tube, F-number, Fairchild Semiconductor, Field camera, Film, Film frame, Film perforations, Film speed, Film stock, Fisheye lens, Fixed-focus lens, Flash (photography), Flash memory, Focal length, Focal-plane shutter, Focus (optics), Focusing screen, Four Thirds system, Frame rate, François Arago, Full-frame digital SLR, Gain (electronics), George Eastman, Gloss (optics), Graflex, Ground glass, Half-frame camera, Halogen, Hasselblad, Henry Fox Talbot, History of science and technology in China, Ibn al-Haytham, Image editing, Image sensor, Image sharing, Image stitching, Institut Lumière, J-SH04, Johann Heinrich Schulze, Johannes Kepler, John Peckham, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Petzval, K. G. Corfield Ltd, Kodak, Large format, Latin translations of the 12th century, Leica Camera, Leica M9, Lens (optics), Lens adapter, Lens cover, Lens hood, Lens mount, Leonardo da Vinci, Light, Light meter, Light-field camera, Liquid-crystal display, List of camera types, Long-focus lens, Louis Daguerre, Macro photography, Mamiya, Marc Antoine Auguste Gaudin, Matte box, Medium format (film), Memory card, Metering mode, Minox, Mobile phone, Monorail camera, Motor drive, Movie camera, Mozi, Music video, Negative (photography), Nicéphore Niépce, Nikon, Normal lens, Optics, Paper size, Parallax, Pellicle mirror, Pentaprism, Pentax, Persistence of vision, Personal computer, Petzval lens, Photograph, Photographic developer, Photographic film, Photographic filter, Photographic lens design, Photographic paper, Photographic plate, Photographic processing, Photography, Physics in the medieval Islamic world, Pinhole camera, Planar Fourier capture array, Polaroid Corporation, Press camera, Rack and pinion, Rangefinder, Rangefinder camera, Remote sensing, René Descartes, Reversal film, Roger Bacon, Roll film, Scale focus, Set screw, Sharp Corporation, Sheet film, Shutter (photography), Shutter speed, Silver chloride, Silver halide, Silvering, Single-lens reflex camera, Slide projector, Smartphone, SoftBank Group, Softbox, Sound recording and reproduction, Special effect, Steven Sasson, Still camera, Stop bath, Stopping down, Super 8 film, Taylor & Francis, Telephoto lens, Television, Television studio, Thomas Wedgwood (photographer), Timeline of historic inventions, Transition metal, Transmittance, Tripod (photography), Twin-lens reflex camera, UV filter, Video, Video camera, Video camera tube, View camera, View from the Window at Le Gras, Viewfinder, Visible spectrum, Vitello, Voigtländer, Wide-angle lens, Worm drive, Zoom lens, 120 film, 16 mm film, 35 mm film, 70 mm film, 8 mm film, 9.5 mm film. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux (died May 1, 1848 in Paris) was a French art restorer and ébéniste.
An anastigmat or anastigmatic lens is a photographic lens completely corrected for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
The Arri Alexa (stylised as ΛLEXΛ) is a digital motion picture camera system made by Arri first introduced in April 2010.
The Asahiflex was a 35mm single-lens reflex camera built by the Asahi Optical Corporation (later to become Pentax).
The Autochrome Lumière is an early color photography process patented in 1903 by the Lumière brothers in France and first marketed in 1907.
An autofocus (or AF) optical system uses a sensor, a control system and a motor to focus on an automatically or manually selected point or area.
In photography, a bellows is the accordion-like, pleated expandable part of a camera, usually a large or medium format camera, to allow the lens to be moved with respect to the focal plane for focusing.
A box camera is a simple type of camera, the most common form being a cardboard or plastic box with a lens in one end and film at the other.
The British Journal of Photography (BJP) is a magazine about photography, publishing in-depth articles, profiles of photographers, analyses, and technological reviews.
Bronica also Zenza Bronica (in Japanese) was a Japanese manufacturer of classic medium-format roll film cameras and photographic equipment based in Tokyo, Japan.
Brownie is the name of a long-running popular series of simple and inexpensive cameras made by Eastman Kodak.
The Bulb setting (abbreviated B) on camera shutters is a momentary-action mode that holds shutters open for as long as a photographer depresses the shutter-release button.
Calotype or talbotype is an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide.
The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera or video camera is placed to take a shot.
A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
In computer vision a camera matrix or (camera) projection matrix is a 3 \times 4 matrix which describes the mapping of a pinhole camera from 3D points in the world to 2D points in an image.
Camera obscura (plural camera obscura or camera obscuras; from Latin, meaning "dark room": camera "(vaulted) chamber or room," and obscura "darkened, dark"), also referred to as pinhole image, is the natural optical phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen (or for instance a wall) is projected through a small hole in that screen as a reversed and inverted image (left to right and upside down) on a surface opposite to the opening.
A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture photographs and often record video using one or more built-in digital cameras.
The EOS-1Ds is a full-frame 11.1-megapixel digital SLR camera body made by Canon in the 1Ds series, released on 24 September 2002.
is a Japanese multinational corporation specializing in the manufacture of imaging and optical products, including cameras, camcorders, photocopiers, steppers, computer printers and medical equipment. It's headquartered in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan."." Canon. Retrieved on 13 January 2009. Canon has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the TOPIX index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.
The Canon PowerShot A is a now discontinued series of digital cameras released by Canon.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Carl Zeiss (11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German scientific instrument maker, optician and businessman who founded the workshop of Carl Zeiss in 1846 which is still in business today as Carl Zeiss AG.
The carte de visite (visiting card), abbreviated CdV, was a type of small photograph which was patented in Paris by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri in 1854, although first used by Louis Dodero.
Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
The collodion process is an early photographic process.
In photography and image processing, color balance is the global adjustment of the intensities of the colors (typically red, green, and blue primary colors).
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Contax began as a camera model in the Zeiss Ikon line in 1932, and later became a brand name.
The Contax N Digital was a six-megapixel digital SLR camera produced by Contax in Japan.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Cropping is the removal of unwanted outer areas from a photographic or illustrated image.
The Daguerreotype (daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used.
In photography, a dark slide is a wooden or metal plate that covers the sensitized emulsion side of a photographic plate.
A darkroom is a workshop used by photographers working with photographic film to make prints and carry out other associated tasks.
In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, the optical phenomenon known as depth of field (DOF), is the distance about the Plane of Focus (POF) where objects appear acceptably sharp in an image.
A dew shield is a device used to prevent moisture or condensation buildup on the lens of a camera or telescope collector during night observations.
In optics, a diaphragm is a thin opaque structure with an opening (aperture) at its center.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
In optics, a diffuser (also called a light diffuser or optical diffuser) is any material that diffuses or scatters light in some manner to transmit soft light.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
A digital camera back is a device that attaches to the back of a camera in place of the traditional negative film holder and contains an electronic image sensor.
A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
A digital photo frame (also called a digital media frame) is a picture frame that displays digital photos without the need of a computer or printer.
Digital Photography Review, also known as DPReview, is a website about digital cameras and digital photography, established in November 1998.
A digital single-lens reflex camera (also called digital SLR or DSLR) is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film.
Direct-to-video or straight-to-video refers to the release of a film to the public immediately on home video formats rather than a theatrical release or television broadcast.
Documentary photography usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle events or environments both significant and relevant to history and historical events as well as everyday life.
Dodging and burning are terms used in photography for a technique used during the printing process to manipulate the exposure of a selected area(s) on a photographic print, deviating from the rest of the image's exposure.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
An enlarger is a specialized transparency projector used to produce photographic prints from film or glass negatives, or from transparencies.
In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.
An extension tube - also called extension ring - is used with interchangeable lenses to focus closer, useful in macro photography.
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.
A field camera is a view camera that can be folded in a compact size.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
In filmmaking, video production, animation, and related fields, a frame is one of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture.
Film perforations, also known as perfs and sprocket holes, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (by sprockets and claws) and steadying (by pin registration) the film.
Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system.
Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.
A fisheye lens is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion intended to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image.
A photographic lens for which the focus is not adjustable is called a fixed-focus lens or sometimes focus-free.
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
In camera design, a focal-plane shutter (FPS) is a type of photographic shutter that is positioned immediately in front of the focal plane of the camera, that is, right in front of the photographic film or image sensor.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
A focusing screen is a flat translucent material, either a ground glass or fresnel lens, found in a system camera that allows the user of the camera to preview the framed image in a viewfinder.
The Four Thirds System is a standard created by Olympus and Eastman Kodak for digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) and mirrorless camera design and development.
Frame rate (expressed in or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display.
Dominique François Jean Arago (Domènec Francesc Joan Aragó), known simply as François Arago (Catalan: Francesc Aragó) (26 February 17862 October 1853), was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, freemason, supporter of the carbonari and politician.
The term full frame or ff is used by users of digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) as a shorthand for an image sensor format which is the same size as 35mm format film.
In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.
George Eastman (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) was an American entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream.
Gloss is an optical property which indicates how well a surface reflects light in a specular (mirror-like) direction.
Graflex was a manufacturer that gave its brand name to several models of camera.
Ground glass is glass whose surface has been ground to produce a flat but rough (matte) finish.
A half-frame camera is a camera using a film format at half the intended exposure format.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Victor Hasselblad AB is a Swedish manufacturer of medium-format cameras, photographic equipment and image scanners based in Gothenburg, Sweden.
William Henry Fox Talbot FRS (11 February 180017 September 1877) was a British scientist, inventor and photography pioneer who invented the salted paper and calotype processes, precursors to photographic processes of the later 19th and 20th centuries.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs, traditional photo-chemical photographs, or illustrations.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
Image sharing, or photo sharing, is the publishing or transfer of a user's digital photos online.
Image stitching or photo stitching is the process of combining multiple photographic images with overlapping fields of view to produce a segmented panorama or high-resolution image.
The Institut Lumière ("Lumière Institute") is a French organisation, based in Lyon, for the promotion and preservation of aspects of French film making.
The J-SH04 was a mobile phone made by Sharp Corporation and released by J-Phone (SoftBank Mobile).
Johann Heinrich Schulze (12 May 1687 – 10 October 1744) was a German professor and polymath from Colbitz in the Duchy of Magdeburg.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Peckham (c. 1230 – 8 December 1292) was Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1279–1292.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph Petzval (6 January 1807 – 19 September 1891) was a mathematician, inventor, and physicist best known for his work in optics.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
Large format refers to any imaging format of 4×5 inches (102×127 mm) or larger.
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
Leica Camera AG is a German company that manufactures cameras, lenses, binoculars, rifle scopes and ophthalmic lenses.
The Leica M9 is a digital full-frame rangefinder camera.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
In photography and videography, a lens adapter is a device that enables the use of camera and lens combinations from otherwise incompatible systems.
A lens cover or lens cap provides protection from scratches and minor collisions for camera and camcorder lenses.
In photography, a lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the front end of a lens to block the Sun or other light source(s) to prevent glare and lens flare.
A lens mount is an interface – mechanical and often also electrical – between a photographic camera body and a lens.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light.
A light field camera, also known as plenoptic camera, captures information about the light field emanating from a scene; that is, the intensity of light in a scene, and also the direction that the light rays are traveling in space.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
* Camera, the general term.
In photography, a long-focus lens is a camera lens which has a focal length that is longer than the diagonal measure of the film or sensor that receives its image.
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851), better known as Louis Daguerre, was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography.
Macro photography (or photomacrography or macrography, and sometimes macrophotography), is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects and living organisms like insects, in which the size of the subject in the photograph is greater than life size (though macrophotography technically refers to the art of making very large photographs).
is a Japanese company that manufactures high-end cameras and other related photographic and optical equipment.
Marc Antoine Auguste Gaudin (1804–1880) was a French chemist.
In still photography and video, a matte box is a device used on the end of a lens to block the sun or other light source in order to prevent glare and lens flare.
Medium format has traditionally referred to a film format in still photography and the related cameras and equipment that use film.
A memory card, flash card or memory cartridge is an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information.
In photography, the metering mode refers to the way in which a camera determines exposure.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Monorail cameras are view cameras with lens mount, bellows, and interchangeable viewing and film backs all fitted along a rigid rail along which they can slide until locked into position.
A motor drive, in the field of photography, is a powered film transport mechanism.
The movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an image sensor or on a film.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, and is produced for promotional or artistic purposes.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.
(or), also known just as Nikon, is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, specializing in optics and imaging products.
In photography and cinematography, a normal lens is a lens that reproduces a field of view that appears "natural" to a human observer.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Many paper size standards conventions have existed at different times and in different countries.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
A pellicle mirror (diminutive of pellis, a skin or film) is an ultra-thin, ultra-lightweight semi-transparent mirror employed in the light path of an optical instrument, splitting the light beam into two separate beams, both of reduced light intensity.
A pentaprism is a five-sided reflecting prism used to deviate a beam of light by a constant 90°, even if the entry beam is not at 90° to the prism.
is a brand name used primarily by Japanese multinational imaging and electronics company Ricoh for cameras, sport optics (including binoculars and rifle scopes), and CCTV optics.
Persistence of vision refers to the optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it have ceased to enter the eye.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
The Petzval objective or Petzval lens, is the first photographic portrait objective lens (160mm focal length) in the history of photography; It was developed by the German-Hungarian mathematics professor Josef Maximilian Petzval in 1840 in Vienna, with technical advice provided by, the Voigtländer company went on to build the first Petzval lens in 1840 on behalf of Petzval, and whereupon it became known throughout Europe.
A photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.
In the processing of photographic films, plates or papers, the photographic developer (or just developer) is one or more chemicals that convert the latent image to a visible image.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
In photography and videography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path.
The design of photographic lenses for use in still or cine cameras is intended to produce a lens that yields the most acceptable rendition of the subject being photographed within a range of constraints that include cost, weight and materials.
Photographic paper is a paper coated with a light-sensitive chemical formula, used for making photographic prints.
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.
Photographic processing or development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Neoplatonism).
A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture, a pinhole – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side.
A planar Fourier capture array (PFCA) is a tiny camera that requires no mirror, lens, focal length, or moving parts.
Polaroid is an American company that is a brand licensor and marketer of its portfolio of consumer electronics to companies that distribute consumer electronics and eyewear.
A press camera is a medium or large format view camera that was predominantly used by press photographers in the early to mid-20th century.
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion.
A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging.
A rangefinder camera is a camera fitted with a rangefinder, typically a split-image rangefinder: a range-finding focusing mechanism allowing the photographer to measure the subject distance and take photographs that are in sharp focus.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
In photography, reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Rollfilm or roll film is any type of spool-wound photographic film protected from white light exposure by a paper backing, as opposed to film which is protected from exposure and wound forward in a cartridge.
Scale focus, or zone focus, is a type of focusing system used by many inexpensive cameras from the 1940s and 1950s.
A set screw is a type of screw generally used to secure an object within or against another object, normally not using a nut (see bolts compared with screws).
is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.
Sheet film is large format and medium format photographic film supplied on individual sheets of acetate or polyester film base rather than rolls.
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a light-sensitive electronic sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene.
In photography, shutter speed or exposure time is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light, also when a camera's shutter is open when taking a photograph.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.
A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens.
Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance.
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex" from the mirror's reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured.
A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
is a Japanese multinational holding conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
A soft box is a type of photographic lighting device, one of a number of photographic soft light devices.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.
Steven J. Sasson (born July 4, 1950) is an American electrical engineer and the inventor of the first self-contained (portable) digital camera.
A still camera is a type of camera used to take photographs.
Stop bath is a chemical bath usually used in processing traditional black-and-white photographic films, plates, and paper used after the material has finished developing.
In photography, stopping down refers to increasing the numerical f-stop number (for example, going from 2 to 4), which decreases the size (diameter) of the aperture of a lens, resulting in reducing the amount of light entering the iris of a lens.
Super 8mm film is a motion picture film format released in 1965 by Eastman Kodak as an improvement over the older "Double" or "Regular" 8 mm home movie format.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
In photography and cinematography, a telephoto lens is a specific type of a long-focus lens in which the physical length of the lens is shorter than the focal length.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A television studio, also called a television production studio, is an installation room in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production.
Thomas Wedgwood (14 May 1771 – 10 July 1805), son of Josiah Wedgwood, the potter, is most widely known as an early experimenter in the field of photography.
The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions and the people who created the inventions.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
In photography, a tripod is used to stabilize and elevate a camera, a flash unit, or other photographic equipment.
A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length.
UV filters are individual compounds or mixtures that block or absorb ultraviolet (UV) light.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
The video camera tube was a type of cathode ray tube used to capture the television image prior to the introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in the 1980s.
A view camera is a large format camera in which the lens forms an inverted image on a ground glass screen directly at the plane of the film.
View from the Window at Le Gras is a heliographic image and the oldest surviving camera photograph.
In photography, a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and, in many cases, to focus the picture.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Witelo (also Erazmus Ciołek Witelo; Witelon; Vitellio; Vitello; Vitello Thuringopolonis; Vitulon; Erazm Ciołek); born ca.
Voigtländer was a significant long-established company within the optics and photographic industry, headquartered in Braunschweig, Germany, and today continues as a trademark for a range of photographic products.
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane.
A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear).
A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens (see prime lens).
120 is a popular film format for still photography introduced by Kodak for their Brownie No.
16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
35 mm film (millimeter) is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film).
70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with higher resolution than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format.
8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the film strip is eight millimeters wide.
9.5 mm film is an amateur film format introduced by Pathé Frères in 1922 as part of the Pathé Baby amateur film system.