139 relations: Aarti, African blue basil, Alpha-Pinene, Andalusia, Antimicrobial, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Aroma compound, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Barus, Biosynthesis, Borneo, Borneol, Camphene, Camphoric acid, Camphorsulfonic acid, Carbon, Carbon nanotube, Celluloid, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical formula, Chemical industry, Chemical vapor deposition, Cholera, Cinnamomum camphora, Citral, Claisen condensation, Combustibility and flammability, Convulsion, Diamond, Diuretic, Dryobalanops, DuPont, Embalming, Embalming chemicals, Empire of Japan, Enantiomer, Epileptic seizure, Essential oil, Eucalyptol, Evergreen, Fenchone, Finland, Fireworks, Flushing (physiology), Food and Drug Administration, Forest product, Geranyl pyrophosphate, Gustaf Komppa, ..., Halogenation, Heterotheca, History of the Malay language, Hydrogen, Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq, Imatra, India, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Indonesia, Insect collecting, Kannada, Kāvya, Ketone, Khmer language, Kolkata, Latin, Lauraceae, Lavandula, Leopold Auenbrugger, Lethargy, Linalool, Liniment, Malay language, Mandu, Madhya Pradesh, Mania, Merck Index, Methyl iodide, Middle Ages, Mon language, Mothball, Naphthalene, Nimmatnama-i-Nasiruddin-Shahi, Nitric acid, Nitrocellulose, Ocotea usambarensis, Orientation (mental), Oxalate, Oxygen, Paper chemicals, Paregoric, Perspiration, Pinene, Plastics industry, Proof of concept, Puja (Hinduism), Quran, Racemic mixture, Railroad car, Rearrangement reaction, Redox, Rosemary, Rust, Samuel Hahnemann, Sanskrit, Sibolga, Sodium borohydride, Solid, Southern United States, Spasm, Sublimation (phase transition), Sumatra, Supply and demand, Sushruta, Tachycardia, Tamil language, Telugu language, Terpenoid, Tharid, Thujone, Total synthesis, Toxicity, Transparency and translucency, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV3, Turpentine, Urea, Vaporizer (inhalation device), Vasodilation, Vedic period, Vicks, Vicks VapoRub, Vomiting, Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement, Wax, White, William Henry Perkin, World War I, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene. Expand index (89 more) » « Shrink index
Aarti also spelled arti, arati, arathi, aarthi (In Devanagari: आरती) is a Hindu religious ritual of worship, a part of puja, in which light from wicks soaked in ghee (purified butter) or camphor is offered to one or more deities.
African blue basil (Ocimum kilimandscharicum × basilicum 'Dark Opal') is one of a few types of basil that are perennial.
α-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Barus is a kecamatan (district) in Central Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatra Province, Sumatra, Indonesia.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene derivative.
Camphene, the chemical, not to be confused with camphine, the burning fluid lamp fuel.
Camphoric acid, C10H16O4 or in Latin form Acidum camphoricum, is a white crystallisable substance obtained from the oxidation of camphor.
Camphorsulfonic acid, sometimes abbreviated CSA or 10-CSA is an organosulfur compound.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cinnamomum camphora (commonly known as camphor tree, camphorwood or camphor laurel) is a large evergreen tree that grows up to tall.
Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either a pair, or a mixture of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O.
The Claisen condensation is a carbon–carbon bond forming reaction that occurs between two esters or one ester and another carbonyl compound in the presence of a strong base, resulting in a β-keto ester or a β-diketone.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Dryobalanops is a genus of flowering plants and the genus of family Dipterocarpaceae.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
Embalming chemicals are a variety of preservatives, sanitising and disinfectant agents, and additives used in modern embalming to temporarily prevent decomposition and restore a natural appearance for viewing a body after death.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound that is a colorless liquid.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
Fenchone is a natural organic compound classified as a monoterpene and a ketone.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A forest product is any material derived from forestry for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for livestock.
Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), also known as geranyl diphosphate (GDP), is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.
Gustaf Komppa (28 July 1867 in Viipuri – 20 January 1949 in Helsinki) was a Finnish chemist best known for a world-first in commercializing total synthesis, that of camphor in 1903.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Heterotheca, (common names goldenasters, camphorweed, or telegraph weed) are North American plants in the sunflower family.
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian language family.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Abu Muhammad al-Muthaffar ibn Nasr ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq (Arabic: أبو محمد المظفر بن نصر ابن سيار الوراق) of Baghdad was the compiler of a tenth-century cookbook, Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ (كتاب الطبيخ, The Book of Dishes).
Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) is an institute of higher learning in Kolkata, India.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Insect collecting refers to the collection of insects and other arthropods for scientific study or as a hobby.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá)കാവ്യ refers to the Sanskrit literary style used by Indian court poets flourishing from the first half of the seventh century AD.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lauraceae are the laurel family, that includes the true laurel and its closest relatives.
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
Josef Leopold Auenbrugger or Avenbrugger (19 November 1722 – 17 May 1809), also known as Leopold von Auenbrugger, was the Austrian physician who invented percussion as a diagnostic technique.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Mandu or Mandavgad is an ancient city in the present-day Mandav area of the Dhar district.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
Mothballs are small balls of chemical pesticide and deodorant, sometimes used when storing clothing and other articles susceptible to damage from mold or moth larvae (especially clothes moths like Tineola bisselliella).
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
The Nimmatnama-i-Nasiruddin-Shahi (c. 1500) is a medieval Indian Persian language book of delicacies and recipes, and some accompanying paintings illustrating the preparation of the recipes.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Ocotea usambarensis is a species of Ocotea (family Lauraceae), native to eastern Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, and locally in Uganda, where it occurs at 1600–2600 m altitude in high rainfall montane cloud forest.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paper chemicals designate a group of chemicals that modify the properties of paper.
Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium, also known as tinctura opii camphorata, is a traditional patent remedy known for its antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic properties.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pinene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene chemical compound.
The plastics industry manufactures polymer materials — commonly called plastics — and offers services in plastics important to a range of industries, including packaging, building and construction, electronics, aerospace, and transportation.
Proof of concept (PoC) is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to demonstrate its feasibility, or a demonstration in principle with the aim of verifying that some concept or theory has practical potential.
Pūjā or Poojan or Poosei (Thamizh) (Devanagari: पूजा) is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest, or one to spiritually celebrate an event.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A railroad car or railcar (American and Canadian English), railway wagon or railway carriage (British English and UIC), also called a train car or train wagon, is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system (a railroad/railway).
A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, freemason best known for creating the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sibolga (formerly sometimes Siboga) is a city and a port located in the natural harbour of Sibolga Bay on the west coast of North Sumatra province, in Indonesia.
Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Tharid (ثريد) is a traditional Arab dish made from pieces of bread in a vegetable or meat broth.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM8 gene.
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 3, also known as TRPV3, is a human gene encoding the protein of the same name.
Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
A vaporizer or vaporiser (a ‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vicks is an American brand of over-the-counter medications owned by the American company Procter & Gamble.
Vicks VapoRub ointment is a mentholated topical ointment, part of the Vicks brand of over-the-counter medications owned by the American pharmaceutical company Procter & Gamble.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
A Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement is a class of carbocation 1,2-rearrangement reactions in which a hydrogen, alkyl or aryl group migrates from one carbon to a neighboring carbon.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
Sir William Henry Perkin, FRS (12 March 1838 – 14 July 1907) was a British chemist and entrepreneur best known for his serendipitous discovery of the first synthetic organic dye, mauveine, made from aniline.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB, p-DCB, or para-dichlorobenzene, sometimes abbreviated as PDB or para) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2.
(+)-camphor, 177-trimethylbicyclo, 2-Bornanone, 2-Camphonone, 2-bornanone, 2-camphanone, ATC code C01EB02, ATCvet code QC01EB02, Bornan-2-one, Campher, Camphor (drug), Camphor Oil, Camphor oil, Camphoraceous, Camphorate, Camphorated oil, Camphoric, Camphors, D-camphor, Karpoor, Karpoora, L-camphor.