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A Mari Usque Ad Mare (From Sea to Sea; D'un océan à l'autre; A Marī Ūsque Ad Mare) is the Canadian national motto.
Alfred Joseph Casson, (May 17, 1898 – February 20, 1992) was a member of the Canadian group of artists known as the Group of Seven.
Alexander Young Jackson (October 3, 1882 – April 5, 1974) was a Canadian painter and a founding member of the Group of Seven.
The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards presented annually since the awards debuted in 1929, by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
The British North America Act, 1840 (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), commonly known as the Act of Union 1840, was enacted in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841 in Montréal.
Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier, FRSC (May 8, 1839 – June 27, 1920) was a Canadian judge, author, and lyricist.
Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another.
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Air India Flight 182 was an Air India flight operating on the Toronto–Montreal–London–Delhi route.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Purchase (r) was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate, and signed by President Andrew Johnson.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alice Ann Munro (née Laidlaw; born 10 July 1931) is a Canadian short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2013.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Alouette 1 is a deactivated Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
Amsterdam University Press (AUP) is a university press that was founded in 1992 by the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
The Anglican Church of Canada (ACC or ACoC) is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British or French patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arktika 2007 (Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007") was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic, made possible, in part, because of Arctic shrinkage.
The Arms of Canada (Armoiries du Canada), also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada or formally as the Arms of Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada (Armoiries de Sa Majesté la Reine du chef du Canada), is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch and thus also of Canada.
Arthur Lismer, CC (27 June 1885 – 23 March 1969) was an English-Canadian painter and member of the Group of Seven.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people.
The Athabasca oil sands (or tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.
Atlantic Canada is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority.
The École Polytechnique massacre, also known as the Montreal massacre, was a mass shooting at the École Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec, Canada that occurred on December 6, 1989.
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
Baffin Island (ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk, Île de Baffin or Terre de Baffin), in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
The Bank of Canada (or BoC) (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.
Banknotes of the Canadian dollar are the banknotes or bills (in common lexicon) of Canada, denominated in Canadian dollars (CAD, C$, or $ locally).
Baptists in Canada have a rich heritage and background.
The Battle of the Scheldt in World War II was a series of military operations by Canadian, British and Polish formations to open up the shipping route to Antwerp so that its port could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge was part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars, encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th and 18th centuries in eastern North America.
The Beothuk (or; also spelled Beothuck) were an indigenous people based on the island of Newfoundland.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
The Black Brant is a family of Canadian-designed sounding rockets built by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada.
The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
Bluefish Caves is an archaeological site in Yukon, Canada, located southwest of the Vuntut Gwichin community of Old Crow, from which a specimen of allegedly human-worked mammoth bone has been radiocarbon dated to 28,000 years before present (BP), earlier than the generally accepted age for habitation of the New World.
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
Bowling is a sport or leisure activity in which a player rolls or throws a bowling ball towards a target.
Breakwater Books Ltd. is a Canadian publishing company based in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939) is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993.
Begun in 1975, the British Association for Canadian Studies (BACS) is one of a number of international scholarly groups dedicated to academic study of Canada.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada.
Broadview Press is an independent academic publisher that focuses on the humanities.
Buddhism is among the smallest minority-religions in Canada, with a very slowly growing population in the country, partly the result of conversion, with only 4.6% of new immigrants identifying themselves as Buddhist.
The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.
The Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is a geographical region of the Canadian province of Alberta.
Calixa Lavallée, (December 28, 1842 – January 21, 1891), born Calixte Paquet dit Lavallée, was a French-Canadian-American musician and Union Army band musician during the American Civil War.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.
The Canada 2016 Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of the Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688.
The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was passed (as stated in the preamble) at the request of the Parliament of Canada, to "patriate" Canada's constitution, ending the necessity for the British parliament to be involved in making changes to the Constitution of Canada.
The 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris were the first Olympics at which Canadian athletes participated.
The Canada Elections Act (the Act) (full title: "An Act respecting the election of members to the House of Commons, repealing other Acts relating to elections and making consequential amendments to other Acts") is an Act of the Parliament of Canada which regulates the election of members of parliament to the House of Commons of Canada.
The Canada goose (Branta canadensis), also called the Canadian goose, is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, and a brown body.
The Canada Health Act (CHA) (Loi canadienne sur la santé) (the Act) is a piece of Government of Canada legislation, adopted in 1984, which specifies the conditions and criteria with which the provincial and territorial health insurance programs must conform in order to receive federal transfer payments under the Canada Health Transfer.
During the Cold War, Canada was one of the western powers playing a central role in the major alliances.
The Canada Pension Plan (CPP; Régime de pensions du Canada) is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program.
Canada has maintained consistently cordial relations with Cuba, in spite of considerable pressure from the United States, with the island being one of the most popular international travel destinations for Canadian citizens.
The Canada–France Maritime Boundary Case was a 1992 dispute between Canada and France that was decided by an arbitral tribunal created by the parties to resolve the dispute.
Modern Canadian–French relations have been marked by high levels of military and economic cooperation, but also by periods of diplomatic discord, primarily over the status of Quebec.
Canada and the Netherlands have a special relationship resulting from actions during World War II when Canadian forces led the liberation of the Netherlands and hosted the Dutch Royal Family in exile.
British–Canadian relations are the relations between Canada and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, being bilateral relations between their governments and wider relations between the two societies.
The Canada—United States Automotive Products Agreement, commonly known as the Auto Pact or APTA, was a trade agreement between Canada and the United States.
The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries.
Relations between Canada and the United States of America historically have been extensive, given a shared border and ever-increasing close cultural, economical ties and similarities.
The trade relationship of the United States with Canada was the second largest in the world after China and the United States.
The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm (Canadarm 1), is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads.
Canadian Aboriginal law is the body of Canadian law that concerns a variety of issues related to Indigenous peoples in Canada.
The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (CARAS) is a non-profit organization responsible for promoting Canadian music and artists.
The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; Forces armées canadiennes, FAC), or Canadian Forces (CF) (Forces canadiennes, FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces." This unified institution consists of sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne) is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (La Charte canadienne des droits et libertés), in Canada often simply the Charter, is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
In Canada, federal budgets are presented annually by the Government of Canada to identify planned government spending, expected government revenue, and forecast economic conditions for the upcoming year.
Canadian federalism involves the current nature and historical development of federal systems in Canada.
Canadian folklore is the traditional material that Canadians pass down from generation to generation, either as oral literature or "by custom or practice".
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area (end zone).
The Canadian Football League (CFL; Ligue canadienne de football, LCF) is a professional sports league in Canada.
The Canadian Foreign Policy Journal is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (Carleton University).
Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.
Canadian Geographic is a magazine published by The Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS) based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The Canadian Global Affairs Institute (Global Affairs) is an independent, non-partisan research institute based in Calgary with offices in Ottawa.
Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian Identity.
Canadian identity refers to the unique culture, characteristics and condition of being Canadian, as well as the many symbols and expressions that set Canada and Canadians apart from other peoples and cultures of the world.
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples.
The Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association on behalf of the Canadian Psychological Association.
The Canadian Journal of Political Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Canadian Political Science Association.
The Canadian Music Hall of Fame was established in 1978 by the Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (CARAS) to honour Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements in music.
Canadian nationality law is promulgated by the Citizenship Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-29) since 1977.
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), also known formerly as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railroad incorporated in 1881.
The Canadian Parliamentary Review is a quarterly publication of the Canadian Region of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association.
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) is a public organization in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications.
The Canadian Red Ensign was the flag of Canada until 1965, when it was replaced by the current Maple Leaf flag.
The Canadian Rockies (Rocheuses canadiennes) comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
Canadian values are the commonly shared ethical and human values of Canadians.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle.
Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Capital punishment in Canada dates back to Canada's earliest history, including its period as a French colony and, after 1763, its time as a British colony.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church during the Age of Discovery inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people.
The Catholic Church in Canada is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
Central Canada (sometimes the Central provinces) is a region consisting of Canada's two largest and most populous provinces: Ontario and Quebec.
Canadian Forces Station Alert, also CFS Alert, is a Canadian Armed Forces signals intelligence intercept facility located in Alert, Nunavut, Canada, on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island.
The Charter of the French Language (La charte de la langue française), also known as Bill 101 (Law 101 or Loi 101), is a 1977 law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of the provincial government.
Chinese Canadians are Canadians of full or partial Chinese ancestry, sometimes referenced as a CBC or Chinese-born Canadian (with light homage to the CBC, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, or to its American equivalent ABC).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The cinema of Canada or Canadian cinema refers to the filmmaking industry in Canada.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
The Clarity Act (Loi sur la clarté référendaire) (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) (the Act) is legislation passed by the Parliament of Canada that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces.
The climate of the Arctic is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers.
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) (Fédération du Commonwealth Coopératif, from 1955 the Parti social démocratique du Canada) was a social-democraticThese sources describe the CCF as a social-democratic political party.
The Coast Mountains are a major mountain range in the Pacific Coast Ranges of western North America, extending from southwestern Yukon through the Alaska Panhandle and virtually all of the Coast of British Columbia south to the Fraser River.
Canadian coinage is the coinage of Canada, produced by the Royal Canadian Mint and denominated in Canadian dollars ($) and the subunit of dollars, cents (¢).
In linguistics, a collective noun refers to a collection of things taken as a whole.
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony in British North America from 1858 until 1866.
The Colony of British Columbia was a British Crown Colony that resulted from the amalgamation of the two former colonies, the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland Colony of British Columbia.
The Colony of Vancouver Island, officially known as the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies, was a Crown colony of British North America from 1849 to 1866, after which it was united with the mainland to form the Colony of British Columbia.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The common loon or great northern diver (Gavia immer) is a large member of the loon, or diver, family of birds.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Conscription Crisis of 1917 (Crise de la conscription de 1917) was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. It was mainly caused by disagreement on whether men should be conscripted to fight in the war.
The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service for men in Canada during World War II.
The Conservative Party of Canada (Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a political party in Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.
The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Parliament of the United Kingdom's Canada Act 1982) is a part of the Constitution of Canada.
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.
The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791 (31 Geo 3 c 31), (the Act) commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791, is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
A coureur des bois or coureur de bois ("runner of the woods"; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian trader who traveled in New France and the interior of North America.
The court system of Canada forms the judicial branch of government, formally known as "the Queen on the Bench", which interprets the law and is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
The criminal law of Canada is under the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the Parliament of Canada.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Canadian Crown corporations are state-owned enterprises owned by the Sovereign of Canada (i.e. the Crown).
"Cultural mosaic" ("la mosaïque culturelle") is the mix of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures that coexist within society.
The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.
The Culture of Quebec emerged over the last few hundred years, resulting predominantly from the shared history of the French-speaking North Americans majority in Quebec.
The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK's history as a developed state, a liberal democracy and a great power; its predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Date and time notation in Canada is regulated for some industries, and the Government of Canada recommends particular styles to ensure correct comprehension, especially in bilingual contexts.
Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Dextre, also known as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), is a two armed robot, or telemanipulator, which is part of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station (ISS), and does repairs otherwise requiring spacewalks.
The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.
Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes.
Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea (e.g., a government's policies) or an entity (e.g., an individual or political party which supports such policies).
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
In 1871, the Canadian government entered into Treaties 1 and 2 to obtain the consent of the indigenous nations from the territories set out respectively in each Treaty.
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
Chief Donnacona (died c. 1539 in France) was the chief of the village of Stadacona, located at the present site of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
Dundurn Press is the largest Canadian-owned book publishing company of adult and children’s fiction and non-fiction in Canada.
The economic impact of immigration is an important topic in Canada.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
An economic migrant is someone who emigrates from one region to another to seek an improvement in living standards because the living conditions or job opportunities in the migrant's own region are not sufficient.
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.
Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.
Canada holds elections for legislatures or governments in several jurisdictions: nationally (federally), provincially and territorially, and municipally.
An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Ellesmere Island (Inuit: Umingmak Nuna, meaning "land of muskoxen"; Île d'Ellesmere) is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region in the Canadian territory of Nunavut.
Emily Carr (December 13, 1871 – March 2, 1945) was a Canadian artist and writer inspired by the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Employment equity, as defined in federal Canadian law by the Employment Equity Act, requires federal jurisdiction employers to engage in proactive employment practices to increase the representation of four designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities.
English Canadians or Anglo-Canadians (Canadiens anglais) refers to either Canadians of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadians of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadians.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to subnational governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Given here are the ethnic origins of Canadian residents (citizens, landed immigrants, and non-citizen temporary residents) as recorded by them on their 2016 census form.
European Canadians (also known as White Canadians or Euro-Canadians) are Canadians with ancestry from Europe.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
The flag of Canada, often referred to as the Canadian flag, or unofficially as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre.
The Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) is an American think tank based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Canadian forestry industry is a major contributor to the Canadian economy.
A number of states and polities formerly claimed colonies and territories in Canada prior to the evolution of the current provinces and territories under the federal system.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Franco-Albertans (Franco-Albertains) are an extended community of French Canadians or French-speaking people living in the Canadian province of Alberta.
Franco-Manitobans (Franco-Manitobains) are a community of French Canadians and other French-speaking people living in Manitoba.
Franco-Ontarians (Franco-Ontariens or Franco-Ontariennes if female) are French Canadian or francophone residents of the Canadian province of Ontario.
Francis Hans Johnston (June 19, 1888July 19, 1949) was a Canadian artist associated with the Group of Seven.
Franklin Carmichael (May 4, 1890 – October 24, 1945) was a Canadian artist and member of the Group of Seven.
The Fraser Institute is a Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity.
Frederick Horsman Varley (January 2, 1881 – September 8, 1969) was a member of the Canadian Group of Seven artists.
Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.
The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts that occurred in North America between 1688 and 1763 and were related to the European dynastic wars.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French is the mother tongue of about 7.2 million Canadians (20.6% of the Canadian population, second to English at 56%) according to Census Canada 2016.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The Front de libération du Québec (FLQ; "Quebec Liberation Front") was a separatist and Marxist-Leninist paramilitary group in Quebec.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
The garrison mentality is a common theme in Canadian literature and Canadian cinema, in both English Canada and French Canada.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
Canada was hit hard by the Great Depression.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Seal of Canada (Grand Sceau du Canada) is a governmental seal used for purposes of state in Canada, being set on letters patent, proclamations and commissions, both to representatives of the Queen and for the appointment of cabinet ministers, senators, and judges.
The Green Party of Canada (Parti vert du Canada) is a federal political party in Canada that was founded in 1983.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Group of Seven, also sometimes known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael (1890–1945), Lawren Harris (1885–1970), A. Y. Jackson (1882–1974), Frank Johnston (1888–1949), Arthur Lismer (1885–1969), J. E. H. MacDonald (1873–1932), and Frederick Varley (1881–1969).
The Group of Ten (G-10 or G10) refers to the group of countries that agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), an agreement to provide the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with additional funds to increase its lending ability.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gun legislation in Canada is largely about licensing and registration.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Healthcare in Canada is delivered through thirteen provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
The High Arctic relocation (French: La délocalisation du Haut-Arctique, Inuktitut: ᖁᑦᑎᒃᑐᒥᐅᑦᑕ ᓅᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ Quttiktumut nuutauningitᕉᒪᓂ ᒪᒃᑭᒃ Romani Makkik (2009),, ᓇᓃᓕᖅᐱᑕ Naniiliqpita, fall 2009) took place during the Cold War in the 1950s, when 87 Inuit were moved by the Government of Canada to the High Arctic.
The Highland Clearances (Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal, the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries.
According to the 2011 census, there are 497,965 Hindus in Canada, up from 297,200 in the 2001 census.
The history of Canadian sports falls into five stages of development: early recreational activities before 1840; the start of organized competition, 1840-1880; the emergence of national organizations, 1882-1914; the rapid growth of both amateur and professional sports, 1914 to 1960; and developments of the last half-century.
Canadian Jews or, alternatively, Jewish Canadians are Canadian citizens of the Jewish faith and/or Jewish ethnicity.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. 1539 – 9 September 1583) of Compton in the parish of Marldon and of Greenway in the parish of Churston Ferrers, both in Devon, England, was an adventurer, explorer, member of parliament and soldier who served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada to reside in that country.
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for matters dealing with immigration to Canada, refugees, and Canadian citizenship.
This page charts a list of countries by importance of religion.
Income taxes in Canada constitute the majority of the annual revenues of the Government of Canada, and of the governments of the Provinces of Canada.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Canada.
The Indian Act (An Act respecting Indians, Loi sur les Indiens), (the Act) is a Canadian Act of Parliament that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
Indigenous music of Canada encompasses a wide variety of musical genres created by Canada's Indigenous people.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
Indo-Canadians or Indian Canadians are Canadian citizens whose heritage is fully or partially Indian Subcontinent (including Indian and other origins), children of persons who immigrated from India and/or Indian Subcontinent to Canada, or persons of Indian/Indian Subcontinent origin who have Canadian citizenship.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The International Council for Canadian Studies is a federation of twenty-one national and multi-national Canadian Studies associations and six associate members in thirty-nine countries.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Journal of the Sociology of Language is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of sociology of language.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
These are various international rankings of Canada.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit art refers to artwork produced by Inuit people, that is, the people of the Arctic previously known as Eskimos, a term that is now often considered offensive outside Alaska.
The Inuit languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
An inuksuk (plural inuksuit) (from the Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ; alternatively inukhuk in Inuinnaqtun, iñuksuk in Iñupiaq, inussuk in Greenlandic or inukshuk in English) is a human-made stone landmark or cairn used by the Inuit, Iñupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America.
Invest in Canada is the Government of Canada organization that promotes and attracts foreign direct investment into Canada.
Irish Canadians (Gaedheal-Cheanadaigh) are Canadian citizens who have full or partial Irish heritage including descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Irreligion is common throughout all provinces and territories of Canada.
ISIS 1 and 2 ("International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies") were the third and fourth in a series of Canadian satellites launched to study the ionosphere.
According to Canada's 2011 National Household Survey, there were 1,053,945 Muslims in Canada, or about 3.2% of the population, making Islam the second largest religion in the country after Christianity.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data.
Italian Canadians (Italo-canadesi, Italo-Canadiens) comprise Canadian citizens who have full or partial Italian heritage and Italians who emigrated to or reside in Canada.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
James Edward Hervey MacDonald (May 12, 1873 – November 26, 1932) was a Canadian artist and one of the founders of the Group of Seven who initiated the first major Canadian national art movement.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was a Venetian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England was the first European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Transatlantic Studies (JTS) is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed academic journal that covers all aspects pertaining to transatlantic relations.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julie Payette (born October 20, 1963) is the current Governor General of Canada, the 29th since Canadian Confederation.
The Juno Awards are presented annually to Canadian musical artists and bands to acknowledge their artistic and technical achievements in all aspects of music.
The idea of a just society first gained modern attention when philosophers such as John Stuart Mill asked, "What is a 'just society'?" Their writings covered several different perspectives including allowing individuals to live their lives as long as they didn't infringe on the rights to others, to the idea that the resources of society should be distributed to all, including those most deserving first.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.
The King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council, depending on the gender of the reigning monarch, is a constitutional term in a number of states.
The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Krause Publications is a publisher of leisure-time and enthusiast magazines and books located in Iola, Wisconsin.
L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove"), is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latin American Canadians are Canadians who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
Lawren Stewart Harris, CC (October 23, 1885 – January 29, 1970) was a Canadian painter.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (Chef de la loyale opposition de Sa Majesté) is the leader of Canada's Official Opposition, the party possessing the most seats in the House of Commons but is not the governing party or part of the governing coalition.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
This is a list of the Legislative Assemblies of Canada's provinces and territories. Each province's legislative assembly, along with the province's Lieutenant Governor, form the province's legislature (which is called a parliament or general assembly in some provinces).
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier, prime minister, and diplomat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada.
In the Netherlands, Liberation Day (Bevrijdingsdag) is celebrated each year on May the 5th to mark the end of the occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (in Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible.
The Library of Parliament (Bibliothèque du Parlement) is the main information repository and research resource for the Parliament of Canada.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
In Canada, a lieutenant governor (French: lieutenant-gouverneur, or: lieutenant-gouverneure) is the viceregal representative in a provincial jurisdiction of the.
The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (French (masculine): Lieutenant-gouverneur du Québec, or (feminine): Lieutenante-gouverneure du Québec) is the viceregal representative in Quebec of the, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in oldest realm, the United Kingdom.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of bands from Canada.
This is a list of topics related to the provinces and territories of Canada, listed by topic type.
This following is a list of Canadian comedians.
This is a list of composers who are either native to the country of Canada, are citizens of that nation, or have spent a major portion of their careers living and working in Canada.
This is a list of magazines published in Canada.
This is a list of Canadian musicians.
This is a list of Canadian literary figures, including poets, novelists, children's writers, essayists, and scholars.
The table below lists the census metropolitan areas and agglomerations in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2016 Census.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
Below is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2016.
The following is a partial list of First Nations peoples organized by linguistic-cultural area.
This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country.
The list of regions of Canada is a summary of geographical areas on a hierarchy that ranges from national (groups of provinces and territories) at the top to local regions and sub-regions of provinces at the bottom.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
The Canadian one dollar coin, commonly called the loonie (huard), is a gold-coloured one-dollar coin introduced in 1987.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
The Lower Mainland is a name commonly applied to the region surrounding and including Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
Magellan Aerospace Corporation is a Canadian manufacturer of aerospace systems and components.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in those countries.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, and is the most widely recognized national symbol of Canada.
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician and the Minister of Transport in the Government of Canada.
Margaret Eleanor Atwood (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher and environmental activist.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.
McClelland & Stewart Limited is a Canadian publishing company.
The McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP) is a joint venture between McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output — particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines — is often overshadowed by imports from the United States.
Medicare (assurance-maladie) is an unofficial designation used to refer to the publicly funded, single-payer health care system of Canada.
The Meech Lake Accord (Accord du lac Meech) was a series of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and all 10 Canadian provincial premiers.
The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Philip Michael Ondaatje, (born 12 September 1943), is a Sri Lankan-born Canadian poet, fiction writer, essayist, novelist, editor and filmmaker.
Michigan State University Press is the scholarly publishing arm of Michigan State University, the nation’s pioneer land-grant university (the institution that served as the prototype for schools established under the Morrill Land-Grant Acts of 1862).
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
The military history of Canada comprises hundreds of years of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, and interventions by the Canadian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide.
The military history of Canada during World War I began on August 4, 1914, when the United Kingdom entered the First World War (1914–1918) by declaring war on Germany.
The military history of Canada during the Second World War begins with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
The Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs is one of two Ministers of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet responsible for overseeing the federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and administering the Indian Act and other legislation dealing with "Indians and lands reserved for the Indians" under subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867.
The Minister of Finance (Ministre des Finances) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible each year for presenting the federal government's budget.
The Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's economic development and corporate affairs department, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada.
The Minister of Natural Resources is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for Natural Resources Canada.
Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign or their viceroy.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
The term mixed-blood in the United States is most often employed for individuals of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
The Mobile Servicing System (MSS), is a robotic system on board the International Space Station (ISS).
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Mordecai Richler, CC (January 27, 1931 – July 3, 2001) was a Canadian writer.
The Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope, better known simply as MOST, is Canada's first space telescope.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The Mount Cayley massif is a group of mountain summits in the Pacific Ranges of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.
The Mount Edziza volcanic complex is a large and potentially active north-south trending complex volcano in Stikine Country, northwestern British Columbia, Canada, located southeast of the small community of Telegraph Creek.
Mount Garibaldi is a potentially active stratovolcano in the Sea to Sky Country of British Columbia, north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Mount Meager massif is a group of volcanic peaks in the of the Coast Mountains in southwestern British Columbia, Canada.
A policy of multiculturalism was officially adopted by the Government of Canada under Pierre Trudeau during the 1970s and 1980s.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
The Nass River is a river in northern British Columbia, Canada.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada from 1980 to 1985.
The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is a men's professional box lacrosse league in North America.
National Parks of Canada are protected natural spaces throughout the country that represent distinct geographical regions of the nation.
The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.
The National Shipbuilding Strategy (formerly the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy) is a Government of Canada program operated by the Department of Public Works and Government Services.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Department of Natural Resources (Ministère des Ressources naturelles), operating under the FIP applied title Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is the ministry of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democraticThe party is widely described as social democratic.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
The Newfoundland Referendums of 1948 were a series of two referendums to decide the political future of the Dominion of Newfoundland.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The Canadian five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar.
The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisg̱a’a (pronounced), are an Indigenous people of Canada in British Columbia.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and protection for Northern America.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North American fur trade was the industry and activities related to the acquisition, trade, exchange, and sale of animal furs in North America.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories.
The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870.
Northern America is the northernmost region of North America.
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Numbered Treaties (or Post-Confederation Treaties) are a series of eleven treaties signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada (or First Nations) and the reigning monarch of Canada (Victoria, Edward VII or George V) from 1871 to 1921.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
"O Canada" (Ô Canada) is the national anthem of Canada.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The October Crisis (La crise d'Octobre) occurred in October 1970 in the province of Quebec in Canada, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The OECD Better Life Index, in May 2011 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development following a decade of work on this issue, is a first attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress also known as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission.
The Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages of the Canadian government is responsible for achieving the objectives of, and promoting, Canada's Official Languages Act.
In Canada, the Office of the Prime Minister (more commonly referred to as the Prime Minister's Office and abbreviated as PMO), located in the Office of the Prime Minister and Privy Council building, facing Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, is one of the most powerful parts of the government.
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Official Languages Act (French: Loi sur les langues officielles) is a Canadian law that came into force on September 9, 1969, which gives French and English equal status in the government of Canada.
Official multilingualism is the policy adopted by some states of recognizing multiple languages as official and producing all official documents, and handling all correspondence and official dealings, including court procedure, in these languages.
In Canada, Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (L'Opposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government, either on its own or as part of a governing coalition.
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
The proven oil reserves in Saudi Arabia are the 2nd largest in the world, estimated to be (Gbbl hereafter), including 2.5 Gbbl in the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone.
The proven oil reserves in Venezuela are recognized as the largest in the world, totaling as of 1 January 2014.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
The Oka Crisis (Crise d'Oka) was a land dispute between a group of Mohawk people and the town of Oka, Quebec, Canada, which began on July 11, 1990, and lasted 78 days until September 26, 1990 with one fatality.
Old Crow Flats is a wetland complex in northern Yukon, Canada along the Old Crow River.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Orbis is the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI) quarterly journal of world affairs.
The Oregon boundary dispute or the Oregon Question was a controversy over the political division of the Pacific Northwest of North America between several nations that had competing territorial and commercial aspirations over the region.
The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. Signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The Ottawa Citizen is an English-language daily newspaper owned by Postmedia Network in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada: Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Parti Québécois (French for Quebec Party; PQ) is a sovereignist provincial political party in Quebec in Canada.
Patriation was the political process that led to full Canadian sovereignty, culminating with the Constitution Act, 1982.
In Canada, a penny is a coin worth one cent, or of a dollar.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Petroleum production in Canada is a major industry which is important to the economy of North America.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.
Canada ranks 38th in total population while having the 2nd largest landmass, so the vast majority of the country is sparsely inhabited, with most of its population south of the 55th parallel north.
Port Royal is a Canadian rural community in Annapolis County, Nova Scotia.
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Postchristianity is the loss of the primacy of the Christian worldview in political affairs, especially in the Global North where Christianity had previously flourished, in favor of alternative worldviews such as secularism or nationalism.
Poverty in Canada remains prevalent within some segments of society and according to a 2008 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the rate of poverty in Canada, is among the highest of the OECD member nations, the world's wealthiest industrialized nations.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Public Services and Procurement Canada (formerly referred to as Public Works and Government Services Canada or the Department of Public Works and Government Services) is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for the government's internal servicing and administration.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Quebec Act of 1774 (Acte de Québec), (the Act) formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor (French: Corridor Québec-Windsor) is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada.
Quebec nationalism or Québécois nationalism asserts that the Québécois people are a nation, distinct from the rest of Canada, and promotes the unity of the Québécois people in the province of Quebec.
The 1980 Quebec independence referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty.
The 1995 Quebec independence referendum was the second referendum to ask voters in the Canadian French-speaking province of Quebec whether Quebec should proclaim national sovereignty and become an independent country, with the condition precedent of offering a political and economic agreement to Canada.
Quebec Sign Language, known in French as Langue des signes québécoise or Langue des signes du Québec (LSQ), is the predominant sign language of deaf communities used in francophone Canada, primarily in Quebec.
The Quebec sovereignty movement (Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Queen's Printer (known as King's Printer during the reign of a male monarch) is typically a bureau of the national, state, or provincial government responsible for producing official documents issued by the Queen-in-Council, ministers of the Crown, or other departments.
Queen's University at Kingston (commonly shortened to Queen's University or Queen's) is a public research university in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Quebec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a welfare state (état-providence), and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignist factions and the eventual election of a pro-sovereignty provincial government in the 1976 election.
RADARSAT-1 is Canada's first commercial Earth observation satellite.
RADARSAT-2 is an Earth observation satellite that was successfully launched December 14, 2007 for the Canadian Space Agency by Starsem, using a Soyuz FG launch vehicle, from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome.
Ralph Marvin Steinman (January 14, 1943 – September 30, 2011) was a Canadian physician and medical researcher at Rockefeller University, who in 1973 discovered and named dendritic cells while working as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Zanvil A. Cohn, also at Rockefeller University.
The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (Les rébellions de 1837) were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838.
The Red River Resistance (or the Red River Rebellion, Red River uprising, or First Riel Rebellion) was the sequence of events that led up to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.
Reference Re Secession of Quebec, is a landmark judgment of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the legality, under both Canadian and international law, of a unilateral secession of Quebec from Canada.
The Reform Party of Canada (Parti réformiste du Canada) was a right-wing populist federal political party in Canada that existed from 1987 to 2000.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
The Reichskommissariat Niederlande was the civilian occupation regime set up by Germany in the German-occupied Netherlands during World War II.
Religion in Canada encompasses a wide range of groups and beliefs.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as the Durham Report, or Lord Durham's Report is an important document in the history of Quebec, Ontario, Canada and the British Empire.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Richard R. Wagner, (born April 2, 1957) is a Canadian judge who serves as the 18th and current Chief Justice of Canada.
Roberta Bondar (born December 4, 1945) is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space.
William Robertson Davies, (28 August 1913 – 2 December 1995) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research, primarily in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force of Canada.
The Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS) (French: La Société géographique royale du Canada; SRGC) is a Canadian non-profit educational organization dedicated to imparting a broader knowledge and deeper appreciation of Canada — its people and places, its natural and cultural heritage and its environmental, social and economic challenges.
The Royal Canadian Mint (Monnaie royale canadienne) is a Crown corporation of Canada, operating under the Royal Canadian Mint Act.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.
The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) was a Canadian Royal Commission established in 1991 to address many issues of Aboriginal status that had come to light with recent events such as the Oka Crisis and the Meech Lake Accord.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (Fête de la Saint-Jean-Baptiste, la Saint-Jean, Fête nationale du Québec) is a holiday celebrated on June 24 in the Canadian province of Quebec and by French Canadians across Canada and the United States.
Same-sex marriage in Canada was progressively introduced in several provinces by court decisions beginning in 2003 before being legally recognized nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage Act on July 20, 2005.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
A school shooting is an attack at an educational institution, such as a school or university, involving the use of a firearm(s).
Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the first of several sections of the Constitution dealing with Canada's two official languages, English and French.
Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the section of the Constitution of Canada that guarantees minority language educational rights to French-speaking communities outside Quebec, and, to a lesser extent, English-speaking minorities in Quebec.
Section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution of Canada.
Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 provides constitutional protection to the indigenous and treaty rights of indigenous peoples in Canada.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Canadian Sikhs number roughly 468,670 people and account for roughly 1.4% of Canada's population.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.
Social programs in Canada include all government programs designed to give assistance to citizens outside what the market provides.
The Somalia Affair was a 1993 military scandal later dubbed "Canada's national shame".
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
South Asian Canadians are Canadians who were either born in or can trace their ancestry to South Asia, which includes nations such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Nepal.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Stadacona was a 16th-century St. Lawrence Iroquoian village near present-day Québec City.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State University of New York College at Plattsburgh, also known as SUNY Plattsburgh or Plattsburgh State College is a four-year, public liberal arts college in Plattsburgh, New York, United States.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
Student loans in Canada help post-secondary students pay for their education in Canada.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Telephone numbers in Canada follow the fixed-length Bell System format, consisting of the country code +1, followed by a three-digit area code, a three-digit central office code (or exchange code) and a four-digit station code.
Television in Canada officially began with the sign-on of the nation's first television stations in Montreal and Toronto in 1952.
The following tables show the average maximum and minimum temperatures of Canada of various cities across Canada, based on the climate period from 1981-2010 for the months of January and July (generally the lowest and highest average temperature months, but not in every case).
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Arctic consists of land, internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and high seas.
The Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867, when the British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were merged to form a single Dominion within the British Empire.
A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Théodore Robitaille, (29 January 1834 – 17 August 1897) was a Canadian physician, politician, and the fourth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.
"The Bold Canadian" was a patriotic song for Canadians that originated during the War of 1812.
The Canadas is the collective name for Upper Canada and Lower Canada, two British historical colonies in present-day Canada.
The association between the Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada stretches back to the first decisions between North American Indigenous peoples and European colonialists and, over centuries of interface, treaties were established concerning the monarch and Indigenous tribes.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The English Patient is a 1992 novel by Michael Ondaatje.
The English Patient is a 1996 American romantic war drama film directed by Anthony Minghella from his own script based on the novel of the same name by Michael Ondaatje and produced by Saul Zaentz.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.
The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces (Provinces maritimes) or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (PEI).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Porcupine's Quill is an independent publishing company in Erin, Ontario, Canada.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Weather Network (TWN) is a media company.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Third country resettlement or refugee resettlement is, according to the UNHCR, one of three durable solutions (voluntary repatriation and local integration being the other two) for refugees who fled their home country.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
This is a chronology and timeline of the colonization of North America, with founding dates of selected European settlements.
Thomas John "Tom" Thomson (August 5, 1877July 8, 1917) was a Canadian artist of the early 20th century.
Thomas Clement Douglas (20 October 1904 – 24 February 1986) was a Canadian democratic socialist politician and Baptist minister.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Totem poles (Gyáa'aang in the Haida language) are monumental carvings, a type of Northwest Coast art, consisting of poles, posts or pillars, carved with symbols or figures.
A trading nation (also known as a trade-dependent economy, or an export-oriented economy) is a country where international trade makes up a large percentage of its economy.
Trafford Publishing is a company for self publishing using print on demand technology, formerly based in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, and now based in Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) was a truth and reconciliation commission organized by the parties of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.
The Tseax Cone, also called the Tseax River Cone or the Aiyansh Volcano, is a young cinder cone and adjacent lava flows associated with the Nass Ranges and the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province.
Ukrainian Canadians (translit) are Canadian citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukrainian-born people who immigrated to Canada.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Unionist Party was a centre-right historical political party in Canada, composed primarily of former members of the Conservative party with some individual Liberal Members of Parliament.
The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is a mainline Reformed denomination and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Catholic Church.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United Nations Protection Force (French: Force de Protection des Nations Unies; UNPROFOR, also known by its French acronym FORPRONU), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of Alabama Press is a university press founded in 1945 and is the scholarly publishing arm of the University of Alabama.
The University of British Columbia Press (UBC Press) is a university press that is part of the University of British Columbia.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
The University of Ottawa Press (Les Presses de l'Université d'Ottawa) is a bilingual university press located in Ottawa, Ontario.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The University Press of New England (UPNE), located in Lebanon, New Hampshire and founded in 1970, is a university press consortium including Brandeis University, Dartmouth College (its host member), Tufts University, the University of New Hampshire, and Northeastern University.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Victoria Island (or Kitlineq) is a large island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago that straddles the boundary between Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Canada.
A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".
Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the visual artistic traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Americas from ancient times to the present.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
The voyageurs (travelers) were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Whistler (Squamish language: Sḵwiḵw) is a resort town in the southern Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the province of British Columbia, Canada, approximately north of Vancouver and south of the town of Pemberton.
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, based in Waterloo, Ontario, is a publisher of scholarly writing and is part of Wilfrid Laurier University.
William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950), also commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s.
Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
.ca is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Canada.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.
The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games (Les XVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a Winter Olympics multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between February 13 and 28, 1988 and were the first Winter Olympics to be held over a whole two week period.
The 1994 FIBA World Championship was an international basketball competition hosted by Canada from August 4 to August 14, 1994.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the sixteenth edition of the FIFA U-20 World Cup (formerly called FIFA World Youth Championship), hosted by Canada from 30 June to 22 July 2007.
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.
The 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup was the seventh FIFA Women's World Cup, the quadrennial international women's football world championship tournament.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 3rd Summit of the Americas was a summit held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on April 20–22, 2001.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.
The fifty-cent piece, also referred to as the half dollar (demi dollar), is the common name of the Canadian coin worth 50 cents.
CANADA, Canada (country), Canada's, Canada., Canada/References, Canadaa, Canadialand, Canadian Federation, Canadiophile, Canadophile, Canadá, Cnada, Commonwealth of Canada, Dominion of Canada, Dominion of canada, Etymology of Canada, ISO 3166-1:CA, Kenadian, The Dominion of Canada, Xanada, Čanada, ᑲᓇᑕ.