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Index Canal

Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. [1]

309 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Agriculture, Aire and Calder Navigation, Albany, New York, Alkmaar, American Civil War, American Journal of Archaeology, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Ancient Greek technology, Aqueduct (bridge), Aqueduct (water supply), Associated Press, Aswan, Atlantic Ocean, Augusta Canal, Aveiro, Portugal, Baltic Sea, Bangkok, Barge, Béziers, BCN Main Line, Beaver, Beijing, Belgium, Berlin, Birmingham, Blackstone Canal, Blackstone Valley, Boat lift, Bolsward, Bond (finance), Boston, Briare Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Brielle, British Waterways, Bruges, Bude Canal, Buffalo, New York, Bulk cargo, Bulk material handling, Caisson (engineering), Caledonian Canal, Canal Age, Canal basin, Canal des mines de fer de la Moselle, Canal du Midi, Canal inclined plane, Canal latéral à la Loire, ..., Canal Latéral de la Garonne, Canal lining, Canal Mania, Canal of the Pharaohs, Canal tunnel, Canals of Amsterdam, Canals of the United Kingdom, Cape Coral, Florida, Cart, Caspian Sea, Cataracts of the Nile, Channel (geography), Charlemagne, Charles River, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, City-state, Civil engineering, Coal mining, Coal Region, Contour canal, Croydon Canal, Dam, Dedham, Massachusetts, Delft, Dismal Swamp Canal, Ditch, Dokkum, Dordrecht, Drainage basin, Drainage divide, Dredging, Drinking water, Early modern period, Easement, Egypt, Elbe, Elevation, Emperor Yang of Sui, Enkhuizen, Environment Agency, Erie Canal, Exeter Ship Canal, Falkirk Wheel, Flanders, Flash lock, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Fossa Carolina, France, Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, Franeker, Freycinet gauge, Gas Street Basin, Germany, Ghent, Girnar, Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury Canal (medieval), Globalization, Gold Coast, Queensland, Gouda, South Holland, Gracht, Grand Canal (China), Grand Canal (Venice), Great Bačka Canal, Great Britain, Great Lakes, Guillotine lock, Haarlem, Hamburg, Hangzhou, Harecastle Tunnel, Harlingen, Netherlands, History of India, History of New York City (1784–1854), History of the British canal system, History of turnpikes and canals in the United States, Holyoke, Massachusetts, Horse-drawn boat, Horsepower, Hotel barge, Hudson River, Hyde Park, Boston, Hydroelectricity, Hydropower, Illinois and Michigan Canal, Imperial Valley, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industrial Revolution, Infrastructure, Iran, Iraq, Irrigation, Irrigation district, Italy, James Brindley, Josiah Wedgwood, Juliana Canal, Kennet and Avon Canal, Kiel Canal, Kingston, Ontario, Lachine Canal, Lahore, Lake, Lake Biwa Canal, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Lateral canal, Lawrence, Massachusetts, Leeuwarden, Lehigh Canal, Lehigh Valley, Leiden, Levee, List of canals in France, List of canals in Germany, List of canals in Ireland, List of canals in Russia, List of canals in the United States, List of canals of Canada, List of navigation authorities in the United Kingdom, List of waterway societies in the United Kingdom, List of waterways, List of World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom, Lists of canals, Liverpool, Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, Lock (water navigation), Loire, Lombardy, Lowell, Massachusetts, Lower Canada, Manchester, Manchester Ship Canal, Manchester, New Hampshire, Maritime transport, Massachusetts, Mesopotamia, Metallurgy, Miami, Middle Ages, Middlesex Canal, Milan, Mill race, Mississippi River, Montreal, Mooring (watercraft), Mother Brook, Mule, Municipality, Narrowboat, Navigability, Navigable aqueduct, Navigation authority, Navigli, Naviglio Grande, Neponset River, Netherlands, Neva River, New York (state), Newry Canal, Niagara Falls, Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company, North Sea Canal, Northeastern United States, Northern Ireland, Ocean, Oder, Optical fiber, Ottawa, Ottawa River, Oxford Canal, Pack animal, Panama Canal, Panama Canal expansion project, Panamax, Pepi I Meryre, Polder, Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, Power canal, Puddling (civil engineering), Rail transport, Raw material, Reservoir, Rhône, Rhine, Rhode Island, Rideau Canal, Ridge, Right-of-way (transportation), Riparian-zone restoration, River, River Brue, River Dee, Wales, River engineering, River Irwell, River Mersey, Roman Empire, Ronald W. Clark, Saône, Saint Lawrence River, Saint Petersburg, Samuel Slater, Sankey Canal, Santee Canal, Seine, Seine–Nord Europe Canal, Serbia, Ship canal, Sima Qian, Sneek, South Carolina, Spring and Autumn period, St Helens, Merseyside, Stecknitz Canal, Stratum, Stream bed, Subdivision (land), Suez Canal, Suezmax, Summit-level canal, Telecommunication, Texas City, Texas, The Midlands, The New York Times, Thomas Steers, Ticino (river), Torksey, Towpath, Trent and Mersey Canal, UNESCO, Upper Canada, Utrecht, Valley, Vehicle, Venice, Viaduct, Virginia, Volga River, Volga–Baltic Waterway, Volumetric flow rate, Vreeswijk, War of 1812, Water supply, Water transportation, Watermill, Waterway, Waterway restoration, Waterways in the United Kingdom, Weigh lock, Weir, Welland Canal, Weser, Wetland, Wharf, Worcester and Birmingham Canal, Working animal, World Heritage site, World War I. Expand index (259 more) »


's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Aire and Calder Navigation

The Aire and Calder Navigation is the canalised section of the Rivers Aire and Calder in West Yorkshire, England.

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Albany, New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.

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Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Journal of Archaeology

The American Journal of Archaeology (AJA), the peer-reviewed journal of the Archaeological Institute of America, has been published since 1897 (continuing the American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts founded by the institute in 1885).

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Amersfoort is a city and municipality in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Ancient Greek technology

Ancient Greek technology developed during the 5th century BC, continuing up to and including the Roman period, and beyond.

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Aqueduct (bridge)

Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.

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Aqueduct (water supply)

An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Augusta Canal

The Augusta Canal is a historic canal located in Augusta, Georgia, United States.

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Aveiro, Portugal

Aveiro is a city and a municipality in Portugal.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.

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A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.

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Béziers (Besièrs) is a town in Languedoc in southern France.

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BCN Main Line

The BCN Main Line, or Birmingham Canal Navigations Main Line describes the evolving route of the Birmingham Canal between Birmingham and Wolverhampton in England.

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The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Blackstone Canal

The Blackstone Canal was a waterway linking Worcester, Massachusetts, to Providence, Rhode Island (and Narragansett Bay) through the Blackstone Valley via a series of locks and canals during the early 19th century.

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Blackstone Valley

The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

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Boat lift

A boat lift, ship lift, or lift lock is a machine for transporting boats between water at two different elevations, and is an alternative to the canal lock and the canal inclined plane.

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Bolsward (West Frisian: Boalsert) is a city in Súdwest-Fryslân in the province of Friesland, the Netherlands.

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Bond (finance)

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Briare Canal

The Canal de Briare is one of the oldest canals in France.

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Bridgewater Canal

The Bridgewater Canal connects Runcorn, Manchester and Leigh, in North West England.

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Brielle, also called Den Briel (Brill in English) is a town, municipality and historic seaport in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, on the north side of the island of Voorne-Putten, at the mouth of the New Maas.

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British Waterways

British Waterways, often shortened to BW, was a statutory corporation wholly owned by the government of the United Kingdom.

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Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.

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Bude Canal

The Bude Canal was a canal built to serve the hilly hinterland in the Devon and Cornwall border territory in the United Kingdom, chiefly to bring lime-bearing sand for agricultural fertiliser.

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Buffalo, New York

Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.

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Bulk cargo

Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.

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Bulk material handling

Bulk material handling is an engineering field that is centered on the design of equipment used for the handling of dry materials such as ores, coal, cereals, wood chips, sand, gravel and stone in loose bulk form.

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Caisson (engineering)

In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a watertight retaining structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships.

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Caledonian Canal

The Caledonian Canal connects the Scottish east coast at Inverness with the west coast at Corpach near Fort William in Scotland.

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Canal Age

The Canal Age is a term of art used by historians of Science, Technology, and Industry.

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Canal basin

A canal basin is (particularly in the United Kingdom) an expanse of waterway alongside or at the end of a canal, and wider than the canal, constructed to allow boats to moor or unload cargo without impeding the progress of other traffic, and to allow room for turning, thus serving as a winding hole.

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Canal des mines de fer de la Moselle

The Canal des mines de fer de la Moselle (Canal of the Iron Mines of Moselle) is a canal in north eastern France linking Metz and Thionville.

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Canal du Midi

The Canal du Midi (meaning canal of the two seas) is a long canal in Southern France (le Midi).

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Canal inclined plane

An inclined plane is a system used on some canals for raising boats between different water levels.

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Canal latéral à la Loire

The Canal Latéral à la Loire was constructed between 1827 and 1838 to connect the Canal de Briare at Briare and the Canal du Centre at Digoin, a distance of 196 km.

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Canal Latéral de la Garonne

The Canal de Garonne, formerly known as Canal latéral à la Garonne, is a French canal dating from the mid-19th century which connects Toulouse to Castets-en-Dorthe.

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Canal lining

Canal lining is the process of reducing seepage loss of irrigation water by adding an impermeable layer to the edges of the trench.

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Canal Mania

Canal Mania was the period of intense canal building in England and Wales between the 1790s and 1810s, and the speculative frenzy that accompanied it in the early 1790s.

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Canal of the Pharaohs

The Canal of the Pharaohs, also called the Ancient Suez Canal or Necho's Canal, is the forerunner of the Suez Canal, constructed in ancient times.

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Canal tunnel

A canal tunnel is a tunnel for a (shipping) canal.

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Canals of Amsterdam

Amsterdam, capital of the Netherlands, has more than one hundred kilometers of grachten (canals), about 90 islands and 1,500 bridges.

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Canals of the United Kingdom

The canals of the United Kingdom are a major part of the network of inland waterways in the United Kingdom.

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Cape Coral, Florida

Cape Coral is a city located in Lee County, Florida, United States, on the Gulf of Mexico.

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A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Cataracts of the Nile

The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.

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Channel (geography)

In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles River

The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an long river in eastern Massachusetts.

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Chesapeake and Ohio Canal

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, abbreviated as the C&O Canal and occasionally called the "Grand Old Ditch," operated from 1831 until 1924 along the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Maryland.

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A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.

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Coal mining

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.

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Coal Region

The Coal Region is a historically important coal-mining area in Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains, comprising Lackawanna, Luzerne, Columbia, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, and the extreme northeast corner of Dauphin counties.

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Contour canal

A contour canal is an artificially-dug navigable canal which closely follows the contour line of the land it traverses in order to avoid costly engineering works such as boring a tunnel through higher ground, building an embankment over lower ground, or constructing a canal lock (or series of locks) to change the level of the canal.

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Croydon Canal

The Croydon Canal ran from Croydon, via Forest Hill, to the Grand Surrey Canal at New Cross in south London, England.

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A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.

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Dedham, Massachusetts

Dedham is a town in and the county seat of Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Dismal Swamp Canal

The Dismal Swamp Canal is located along the eastern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina in the United States.

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A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water.

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Dokkum is a Dutch fortified town in the municipality of Dongeradeel in the province of Friesland.

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Dordrecht, colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the Western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Drainage divide

A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.

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Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).

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Emperor Yang of Sui

Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.

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Enkhuizen is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia.

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Environment Agency

The Environment Agency (EA) is a non-departmental public body, established in 1995 and sponsored by the United Kingdom government's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England (and until 2013 also Wales).

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Erie Canal

The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal).

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Exeter Ship Canal

The Exeter Ship Canal, also known as the Exeter Canal, downstream of Exeter, Devon, England.

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Falkirk Wheel

The Falkirk Wheel is a rotating boat lift in Scotland, connecting the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal.

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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Flash lock

Early locks were designed with a single gate, known as a flash lock or staunch lock.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Fort Lauderdale (frequently abbreviated as Ft. Lauderdale) is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, north of Miami.

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Fossa Carolina

The Fossa Carolina (or Karlsgraben in German) was a canal named after Charlemagne in what is today the German state of Bavaria, intended to connect the Swabian Rezat river to the Altmühl river (the Rhine basin to the Danube basin).

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater

Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater (21 May 1736 – 8 March 1803), known as Lord Francis Egerton until 1748, was a British nobleman from the Egerton family.

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Franeker (Frjentsjer) is one of the eleven historical cities of Friesland and capital of the municipality of Waadhoeke.

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Freycinet gauge

The Freycinet gauge (gabarit Freycinet) is a standard governing the dimensions of the locks of some canals, put in place as a result of a law passed during the tenure of Charles de Freycinet as minister of public works of France, dating from 5 August 1879.

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Gas Street Basin

Gas Street Basin is a canal basin in the centre of Birmingham, England, where the Worcester and Birmingham Canal meets the BCN Main Line.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.

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Girnar, also known as Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') or Revatak Parvata, is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh.

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Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England.

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Glastonbury Canal (medieval)

The medieval Glastonbury canal was built in about the middle of the 10th century to link the River Brue at Northover with Glastonbury Abbey, a distance of about.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Gold Coast, Queensland

The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland, approximately south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and immediately north of the border with New South Wales.

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Gouda, South Holland

Gouda is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands with a population of 72,338.

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Gracht (plural: grachten) is a Dutch word frequently encountered by non-Dutch people when confronted with several things related to the Netherlands, such as Dutch art (mainly 17th-century town-views of grachten), Dutch history (notably the Anne Frank House and several monuments in Amsterdam, located on grachten) or tourism (especially boating tours on the grachten of various Dutch cities).

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grand Canal (Venice)

The Grand Canal (Canal Grande; Canal Grando, anciently Canałasso) is a channel in Venice, Italy.

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Great Bačka Canal

Great Bačka Canal (Serbian: Велики бачки канал/Veliki bački kanal) is a canal in Serbia which runs from Bezdan (on the Danube) to Bečej (on the Tisa).

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Guillotine lock

A guillotine lock is a type of canal lock.

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Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Harecastle Tunnel

Harecastle Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal in Staffordshire between Kidsgrove and Tunstall.

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Harlingen, Netherlands

Harlingen (West Frisian: Harns) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland on the coast of Wadden Sea.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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History of New York City (1784–1854)

The history of New York City (1784–1854) started with the creation of the city as the capital of the United States under the Congress of the Confederation from January 11, 1785, to Autumn 1788, and then under the United States Constitution from its ratification in 1789 until moving to Philadelphia in 1790.

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History of the British canal system

The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom's Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of packhorses were the only means of "mass" transit by road of raw materials and finished products.

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History of turnpikes and canals in the United States

The history of turnpikes and canals in the United States began with work attempted and accomplished in the original thirteen colonies, predicated on European technology.

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Holyoke, Massachusetts

Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range.

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Horse-drawn boat

A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking beside the canal on a towpath.

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Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done).

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Hotel barge

The hotel barge (fr. péniche hôtel) came into being following the decline in commercial and freight carrying on the canals of Europe.

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Hudson River

The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

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Hyde Park, Boston

Hyde Park is the southernmost neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

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Illinois and Michigan Canal

The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico.

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Imperial Valley

The Imperial Valley lies in California's Imperial County.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Irrigation district

In the United States an irrigation district is a cooperative, self-governing public corporation set up as a subdivision of the State government, with definite geographic boundaries, organized, and having taxing power to obtain and distribute water for irrigation of lands within the district; created under the authority of a State legislature with the consent of a designated fraction of the landowners or citizens.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James Brindley

James Brindley (1716 – 27 September 1772) was an English engineer.

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Josiah Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.

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Juliana Canal

The Juliana Canal (Julianakanaal), named after Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, is a 36 km long canal in the southern Netherlands, providing a bypass of an unnavigable section of the river Meuse between Maastricht and Maasbracht.

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Kennet and Avon Canal

The Kennet and Avon Canal is a waterway in southern England with an overall length of, made up of two lengths of navigable river linked by a canal.

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Kiel Canal

The Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North--Baltic Sea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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Kingston, Ontario

Kingston is a city in eastern Ontario, Canada.

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Lachine Canal

The Lachine Canal (Canal de Lachine in French) is a canal passing through the southwestern part of the Island of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, running 14.5 kilometres from the Old Port of Montreal to Lake Saint-Louis, through the boroughs of Lachine, Lasalle and Sud-Ouest.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Lake Biwa Canal

is a waterway in Japan constructed during the Meiji Period to transport water, freight, and passengers from Lake Biwa to the nearby City of Kyoto.

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Lake Erie

Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.

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Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.

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Lateral canal

A lateral canal is a canal built along the same right-of-way as an existing stream.

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Lawrence, Massachusetts

Lawrence is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, on the Merrimack River.

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Leeuwarden (longname), Stadsfries: Liwwadden) is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital and seat of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century. It came to be known as Leeuwarden in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a green and water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many historically relevant buildings, and a large shopping center with squares and restaurants. Leeuwarden was awarded the title European Capital of Culture for 2018. The Elfstedentocht (Eleven Cities Tour), an ice skating tour passing the eleven cities of Friesland, started and finished in Leeuwarden. The following towns and villages within the municipality have populations in excess of 1,000 people: Leeuwarden, Stiens, Grou, Goutum, Wergea, Jirnsum, Reduzum, and Wirdum. The municipality is governed by the mayor Ferd Crone and a coalition of the Labour Party, Christian Democratic Appeal, and GreenLeft.

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Lehigh Canal

The Lehigh Canal or the Lehigh Navigation Canal is a navigable canal, beginning at the mouth of Nesquehoning Creek on the Lehigh River in Eastern Pennsylvania.

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Lehigh Valley

The Lehigh Valley, known officially by the United States Census Bureau and the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Allentown–Bethlehem–Easton, PA–NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area and referred to colloquially as The Valley, is a metropolitan region officially consisting of Carbon, Lehigh and Northampton counties in eastern Pennsylvania and Warren county on the western edge of New Jersey, in the Eastern United States.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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List of canals in France

This is a list of the navigable canals and rivers in France.

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List of canals in Germany

This is a list of navigable canals that are at least partially located in Germany.

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List of canals in Ireland

No description.

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List of canals in Russia

This is a list of navigable canals that are at least partially located in Russia.

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List of canals in the United States

The following is a list of canals in the United States.

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List of canals of Canada

Canada has a number of canals, including some ship canals.

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List of navigation authorities in the United Kingdom

This List of navigation authorities in the United Kingdom is a list of links to any navigation authority in the United Kingdom, relating to any navigable waterway, aqueduct, canal, navigation, river or port.

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List of waterway societies in the United Kingdom

This List of waterway societies in the United Kingdom is a list of links to waterway societies, charities, trusts, associations, clubs and other non-governmental waterway organisations, concerned with the restoration, regeneration and use of the waterways in the United Kingdom.

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List of waterways

This is a list of waterways, defined as navigable rivers, canals, estuaries, lakes, or firths.

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List of World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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Lists of canals

There are several lists of canals.

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Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City

The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City is a UNESCO designated World Heritage Site in Liverpool, England.

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Lock (water navigation)

A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.

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The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.

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Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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Lowell, Massachusetts

Lowell is a city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

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Lower Canada

The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Manchester Ship Canal

The Manchester Ship Canal is a inland waterway in the North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea.

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Manchester, New Hampshire

Manchester is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the largest city in northern New England, an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont.

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Maritime transport

Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middlesex Canal

The Middlesex Canal was a 27-mile (44-kilometer) barge canal connecting the Merrimack River with the port of Boston.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Mill race

A mill race, millrace or millrun is the current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel (sluice) conducting water to or from a water wheel.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Mooring (watercraft)

A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured.

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Mother Brook

Mother Brook is a stream that flows from the Charles River in Dedham, Massachusetts, to the Neponset River in the Hyde Park section of Boston, Massachusetts.

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A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).

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A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.

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A narrowboat or narrow boat is a boat of a distinctive design, made to fit the narrow canals of the United Kingdom.

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A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk.

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Navigable aqueduct

Navigable aqueducts (sometimes called water bridges) are bridge structures that carry navigable waterway canals over other rivers, valleys, railways or roads.

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Navigation authority

A navigation authority is a company or statutory body which is concerned with the management of a navigable canal or river.

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The navigli (Navili) were a system of navigable and interconnected canals around Milan, Italy.

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Naviglio Grande

The Naviglio Grande is a canal in Lombardy, northern Italy, joining the Ticino river near Tornavento (23 km south of Sesto Calende) to the Porta Ticinese dock, also known as the Darsena, in Milan.

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Neponset River

The Neponset River is a river in eastern Massachusetts in the United States.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neva River

The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Newry Canal

The Newry Canal, located in Northern Ireland, was built to link the Tyrone coalfields (via Lough Neagh and the River Bann) to the Irish Sea at Carlingford Lough near Newry.

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Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the American state of New York.

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Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company

Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power & Manufacturing Company was an American company, based in Niagara Falls, New York that was the first company to generate hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls in 1882.

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North Sea Canal

The North Sea Canal (Noordzeekanaal) is a Dutch ship canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea at IJmuiden, constructed between 1865 and 1876 to enable seafaring vessels to reach the port of Amsterdam.

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Northeastern United States

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.

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Ottawa River

The Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin: Kitchissippi) is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

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Oxford Canal

The Oxford Canal is a narrow canal in central England linking Oxford with Bedworth (between Coventry and Nuneaton on the Coventry Canal) via Banbury and Rugby.

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Pack animal

A pack animal or beast of burden is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.

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Panama Canal

The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.

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Panama Canal expansion project

The Panama Canal expansion project (ampliación del Canal de Panamá), also called the Third Set of Locks Project, doubled the capacity of the Panama Canal by adding a new lane of traffic allowing for a larger number of ships, and increasing the width and depth of the lanes and locks allowing larger ships to pass.

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Panamax and New Panamax (or Neopanamax) are terms for the size limits for ships travelling through the Panama Canal.

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Pepi I Meryre

Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 – 2287 BC) was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt.

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A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices.

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Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (Traphont Ddŵr Pontcysyllte) is a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal across the River Dee in north east Wales.

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Power canal

A Power Canal refers to a canal used for hydraulic power generation, rather than for transport of watercraft.

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Puddling (civil engineering)

Puddling is both the material and the process of lining a water body such as a channel or pond with puddle clay (puddle, puddling) - a watertight (low hydraulic conductivity) material based on clay and water mixed to be workable,.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Raw material

A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

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A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.

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The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Rhode Island

Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.

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Rideau Canal

The Rideau Canal, also known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario.

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A ridge or mountain ridge are geological features consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side.The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline.

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Right-of-way (transportation)

A right-of-way (ROW) is a right to make a way over a piece of land, usually to and from another piece of land.

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Riparian-zone restoration

Riparian-zone restoration is the ecological restoration of riparian-zone habitats of streams, rivers, springs, lakes, floodplains, and other hydrologic ecologies.

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A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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River Brue

The River Brue originates in the parish of Brewham in Somerset, England, and reaches the sea some west at Burnham-on-Sea.

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River Dee, Wales

The River Dee (Afon Dyfrdwy, Deva Fluvius) is a river in the United Kingdom.

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River engineering

River engineering is the process of planned human intervention in the course, characteristics, or flow of a river with the intention of producing some defined benefit.

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River Irwell

The River Irwell is a long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in North West England.

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River Mersey

The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Ronald W. Clark

Ronald William Clark (2 November 1916 – 9 March 1987) was a British author of biography, fiction and non-fiction.

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The Saône (La Saône; Arpitan Sona, Arar) is a river of eastern France.

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Saint Lawrence River

The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Samuel Slater

Samuel Slater (June 9, 1768 – April 21, 1835) was an early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson) and the "Father of the American Factory System".

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Sankey Canal

The Sankey Canal in North West England connects St Helens to the River Mersey at Spike Island.

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Santee Canal

The Santee Canal was one of the earliest canals built in the United States.

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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Seine–Nord Europe Canal

The Seine–Nord Europe Canal is a projected high-capacity (grand gabarit) canal in France that would link the Oise River at Compiègne with the Canal Dunkerque-Escaut, east of Arleux.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Ship canal

A ship canal is a canal especially intended to accommodate ships used on the oceans, seas or lakes to which it is connected, as opposed to a barge canal intended to carry barges and other vessels specifically designed for river and/or canal navigation.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Sneek (Snits) is a city southwest of Leeuwarden and seat of the former municipality of Sneek in the province of Friesland (Netherlands).

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South Carolina

South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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St Helens, Merseyside

St Helens is a large town in Merseyside, England.

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Stecknitz Canal

The Stecknitz Canal (Stecknitzfahrt) was an artificial waterway in northern Germany which connected Lauenburg and Lübeck on the Old Salt Route by linking the tiny rivers Stecknitz (a tributary of the Trave) and Delvenau (a tributary of the Elbe), thus establishing an inland water route across the drainage divide from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Stream bed

A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.

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Subdivision (land)

Subdivision is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop, usually via a plat.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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"Suezmax" is a naval architecture term for the largest ship measurements capable of transiting the Suez Canal in a laden condition, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers.

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Summit-level canal

A summit-level canal is an artificial waterway connecting two separate river valleys.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Texas City, Texas

Texas City is a city in Galveston County in the U.S. state of Texas.

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The Midlands

The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thomas Steers

Thomas Steers was thought to have been born in 1672 in Kent and died in 1750.

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Ticino (river)

The river Ticino (Tisín; French and Tessin; Ticīnus) is the most important perennial left-bank tributary of the Po.

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Torksey is a small village in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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A towpath is a road or trail on the bank of a river, canal, or other inland waterway.

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Trent and Mersey Canal

The Trent and Mersey Canal is a in the East Midlands, West Midlands, and north-west of England.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Upper Canada

The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.

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Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.

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A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.

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A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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A viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans for crossing a valley, dry or wetland, or forming an overpass or flyover.

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Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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Volga–Baltic Waterway

The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System (Russian: Мариинская водная система), is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River.

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Volumetric flow rate

In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol (sometimes). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second).

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Vreeswijk is a former village and municipality in the Dutch province of Utrecht.

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War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.

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Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

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Water transportation

Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances.

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A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower.

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A waterway is any navigable body of water.

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Waterway restoration

Waterway restoration is the activity of restoring a canal or river, including special features such as warehouse buildings, locks, boat lifts, and boats.

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Waterways in the United Kingdom

Waterways in the United Kingdom is a link page for any waterway, river, canal, firth or estuary in the United Kingdom.

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Weigh lock

A weigh lock on the Lehigh Canal around 1873 A weigh lock is a specialized canal lock designed to determine the weight of barges in order to assess toll payments based upon the weight and value of the cargo carried.

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A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level.

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Welland Canal

The Welland Canal is a ship canal in Ontario, Canada, connecting Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.

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The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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A wharf, quay (also), staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers.

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Worcester and Birmingham Canal

The Worcester and Birmingham Canal is a canal linking Birmingham and Worcester in England.

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Working animal

A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Redirects here:

Artificial waterway, Barge canal, Canal estate, Canals, Canals and Inland Waterways, Navigation canal, Navigation channel, Navigations.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canal

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