432 relations: Abdomen, ABL (gene), Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Adoptive cell transfer, Aflatoxin B1, Air pollution, Alcohol, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic drink, Alkylating antineoplastic agent, Alternative cancer treatments, American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Androstanediol glucuronide, Anemia, Angiogenesis, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Animal fat, Antimetabolite, Aorta, Apoptosis, Areca nut, Asbestos, Ascites, Aspirin, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Autopsy, Background radiation, Bacon, BCR (gene), Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, Benign tumor, Benzene, Beta-Carotene, Biological immortality, Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, Biopsy, Birth defect, Bladder cancer, Blastoma, Blood test, Body mass index, Bone, Bone metastasis, Bone tumor, Brachytherapy, Brain tumor, BRCA1, ..., BRCA2, Breast cancer, Breast cancer awareness, Breast cancer screening, Breast self-examination, Bronchus, Bruce Alberts, Cachexia, Caesarean section, Campbell De Morgan, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer research, Cancer screening, Cancer signs and symptoms, Cancer staging, Cancer syndrome, Canine transmissible venereal tumor, Carcinogen, Carcinogenic bacteria, Carcinoma, Carcinoma in situ, Cartilage, Cell biology, Cell division, Cell growth, Cell potency, Centenarian, Cervarix, Cervical cancer, Cervix, Chain reaction, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimen, Childhood cancer, Chimney sweep, Chimney sweeps' carcinoma, Cholangiocarcinoma, Choosing Wisely, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Clinical trial, Clinical urine tests, Clonally transmissible cancer, Clonorchis sinensis, Cobalt, Cochrane (organisation), Coding region, Coeliac disease, Colectomy, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Connective tissue, Contrast CT, COX-2 inhibitor, Crayfish, Cristobalite, Crohn's disease, CT scan, Cytogenetics, Cytotoxicity, Defecation, Developed country, Developing country, Devil facial tumour disease, Diagnosis, Diet (nutrition), DNA, DNA methylation, DNA mismatch repair, DNA repair-deficiency disorder, DNA virus, Ductal carcinoma, Dysgerminoma, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Electric power transmission, End-of-life care, Endocrine system, Endometrium, Endoscopy, Environment (biophysical), Environmental disease, Epigenetics, Epithelium, Epstein–Barr virus, Esophageal cancer, Esophagus, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Euphemism, Evidence-based medicine, Evolution, Exercise, Experimental cancer treatment, Extravasation, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Fear, Fecal occult blood, Fever of unknown origin, Finasteride, First-degree relatives, Fish, Five-year survival rate, Folate, Franciscus Sylvius, Fruit, Fusion gene, Fusion protein, Galen, Gardasil, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Genetic testing, Genome instability, Germ cell tumor, Germline, Glass wool, Gluten-free diet, Grading (tumors), Greek language, Growth hormone, Ham, Hand warmer, Harold E. Varmus, Harper's Magazine, Head and neck cancer, Helicobacter pylori, Hematuria, Hemoptysis, Heparin, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B vaccine, Hepatitis C, Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatomegaly, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Heredity, Hippocrates, Histone, HIV, HMGA1, HMGA2, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Homologous recombination, Hormonal therapy (oncology), Hormone, Hospice, Hot dog, HPV vaccines, Human papillomavirus infection, Human sexual activity, Human T-lymphotropic virus 1, Hypoxia (medical), Illness as Metaphor, Immune system, Immunohistochemistry, Immunosenescence, Immunotherapy, Individualism, Infection, Inflammation, Insulin-like growth factor, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Intravasation, Invasive carcinoma of no special type, Ionizing radiation, Just-world hypothesis, Kanger, Kaposi's sarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Kidney, Kidney cancer, Larynx, Laser, Laser ablation, Laser coagulation, Latin, Laxative, Leiomyoma, Leukemia, Liposarcoma, List of causes of death by rate, List of chemotherapeutic agents, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, Liver, Liver cancer, Liver fluke, Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, Lung, Lung cancer, Lymph, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Lymphatic system, Lymphoma, Lymphoproliferative disorders, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Malignancy, Malignant transformation, Mammography, Mastectomy, Mastitis, Mayo Clinic, Medical diagnosis, Medical guideline, Medical imaging, Medical sign, Medical test, Melanoma, Mesenchyme, Mesothelioma, Metastasis, MicroRNA, Mineral wool, Mitosis, MLH1, Molecular biology, Monoclonal antibody, MSH2, MSH6, Mutagen, Mutation, Myasthenia gravis, Nail clubbing, Nasopharynx cancer, National Cancer Institute, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Neoplasm, Nerve, Neurology, Nickel, Nicolaes Tulp, Nitrosamine, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-ionizing radiation, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Obesity, Oncogene, Oncology, Oncovirus, Opisthorchis viverrini, Optimism, Oral cancer, Organ (anatomy), Organ donation, Osteosarcoma, Ovarian cancer, Overdiagnosis, Overnutrition, Overweight, Palliative care, Palygorskite, Pancreas, Pancreatic cancer, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Parasitism, Parenchyma, Passive smoking, Patient UK, Patients' rights, Percivall Pott, Performance status, Philadelphia chromosome, Photofluorography, Physical examination, Pickling, Pleural effusion, PMS1, PMS2, Pneumonia, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyp, Population ageing, Positron emission tomography, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pregnancy, Probability, Processed meat, Professional association, Progesterone, Prognosis, Projectional radiography, Promoter (genetics), Prostate cancer, Protein, Provirus, Psychotherapy, Quality of life (healthcare), Quartz, Radiation, Radiation therapy, Radio frequency, Radon, Raloxifene, Red meat, Relative risk, René Descartes, Retrovirus, Rib, Richard Nixon, Risk factor, Robert Weinberg, Sarcoma, Sausage, Schistosoma haematobium, Screening (medicine), Scrotum, Sedentary lifestyle, Seminoma, Serous membrane, Sexually transmitted infection, Shared decision-making in medicine, Sigmoidoscopy, Silicon dioxide, Silver bullet, Skin cancer, Small-cell carcinoma, Social stigma, Somatic evolution in cancer, Specialty (medicine), Spindle cell carcinoma, Spleen, Splenomegaly, Squamous cell carcinoma, Stomach cancer, Sun, Sunlight, Surgery, Survival of the fittest, Susan Sontag, Symptom, Syndrome, Taboo, Tamoxifen, Targeted therapy, Tasmanian devil, Testicle, Testicular cancer, Testosterone, The great imitator, The Hallmarks of Cancer, The New York Times, Thymoma, Thyroid cancer, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Transmission (medicine), Tridymite, Tumor microenvironment, Tumor suppressor, Tumour heterogeneity, Tyrosine kinase, Ulcer (dermatology), Ulcerative colitis, Ultraviolet, United States dollar, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Uterine fibroid, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vegetable, Venous thrombosis, Vertebral column, Veterinary oncology, Victim blaming, Virotherapy, Vitamin, Vitamin D, War on Cancer, Weight loss, Whole grain, Wilhelm Fabry, Wollastonite, World Health Organization, 5α-Reductase inhibitor. 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL) located on chromosome 9.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient.
Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent used in cancer treatment that attaches an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA.
Alternative cancer treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.
3α-Androstanediol glucuronide (3α-ADG) is a metabolite formed from human androgens; compounds involved in the development and maintenance of sexual characteristics.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis).
Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals.
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
The breakpoint cluster region protein (BCR) also known as renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCR gene.
Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the first-line therapy for most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.
Biological therapy refers to the use of medication that is tailored to specifically target an immune or genetic mediator of disease.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
A blastoma is a type of cancer, more common in children, that is caused by malignancies in precursor cells, often called blasts.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone metastases, or osseous metastatic disease, is a category of cancer metastases that results from primary tumor invasion to bone.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
BRCA2 and BRCA2 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment.
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Bruce Michael Alberts (born April 14, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American biochemist and the Chancellor’s Leadership Chair in Biochemistry and Biophysics for Science and Education at the University of California, San Francisco.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
Campbell Greig De Morgan (22 November 1811 – 12 April 1876) was a British surgeon who first speculated that cancer arose locally and then spread, first to the lymph nodes and then more widely in the body.
Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.
Cancer research is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure.
Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
Cancer symptoms are changes in the body caused by the presence of cancer.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
A cancer syndrome or family cancer syndrome is a genetic disorder in which inherited genetic mutations in one or more genes predispose the affected individuals to the development of cancers and may also cause the early onset of these cancers.
Canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVTs), also called transmissible venereal tumors (TVTs), canine transmissible venereal sarcoma (CTVS), sticker tumors and infectious sarcoma is a histiocytic tumor of the external genitalia of the dog and other canines, and is transmitted from animal to animal during mating.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cancer bacteria are bacteria infectious organisms that are known or suspected to cause cancer.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
A centenarian is a person who lives to or beyond the age of 100 years.
Cervarix is a vaccine against certain types of cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV).
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations.
Childhood cancer (also known as pediatric cancer) is cancer in a child.
A chimney sweep is a person who clears ash and soot from chimneys.
Chimney sweep's cancer, also called soot wart, is a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum.
Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer or "sneaky Pete", is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial cells (or cells showing characteristics of epithelial differentiation) that originate in the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
A transmissible cancer is a cancer cell or cluster of cancer cells that can be transferred between individuals without the involvement of an infectious agent, such as an oncovirus.
Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is a human liver fluke belonging to the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The coding region of a gene, also known as the CDS (from CoDing Sequence), is that portion of a gene's DNA or RNA that codes for protein.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon).
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Contrast CT is X-ray computed tomography (CT) using radiocontrast.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is an aggressive non-viral clonally transmissible cancer which affects Tasmanian devils, a marsupial native to Australia.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a system for recognizing and repairing erroneous insertion, deletion, and mis-incorporation of bases that can arise during DNA replication and recombination, as well as repairing some forms of DNA damage.
A DNA repair-deficiency disorder is a medical condition due to reduced functionality of DNA repair.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
Ductal carcinoma is a type of tumor that primarily presents in the ducts of a gland.
A dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor; it usually is malignant and usually occurs in the ovary.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
End-of-life care (or EoLC) refers to health care, not only of a person in the final hours or days of their lives, but more broadly care of all those with a terminal condition that has become advanced, progressive, and incurable.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors (as distinct from genetic factors or infection).
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy).
Extravasation is the leakage of a fluid out of its container.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Fecal occult blood (FOB) refers to blood in the feces that is not visibly apparent (unlike other types of blood in stool such as melena or hematochezia).
Fever of unknown origin (FUO), pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) or febris e causa ignota (febris E.C.I.) refers to a condition in which the patient has an elevated temperature (fever) but despite investigations by a physician no explanation has been found.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.
A first-degree relative is one's offspring, sibling or parent.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Franciscus Sylvius (15 March 1614 – 19 November 1672), born Franz de le Boë, was a Dutch physician and scientist (chemist, physiologist and anatomist) who was an early champion of Descartes', Van Helmont's and William Harvey's work and theories.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fusion gene is a hybrid gene formed from two previously separate genes.
Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gardasil, also known as Gardisil or Silgard or recombinant human papillomavirus vaccine, is a vaccine for use in the prevention of certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), specifically HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
Genome instability (also genetic instability or genomic instability) refers to a high frequency of mutations within the genome of a cellular lineage.
A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
Glass wool is an insulating material made from fibres of glass arranged using a binder into a texture similar to wool.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
In pathology, grading is a measure of the cell appearance in tumors and other neoplasms.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Ham is pork from a leg cut that has been preserved by wet or dry curing, with or without smoking.
Hand warmers are small (mostly disposable) packets which are held in the hand and produce heat on demand to warm cold hands.
Harold Eliot Varmus (born December 18, 1939) is an American Nobel Prize-winning scientist and was the 14th Director of the National Cancer Institute, a post to which he was appointed by President Barack Obama, and before that was director of the National Institutes of Health from 1993 to 1999.
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatoblastoma is an uncommon malignant liver cancer occurring in infants and children and composed of tissue resembling fetal liver cells, mature liver cells, or bile duct cells.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers including endometrial cancer (second most common), ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
High-mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGA1 gene.
High-mobility group AT-hook 2, also known as HMGA2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the HMGA2 gene.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
A hot dog (also spelled hotdog), also known as a frankfurter (sometimes shortened to frank), dog, or wiener, is a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a partially sliced bun.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Illness as Metaphor is a 1978 work of critical theory by Susan Sontag, in which she challenges the victim-blaming in the language often used to describe diseases and those who suffer from them.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Immunosenescence refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Intravasation is the invasion of cancer cells through the basal membrane into a blood or lymphatic vessel.
Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) also known as invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal NOS and previously known as invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) is a group of breast cancers that do not have the "specific differentiating features".
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
The just-world hypothesis or just-world fallacy is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, to the end of all noble actions being eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished.
A kanger (Nastaleeq); also known as kangri or kangid or kangir) is an earthen pot woven around with wicker filled with hot embers used by Kashmiris beneath their traditional clothing to keep the chill at bay, which is also regarded as a work of art.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is HHV-8.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laser ablation is the process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam.
Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in recent decades.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%).
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Liposarcoma is a cancer that arises in fat cells in deep soft tissue, such as that inside the thigh or in the retroperitoneum.
The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.
This is a list of chemotherapeutic agents (also known as cytotoxic agents) that are known to be of use in chemotherapy for cancer.
There are many different types of cell in the human body.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.
Liver fluke is a collective name of a polyphyletic group of parasitic trematodes under the phylum Platyhelminthes.
Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, commonly abbreviated LGIB, is any form of gastrointestinal bleeding in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) refer to several conditions in which lymphocytes are produced in excessive quantities.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Malignant transformation is the process by which cells acquire the properties of cancer.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Mineral wool is a general name for fiber materials that are formed by spinning or drawing molten minerals (or "synthetic minerals" such as slag and ceramics).
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
MutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLH1 gene located on Chromosome 3.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2 also known as MutS protein homolog 2 or MSH2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSH2 gene, which is located on chromosome 2.
MSH6 or mutS homolog 6 is a gene that codes for DNA mismatch repair protein Msh6 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicolaes Tulp (9 October 1593 – 12 September 1674) was a Dutch surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam.
Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(–R2)–N.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.
Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy) to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer.
Opisthorchis viverrini, common name Southeast Asian liver fluke, is a food-borne trematode parasite from the family Opisthorchiidae that infects the bile duct.
Optimism is a mental attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organ donation is when a person allows an organ of theirs to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin.
An osteosarcoma (OS) or osteogenic sarcoma (OGS) is a cancerous tumor in a bone.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's ordinarily expected lifetime.
Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Palygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate with formula (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2O) that occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Patient is an online resource providing information on health, lifestyle, disease and other medical related topics.
A patient's bill of rights is a list of guarantees for those receiving medical care.
Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 in London – 22 December 1788) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedics, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients' general well-being and activities of daily life.
The Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation (Ph) is a specific genetic abnormality in chromosome 22 of leukemia cancer cells (particularly chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells).
Photofluorography (sometimes called just fluorography) is photography of X-ray images from a fluorescent screen.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
PMS1 protein homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PMS1 gene.
Mismatch repair endonuclease PMS2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PMS2 gene.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.
Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Processed meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order either to improve its taste or to extend its shelf life.
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Raloxifene, developed by Eli Lilly in 1997 and sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer.
In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Robert Allan Weinberg (born November 11, 1942) is a biologist, Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), director of the Ludwig Center of the MIT, and American Cancer Society Research Professor.
A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.
Schistosoma haematobium (urinary blood fluke) is species of digenetic trematode, belonging to a group (genus) of blood flukes (Schistosoma).
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
Seminoma (also known as pure seminoma or classical seminoma) is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Shared decision-making in medicine (SDM) is a process in which both the patient and physician contribute to the medical decision-making process.
Sigmoidoscopy (from the Greek term for letter "s/ς" + "eidos" + "scopy": namely, to look inside an "s"/"ς"-like object) is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the nearest part of the colon, the sigmoid colon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In folklore, a bullet cast from silver is often the only weapon that is effective against a werewolf, witch, or other monsters.
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
Somatic evolution is the accumulation of mutations and epimutations in somatic cells (the cells of a body, as opposed to germplasm and stem cells) during a lifetime, and the effects of those mutations and epimutations on the fitness of those cells.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
Spindle cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs and that contains long spindle-shaped cells.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen.
Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American writer, filmmaker, philosopher, teacher, and political activist.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial of the family Dasyuridae.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The Great Imitator (also The Great Masquerader) is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.
"The Hallmarks of Cancer" is a seminal peer-reviewed article published in the journal Cell in January 2000 by the cancer researchers Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thymoma is a tumor originating from the epithelial cells of the thymus that may be benign or malignant.
Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM).
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Veterinary oncology is a subspecialty of veterinary medicine that deals with cancer diagnosis and treatment in animals.
Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially at fault for the harm that befell them.
Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
The War on Cancer refers to the effort to find a cure for cancer by increased research to improve the understanding of cancer biology and the development of more effective cancer treatments, such as targeted drug therapies.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
Wilhelm Fabry (also William Fabry, Guilelmus Fabricius Hildanus, or Fabricius von Hilden) (June 25, 1560 − February 15, 1634), often called the "Father of German surgery", was the first educated and scientific German surgeon.
Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral (CaSiO3) that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
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