94 relations: Adaptation, Amphotericin B, Ascomycota, Asthma, Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Biofilm, Bone marrow, Candida (fungus), Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candidalysin, Candidiasis, Charles-Philippe Robin, Chemotherapy, Chlamydospore, Christine Marie Berkhout, Chromatin, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Clotrimazole, Colonisation (biology), Commensalism, David R. Soll, Death, Deletion (genetics), Dimorphic fungus, Disease, DNA, Echinocandin, Epigenetics, Eukaryote, Fluconazole, Fred Sherman (scientist), Fungal adhesin, Fungemia, Fungus, Gateway Technology, Gene silencing, Genetic code, Genome, Gentamicin, Gut flora, Heat shock, Hippocrates, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hospital-acquired infection, Hypha, Immunodeficiency, ..., Intestinal permeability, Karyotype, Mating in fungi, Mating of yeast, Mating type, Meiosis, Microcolony, Morphology (biology), Mycosis, Neil A. R. Gow, Neonatal infection, Nystatin, Oral candidiasis, Parasexual cycle, Pathogen, Phenotype, Phenotypic switching, Plasmid, Pleomorphism (microbiology), Polyphenism, Prevalence, RNA-binding protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycetaceae, Saccharomycetales, Saccharomycetes, Sexual dimorphism, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sirtuin 1, Staphylococcus aureus, Start codon, Tautology (grammar), Tetracycline-controlled transcriptional activation, Tissue (biology), Tongue, Tongue piercing, Torula, Transcription factor, Transcriptional regulation, Trisomy, Two-hybrid screening, Unicellular organism, Vaginal yeast infection, Yeast. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (also known as BiFC) is a technology typically used to validate protein interactions.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast of the genus Candida, previously known as Torulopsis glabrata.
Candida parapsilosis is a fungal species of yeast that has become a significant cause of sepsis and of wound and tissue infections in immunocompromised people.
Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
Candidalysin is a cytolytic 31-amino acid α-helical peptide toxin found in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
Charles-Philippe Robin (4 June 1821 – 6 October 1885) was a French anatomist, biologist, and histologist born in Jasseron, département Ain.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
A chlamydospore is the thick-walled large resting spore of several kinds of fungi, including Ascomycota such as Candida, Basidiomycota such as Panus, and various Mortierellales species.
Christine Marie Berkhout (13 July 1893, Malang – 18 November 1932) was a mycologist.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Clotrimazole, sold under the brand name Canesten among others, is an antifungal medication.
Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
David R. Soll (born April 29, 1942) is a Professor of Biology at the University of Iowa.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.
Dimorphic fungi are fungi that can exist in the form of both mold and yeast.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase and are thus called "penicillin of antifungals" (a property shared with papulacandins) as penicillin has a similar mechanism against bacteria but not fungi.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.
Fred Sherman (May 21, 1932 – September 16, 2013) was an American scientist who pioneered the use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for studying the genetics and molecular biology of eukaryotic cells.
Fungal adhesins are proteins located on the surface of fungal cells.
Fungemia or fungaemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Gateway cloning System, invented and commercialized by Invitrogen since the late 1990s, is a molecular biology method that enables researchers to efficiently transfer DNA-fragments between plasmids using a proprietary set of recombination sequences, the "Gateway att" sites, and two proprietary enzyme mixes, called "LR Clonase", and "BP Clonase".
Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Gentamicin, sold under brand names Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
In biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a temperature that is greater than the optimal temperature range of function of the cell.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the cells lining the gut wall, into the rest of the body.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single-celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence.
Mating types are molecular mechanisms that regulate compatibility in sexually reproducing eukaryotes.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
Neil Andrew Robert Gow (born 30 November 1957) FRS FRSE FMedSci is a professor of Microbiology in the Institute of Medical Sciences at the University of Aberdeen.
Nystatin, sold under the brandname Mycostatin among others, is an antifungal medication.
Oral candidiasis, also known as oral thrush among other names, is candidiasis that occurs in the mouth.
The parasexual cycle, a process peculiar to fungi and single-celled organisms, is a nonsexual mechanism of parasexuality for transferring genetic material without meiosis or the development of sexual structures.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phenotypic switching is switching between multiple cellular morphologies.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
In microbiology, pleomorphism (from greek πλέω- more, and -μορφή form) is the ability of some micro-organisms to alter their shape or size in response to environmental conditions.
A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
RNA-binding proteins (often abbreviated as RBPs) are proteins that bind to the double or single stranded RNA in cells and participate in forming ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
The Saccharomycetaceae are a family of yeasts in the order Saccharomycetales that reproduce by budding.
Saccharomycetales belongs to the kingdom of Fungi and the division Ascomycota.
Saccharomycetes belongs to the kingdom of Fungi and the division Ascomycota.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Sirtuin 1, also known as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.
In grammar, a tautology (from Greek tauto, "the same" and logos, "word"/"idea") is a statement that has repetitive or redundant wording.
Tetracycline-Controlled Transcriptional Activation is a method of inducible gene expression where transcription is reversibly turned on or off in the presence of the antibiotic tetracycline or one of its derivatives (e.g. doxycycline).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
A tongue piercing is a body piercing usually done directly through the center of the tongue.
Torula (Latin name: Cyberlindnera jadinii) is a species of yeast.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.
Two-hybrid screening (originally known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Vaginal yeast infection, also known as candidal vulvovaginitis and vaginal thrush, is excessive growth of yeast in the vagina that results in irritation.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.