179 relations: Acetylcholine, Adenosine, Adenosine A2A receptor, Adenylyl cyclase, Adipocyte, Adrenal gland, Afrotheria, Allosteric modulator, Allosteric regulation, AM-1221, AM-1235, AM-2201, AM-2232, AM-251 (drug), Amygdala, Anandamide, Anatomical terms of location, Anterior olfactory nucleus, Aspartic acid, Autocrine signalling, Basal ganglia, Binding site, Bleeding, Brainstem, C-Fos, C-jun, C-Jun N-terminal kinases, C-Raf, Calcium channel, Cannabidiol, Cannabigerol, Cannabinoid, Cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinoid receptor antagonist, Cannabinoid receptor type 2, Cannabinol, Cannabis (drug), Carcinoma, Catechin, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Chemical synthesis, Cholecystokinin, Circulatory system, Colugo, CP 55,940, CREB, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Decidua, Dopamine, ..., Dopamine receptor, Dronabinol, Embryo, Endothelium, Enzyme, Epigallocatechin gallate, Euarchonta, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Feedback, Female, Fenofibrate, G protein–coupled receptor, Gallocatechol, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gastrointestinal tract, GAT100, Ghrelin, Gi alpha subunit, Glires, Glutamic acid, GPCR oligomer, Gs alpha subunit, Hepatic stellate cell, Hepatocyte, Heteroreceptor, Hippocampus, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), HU-210, Hypotension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, Ibipinabant, In vivo, Inverse agonist, Inward-rectifier potassium channel, JWH-007, JWH-015, JWH-018, JWH-073, Kavain, Kidney, Kupffer cell, Laurasiatheria, Levonantradol, Leydig cell, Limbic system, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoxin, Liver, Long-term depression, Long-term potentiation, Lung, Mammal, Memory, Mesolimbic pathway, Messenger RNA, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, Metabotropic receptor, Minocycline, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MK-9470, Motility, Myelin, Myocyte, Myometrium, N-Arachidonoyl dopamine, Neocortex, Neuromodulation, Neurotransmitter, NMDA receptor, Norepinephrine, Nuclear DNA, Nucleus accumbens, Oleamide, Olfactory bulb, Otenabant, Ovary, Oviduct, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Peptide hormone, Periaqueductal gray, Piriform cortex, Pituitary gland, Placenta, Placentalia, Platelet, Positron emission tomography, Posterior grey column, Prefrontal cortex, Pregnenolone, Prostate cancer, Protein dimer, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, PSNCBAM-1, Psychoactive drug, Purkinje cell, Receptor-mediated endocytosis, Rimonabant, Rodent, RVD-Hpα, Septal nuclei, Serotonin, Smoking cessation, Spermatozoon, Spinal cord, Stria terminalis, Striatum, Synaptic plasticity, Synthetic cannabinoids, Taranabant, Taxonomy (biology), Tetrahydrocannabinol, Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Thalamus, Thyroid, TM-38837, TRPV1, UR-144, Ventral tegmental area, Virodhamine, WIN 55,212-2, Xenarthra, Yangonin, ZCZ-011, 11-Hydroxy-THC, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether. Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Afrotheria is a clade of mammals, the living members of which belong to groups that are either currently living in Africa or of African origin: golden moles, elephant shrews (also known as sengis), tenrecs, aardvarks, hyraxes, elephants, sea cows, and several extinct clades.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
AM-1221 is a drug that acts as a potent and selective agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB2, with a ''K''i of 0.28 nM at CB2 and 52.3 nM at the CB1 receptor, giving it around 180x selectivity for CB2.
AM-1235 (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-oyl)-6-nitroindole) is a drug that acts as a potent and reasonably selective agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1.
AM-2201 (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is a recreational designer drug that acts as a potent but nonselective full agonist for the cannabinoid receptor.
AM-2232 (1-(4-cyanobutyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-oyl)indole) is a drug that acts as a potent but unselective agonist for the cannabinoid receptors, with a ''K''i of 0.28 nM at CB1 and 1.48 nM at CB2.
AM-251 is an inverse agonist at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON; also called the anterior olfactory cortex) is a portion of the forebrain of vertebrates.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
c-Jun is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUN gene.
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain.
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, also known as proto-oncogene c-RAF or simply c-Raf or even Raf-1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAF1 gene.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
Cannabigerol is one of some 560 cannabinoid compounds found in the plant genus Cannabis.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
A cannabinoid receptor antagonist, also known simply as a cannabinoid antagonist or as an anticannabinoid, is a type of cannabinoidergic drug that binds to cannabinoid receptors (CBR) and prevents their activation by endocannabinoids.
The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is encoded by the CNR2 gene.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis, and is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia.
CP 55,940 is a cannabinoid which mimics the effects of naturally occurring THC (one of the psychoactive compounds found in cannabis).
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
The decidua is the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dronabinol – trade names Marinol and Syndros – is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin.
The Euarchonta are a proposed grandorder of mammals containing four orders: the Scandentia or treeshrews, the Dermoptera or colugos, the extinct Plesiadapiformes, and the Primates.
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Fenofibrate, marketed as Tricor and under several other brand names, is a drug of the fibrate class.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gallocatechol or gallocatechin (GC) is a flavan-3-ol, a type of chemical compound including catechin, with the gallate residue being in an isomeric trans position.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
GAT100 is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glires (Latin glīrēs, dormice) is a clade (sometimes ranked as a grandorder) consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares, and pikas).
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
A GPCR oligomer is a protein complex that consists of a small number (ὀλίγοι oligoi "a few", μέρος méros "part, piece, component") of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
Hepatic stellate cells (here HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells (earlier lipocytes or fat-storing cells), are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver, also known as the space of Disse (a small area between the sinusoids and hepatocytes).
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
A heteroreceptor is a receptor regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
HU-210 is a synthetic cannabinoid that was first synthesized in 1988 from (1R,5S)-myrtenol by a group led by Professor Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Ibipinabant (SLV319, BMS-646,256) is a drug used in scientific research which acts as a potent and highly selective CB1 antagonist.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium channels.
JWH-007 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family, which acts as a cannabinoid agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 receptors.
JWH-015 is a chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a subtype-selective cannabinoid agonist.
JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) or AM-678 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a full agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with some selectivity for CB2.
JWH-073, a synthetic cannabinoid, is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a partial agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.
Kavain is the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer-Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids.
Laurasiatheria is a clade of placental mammals that originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia 99 million years ago.
Levonantradol (CP 50,556-1) is a synthetic cannabinoid analog of dronabinol (Marinol) developed by Pfizer in the 1980s.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lipoxins (LXs or Lxs), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction products, are bioactive autacoid metabolites of arachidonic acid made by various cell types.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Minocycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic, and has a broader spectrum than the other members of the group.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
MK-9470 is a synthetic compound, which binds to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and functions as an inverse agonist.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endocannabinoid that acts as an agonist of the CB1 receptor and the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) ion channel.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Oleamide is an organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)7CH.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Otenabant (CP-945,598) is a drug which acts as a potent and highly selective CB1 antagonist.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
In vertebrates, other than mammals, the passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct.
P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
The piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex, is a region in the brain, part of the rhinencephalon situated in the cerebrum.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 188.8.131.52), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
PSNCBAM-1 is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins – and in some cases viruses – by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed (endocytosis).
Rimonabant (also known as SR141716; trade names Acomplia, Zimulti) is an anorectic antiobesity drug that was first approved in Europe in 2006 but was withdrawn worldwide in 2008 due to serious psychiatric side effects; it was never approved in the United States.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
RVD-Hpα is an endogenous neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, which was originally proposed to act as a selective agonist for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.
The septal nuclei (medial olfactory area) are a set of structures that lie below the rostrum of the corpus callosum, anterior to the lamina terminalis (the layer of gray matter in the brain connecting the optic chiasma and the anterior commissure where the latter becomes continuous with the rostral lamina).
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body–the same receptors that the cannabinoids in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD–attach to.
Taranabant (codenamed MK-0364) is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist that was investigated as a potential treatment for obesity due to its anorectic effects.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV, THV) is a homologue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) having a propyl (3-carbon) side chain instead of a pentyl (5-carbon) group on the molecule, which makes it produce very different effects from THC.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
TM-38837 is a small molecule inverse agonist/antagonist of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, with peripheral selectivity.
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.
UR-144 (TMCP-018, KM-X1, MN-001, YX-17) is a drug invented by Abbott Laboratories, that acts as a selective full agonist of the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2, but with much lower affinity for the psychoactive CB1 receptor.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Virodhamine (O-arachidonoyl ethanolamine; O-AEA) is an endocannabinoid and a nonclassic eicosanoid, derived from arachidonic acid.
WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical described as an aminoalkylindole derivative, which produces effects similar to those of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but has an entirely different chemical structure.
The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas and represented by anteaters, tree sloths, and armadillos.
Yangonin is one of the six major kavalactones found in the kava plant.
ZCZ-011 is a positive allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.
11-Hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), usually referred to as 11-hydroxy-THC, is the main active metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is formed in the body after cannabis is consumed.
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor and the primary endogenous ligand for the CB2 receptor.
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír Hanuš and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.