220 relations: Adenylyl cyclase, Alcohol proof, Alcoholism, Allosteric modulator, Altered state of consciousness, AlterNet, Amygdala, Antiemetic, Anxiety, Anxiogenic, Anxiolytic, Appetite, Arteritis, Aryan, Ataxia, Atharvaveda, Belgium, Bhang, Black market, Blunt (cigar), Body image, Bong, Bronchodilator, Butane, Canada, Cannabidiol, Cannabinoid, Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, Cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cannabinoid receptor type 2, Cannabinol, Cannabis, Cannabis and time perception, Cannabis classification in the United Kingdom, Cannabis cultivation, Cannabis edible, Cannabis in the United States, Cannabis in Uruguay, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis shop, Cannabis smoking, Cannabis strains, Cannabis tea, Carbon dioxide, Carcinogen, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac output, ..., Cardiomyopathy, Case report, Central Asia, Charles Baudelaire, Chemical substance, Chemotherapy, Chromatography, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronic pain, Club des Hashischins, Coffeeshop (Netherlands), Cognition, Colombia, Colorado, Colorado Amendment 64, Copenhagen, Czech Republic, Dacia, Decriminalization, Depersonalization, Derealization, Dissociation (psychology), Dopamine, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Drug harmfulness, Drug overdose, Drug possession, Drugs controlled by the German Betäubungsmittelgesetz, Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, Duquenois–Levine reagent, Dysphoria, Ecuador, Effect size, Effects of cannabis, El Comercio (Ecuador), El Nuevo Herald, Endocannabinoid system, Entheogen, Entheogenic use of cannabis, Euphoria, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Executive functions, Extraction (chemistry), Fitz Hugh Ludlow, Flower, Frank Jensen, G protein–coupled receptor, Germ cell tumor, Glutamic acid, Glycerol, Glycine receptor, Grey matter, Hash oil, Hashish, Hemp, Hepatitis C, Herbalism, Herodotus, Hippocampus, History of the Assyrian people, HIV/AIDS, Hookah, Hydroponics, Ibn Taymiyyah, Illusion, Immunoassay, India, Indigenous (ecology), Inflorescence, Intelligence quotient, International Opium Convention, Jacques-Joseph Moreau, Jamaica, Joint (cannabis), José Mujica, Justin Trudeau, Kapnobatai, Kief, Legality of cannabis, Les Paradis artificiels, Libido, Lipophilicity, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of names for cannabis, Long-term effects of cannabis, Mamluk, Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Marijuana (word), Medical cannabis, Medical cannabis in the United States, Metabolic syndrome, Mexico, Motor coordination, Motor vehicle, Myocardial infarction, Nabiximols, National Academy of Sciences, National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Neolithic, Nepal, Netherlands, Neuroglia, Occupational health concerns of cannabis use, One-hitter (smoking), Ounce, Paranoia, Pazyryk burials, Plea bargain, Poly drug use, Portugal, Pregnancy, Presumptive and confirmatory tests, Prohibition of drugs, Pseudohallucination, Psychoactive drug, Psychosis, Qalandar, Quality of life, Rastafari, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Rectified spirit, Religion, Religion and drugs, Resin, Rimonabant, Sacrament, Saturated fat, Schizophrenia, Scythia, Scythians, Second messenger system, Seminoma, Shamanism, Smoking cessation, Soma (drink), South Africa, South Asia, Spasm, Spirituality, Sufism, Supercritical fluid, Tar (tobacco residue), Tetrahydrocannabinol, Tetrahydrocannabivarin, The Hague, The Hasheesh Eater, Thracians, Tincture, Toxicity, Trance, Trichome, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Uruguay, Uttarakhand, Vapor, Vaporizer (inhalation device), Varieties of Arabic, Vasoconstriction, Vedas, Vedic period, Washington (state), Washington Initiative 502, Washington, D.C., Weight loss, White matter, William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, Xerostomia, 5-HT1A receptor. Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Alcohol proof is a measure of the content of ethanol (alcohol) in an alcoholic beverage.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
AlterNet is a progressive news magazine owned by AlterNet Media, Inc.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiogenic or panicogenic substance is one that causes anxiety.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or autoimmune response.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bhang (भांग) is an edible preparation of cannabis.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
A blunt is a cigar which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a Corona.
Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.
A bong (also water pipe, billy, bing, or moof) is a filtration device generally used for smoking cannabis, tobacco, or other herbal substances.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome can occur with cannabis use and is characterized by recurrent nausea, vomiting, and crampy abdominal pain.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is encoded by the CNR2 gene.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis, and is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
The effect of cannabis on time perception has been studied with inconclusive results.
Cannabis classification in the United Kingdom refers to the class of drugs, as determined by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, that cannabis is placed in.
This article presents common techniques and facts regarding the cultivation of the flowering plant Cannabis, primarily for the production and consumption of cannabis flowers ("buds").
A cannabis edible, also known as a cannabis-infused food or simply an edible, is a food product that contains cannabinoids, especially tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
The use, sale, and possession of all forms of cannabis in the United States is illegal under federal law.
Cannabis is legal in Uruguay, and is one of the most widely used drugs in the nation.
Cannabis indica, formally known as Cannabis sativa forma indica, is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family.
Cannabis ruderalis is a low-THC species of Cannabis which is native to Central and Eastern Europe and Russia.
Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.
A cannabis shop, cannabis dispensary, or cannabis cooperative is a location at which marijuana is sold for recreational or medical use.
Cannabis smoking is the inhalation of smoke or vapors released by heating the flowers, leaves, or extracts of cannabis and releasing the main psychoactive chemical, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is absorbed into the bloodstream via the lungs.
Cannabis strains are either pure or hybrid varieties of the plant genus Cannabis, which encompasses the species C. sativa, C. indica and C. ruderalis.
Cannabis tea (also known as herbal tea, weed tea, pot tea, ganja tea, or green tea) is a cannabis-infused drink made with cannabis infused in hot or cold water.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.
In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
The Club des Hashischins (sometimes also spelled Club des Hashishins or Club des Hachichins, "Club of the Hashish-Eaters") was a Parisian group dedicated to the exploration of drug-induced experiences, notably with hashish.
In the Netherlands, coffeeshops are establishments where the sale of cannabis for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local authorities.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Colorado Amendment 64 was a successful popular initiative ballot measure to amend the Constitution of the State of Colorado, outlining a statewide drug policy for cannabis.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
Decriminalization or decriminalisation is the lessening of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts, perhaps retroactively, though perhaps regulated permits or fines might still apply (for contrast, see: legalization).
Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.
Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.
Drug harmfulness is the degree to which a psychoactive drug is harmful to a user and is measured in various ways, such as by addictiveness and the potential for physical harm.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug possession is the crime of having one or more illegal drugs in one's possession, either for personal use, distribution, sale or otherwise.
Drugs controlled by the German Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG).
Drugs controlled by the United Kingdom (UK) Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 are listed in this article.
The Duquenois reagent is used in the Rapid Modified Duquenois–Levine test (also known as the simple Rapid Duquenois Test), is an established screening test for the presence of marijuana.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon.
The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is only one of more than 100 different cannabinoids present in the plant.
El Comercio is a daily Ecuadorian newspaper in Quito.
El Nuevo Herald is a newspaper published daily in Spanish in Southeast Florida, United States.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Cannabis has been used in an entheogenic context—a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context—in India and Nepal since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union located in Lisbon, Portugal.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix.
Fitz Hugh Ludlow, sometimes seen as Fitzhugh Ludlow (September 11, 1836 – September 12, 1870), was an American author, journalist, and explorer; best known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857).
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Frank Jensen (born 28 May 1961) is a Danish politician, member of the Danish Social Democrats, and has been Lord Mayor of Copenhagen since 1 January 2010.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Hash oil is an oleoresin obtained by the extraction of cannabis or hashish.
Hashish, or hash, is a drug made from cannabis.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The history of the Assyrian people begins with the appearance of Akkadian speaking peoples in Mesopotamia at some point between 3500 and 3000 BC, followed by the formation of Assyria in the 25th century BC.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, was the first international drug control treaty.
Jacques-Joseph Moreau (3 June 1804 – 26 June 1884), nicknamed "Moreau de Tours", was a French psychiatrist and member of the Club des Hashischins.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
A joint, spliff, jay, or doobie, is a rolled marijuana cigarette.
José Alberto "Pepe" Mujica Cordano (born 20 May 1935) is a Uruguayan politician who served as the 40th President of Uruguay from 2010 to 2015.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.
Kapnobatai or capnobatae, meaning "those who walk on/in smoke/clouds" was one of the names given to the Mysians of Thrace (modern-day Bulgaria) who practiced the dietary restriction of not consuming living things, thus living on milk and honey.
Kief, sometimes transliterated as keef or kif, refers to the resinous trichomes of cannabis that may accumulate in containers or be sifted from loose, dry cannabis flower with a mesh screen or sieve.
The legality of cannabis for general or recreational use varies from country to country.
Les Paradis Artificiels (Artificial Paradises) is a book by French poet Charles Baudelaire, first published in 1860, about the state of being under the influence of opium and hashish.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Cannabis has many different names, including more than 1,200 slang terms.
The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937,, was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.
Marijuana, or marihuana, is a name for the cannabis plant and more specifically a drug preparation from it.
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.
In the United States, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is legal in 30 states, plus the territories of Guam and Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, as of June 2018.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nabiximols (USAN, trade name Sativex) is a specific extract of Cannabis that was approved as a botanical drug in the United Kingdom in 2010 as a mouth spray to alleviate neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder, and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis; it was developed by the UK company GW Pharmaceuticals.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC) was established in 2008 in response to data published in the Pfizer Australia Health Report.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Occupational health concerns are becoming increasingly important as cannabis becomes legal in more areas of the US.
A one-hitter (also oney, bat, tay or oney bat) is typically a slender pipe with a screened narrow bowl designed for a single inhalation, or "hit", of smoke or vapor from a small serving (about 25 mg) of heated cannabis, tobacco or other dry, sifted herbal preparation.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
The Pazyryk (Пазырык) burials are a number of Scythian Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.
The plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.
Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Presumptive tests, in medical and forensic science, analyze a sample and establish one of the following.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
A pseudohallucination is an involuntary sensory experience vivid enough to be regarded as a hallucination, but recognised by the patient not to be the result of external stimuli.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Qalandars (قلندر) are wandering ascetic Sufi dervishes who may or may not be connected to a specific tariqat.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Many religions have expressed positions on what is acceptable to consume as a means of intoxication for spiritual, pleasure, or medicinal purposes.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Rimonabant (also known as SR141716; trade names Acomplia, Zimulti) is an anorectic antiobesity drug that was first approved in Europe in 2006 but was withdrawn worldwide in 2008 due to serious psychiatric side effects; it was never approved in the United States.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Seminoma (also known as pure seminoma or classical seminoma) is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Soma (सोम) or haoma (Avestan) is a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indians.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
Tar is the common name for the resinous, partially combusted particulate matter produced by the burning of tobacco and other plant material in the act of smoking.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV, THV) is a homologue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) having a propyl (3-carbon) side chain instead of a pentyl (5-carbon) group on the molecule, which makes it produce very different effects from THC.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Hasheesh Eater (1857) is an autobiographical book by Fitz Hugh Ludlow describing the author's altered states of consciousness and philosophical flights of fancy while he was using a cannabis extract.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome).
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
Trichomes, from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
A vaporizer or vaporiser (a ‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Washington Initiative 502 (I-502) "on marijuana reform" was an initiative to the Washington State Legislature, which appeared on the November 2012 general ballot, passing by a margin of approximately 56 to 44 percent.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (from 1861 as William O'Shaughnessy Brooke) MD FRS (October 1809, Limerick, Ireland – 8 January 1889, Southsea, England) was an Irish physician famous for his wide-ranging scientific work in pharmacology, chemistry, and inventions related to telegraphy and its use in India.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
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