374 relations: AC/DC, Aerial warfare, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Akbar, Akkadian language, Allies of World War II, AllMusic, American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Ancient Discoveries, Andrey Chokhov, Anglo-Turkish War (1807–09), Anglo-Zanzibar War, Antal Doráti, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-tank gun, Arithmetic, Armstrong Gun, Arquebus, Arthur Fiedler, Artillery, Artillery battery, Ashgate Publishing, Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Astragal, Attack aircraft, Autocannon, Avalanche Press, Đại Việt, Ballista, Baltimore, Bantam Books, Barnes & Noble, Basic Books, Bastion fort, Battalion, Battering ram, Battle of Ain Jalut, Battle of Borodino, Battle of Breitenfeld (1631), Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Battle of Crécy, Battle of Flodden, Battle of Friedland, Battle of Lake Poyang, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of Waterloo, Battlespace, Beijing, ..., Bidar Fort, Birmingham, Bombard (weapon), Boston Pops Orchestra, Boydell & Brewer, Breastwork (fortification), Breech-loading weapon, British Empire, Bronze, Byzantine Empire, Caliber, Caliber (artillery), Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Canister shot, Cannon fodder, Canon obusier de 12, Carroll & Graf Publishers, Carronade, Cartography, Cascabel (artillery), Cast iron, Castle, Catapult, Cetbang, Chain gun, Champaign, Illinois, Charles Dickens, Charles Knight (publisher), Charles Macfarlane, Charleston, South Carolina, Circular error probable, Cividale del Friuli, Close air support, Conducting, Confederate States Army, Continental Army, Coventry Ordnance Works, COW 37 mm gun, Crimean War, Cruise missile, Cuirassier, Culverin, Da Capo Press, Dardanelles Gun, Dazu Rock Carvings, Defensive wall, Demi-cannon, Demi-culverin, Device Forts, Direct fire, Dogfight, Dorling Kindersley, Doubleday (publisher), Dubrovnik, Earplug, Electrolyte, Emirate of Granada, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Enfilade and defilade, English cannon, English Civil War, Eurasia, European Theater of Operations, United 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test, Ibn Khaldun, Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, Independence Day (United States), Indirect fire, Infantry fighting vehicle, Infantry square, Ironclad warship, Irving Wallace, Ivan Petlin, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Joachim Murat, Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, Johns Hopkins University Press, Joseon, Joseph Needham, Joseph Whitworth, Kamikaze, Kenthurst, New South Wales, Korean War, Kotor, Lancer, Late Middle Ages, Latin, LAV-25, Limbers and caissons, Line (formation), List of cannon projectiles, Lockheed AC-130, Long gun, Long Range Land Attack Projectile, Luftwaffe, M1919 Browning machine gun, M2 Bradley, M2 Browning, M242 Bushmaster, M777 howitzer, Machine gun, Madrid, Majapahit, Mamluk, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mangonel, Marcus Jordanus, Marin Barleti, Marinid dynasty, Mass production, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, Mehmed the Conqueror, Mercury Records, Merlon, MG FF cannon, Ming dynasty, Minion (cannon), Minnesota Orchestra, MIT Press, Mongol invasion of Java, Mongols, Mortar (weapon), Mughal Empire, Muslim world, Muzzleloader, Naphtha, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Nathaniel Nye, National Park Service, NATO, Naval artillery, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nuclear artillery, Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, Office of Public Sector Information, Onager (weapon), Opus Majus, Ordnance QF 17-pounder, Ordnance QF 2-pounder, Ordnance QF 6-pounder, Osprey Publishing, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Pannier, Panzer, Panzer III, Panzer IV, Paris Gun, Paul Barras, Penguin Books, Persian people, Personal weapon, Petrary, Phoenix Iron Works (Phoenixville, Pennsylvania), Pike and shot, Plumb bob, Polyurethane, Pot-de-fer, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, Proximity fuze, Prussia, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Pyrotechnics, Quaker gun, Random House, RARDEN, Recoil, Redoubt, Ricochet, Rifling, Robert Recorde, Rochester, New York, Roger Bacon, Rotary cannon, Round shot, Roundhead, Routledge, Royal Navy, Russia, Rust, Sabot, Saker (cannon), Sapping, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Scania, Schräge Musik, Ship of the line, Shkodër, Sichuan, Siege engine, Siege of Calais (1346–1347), Siege of Kazan, Siege of Pyongyang (1593), Siege of Shkodra, Siege of Worcester, Siege tower, Sight (device), Signoria, Sijilmasa, Simon & Schuster, Slow match, Smithsonian Institution, Smokeless powder, Smoothbore, Southeast Asia, Srirangapatna, Steel, Stockholm, Sturmgeschütz III, Supergun, Suzhou, Sweden, Swedish History Museum, T-34, Tank gun, Tannic acid, The Art of War (Machiavelli), The Siege of Shkodra (book), The Times, Thomas Y. Crowell Co., Tipu Sultan, Ton, Tonne, Tower, Trebuchet, Trench warfare, Trevithick Society, Triangulation, Trunnion, Turtle ship, Union Army, United States Army, United States Department of Energy, United States Government Publishing Office, United States Navy, University of Illinois Press, University of Nebraska Press, University of South Carolina Press, V-1 flying bomb, Vendémiaire, Vickers Type 161, Vietnam War, Volley gun, W. W. Norton & Company, Wadding, Walls of Constantinople, Walter de Milemete, Wardrobe (government), Wax, Webster's Dictionary, Wehrmacht, Western world, Western Xia, Westland C.O.W. Gun Fighter, Wikisource, William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, William Shakespeare, William Washington, Windage, World War I, World War II, Wuwei Bronze Cannon, Xanadu Gun, Yi Sun-sin, Youghal, Yuan dynasty, 13 Vendémiaire, 1812 Overture, 25 mm caliber, 8.8 cm KwK 43, 8.8 cm Pak 43. Expand index (324 more) » « Shrink index
AC/DC are an Australian rock band, formed in Sydney in 1973 by brothers Malcolm and Angus Young.
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Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
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Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.
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Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
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Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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AllMusic (previously known as All Music Guide or AMG) is an online music guide.
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The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
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The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Ancient Discoveries is a television series that premiered on December 21, 2003, on The History Channel.
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Andrey Chokhov, also spelled Chekhov (Андрей Чохов (Чехов) in Russian) (c. 1545 – 1629, allegedly 8 December, Moscow) was a highly prominent Russian cannon and bell caster.
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The Anglo-Turkish War was a conflict took place during the Napoleonic Wars between 1807 and 1809.
The Anglo-Zanzibar War was a military conflict fought between the United Kingdom and the Zanzibar Sultanate on 27 August 1896.
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Antal Doráti, KBE (9 April 1906 – 13 November 1988) was a Hungarian-born conductor and composer who became a naturalized American citizen in 1943.
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Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
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An Anti-tank gun is a form of artillery designed to destroy armored fighting vehicles, normally from a static defensive position.
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Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
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An Armstrong Gun was a uniquely designed type of rifled breech-loading field and heavy gun designed by Sir William Armstrong and manufactured in England beginning in 1855 by the Elswick Ordnance Company and the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich.
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The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
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Arthur Fiedler (December 17, 1894 – July 10, 1979) was a long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specializes in popular and light classical music.
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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
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In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
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Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
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The Asiatic-Pacific Theater, was the theater of operations of U.S. forces during World War II in the Pacific War during 1941–45.
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An astragal is a moulding profile composed of a half-round surface surrounded by two flat planes (fillets).
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An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
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An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large, fully automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun.
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Avalanche Press is an American company that publishes board wargames and has published some role-playing game supplements.
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Đại Việt (literally Great Viet) is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804.
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The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
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Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
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Bantam Books is an American publishing house owned entirely by parent company Random House, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House; it is an imprint of the Random House Publishing Group.
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Barnes & Noble, Inc., a Fortune 500 company, is the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States, and a retailer of content, digital media, and educational products.
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Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
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A bastion fort, a type of trace Italienne (literally, Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield.
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A battalion is a military unit.
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A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates.
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The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
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The Battle of Borodino (la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.
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The Battle of Breitenfeld (Schlacht bei Breitenfeld; Slaget vid Breitenfeld) or First Battle of Breitenfeld (in older texts sometimes known as Battle of Leipzig), was fought at a crossroads near Breitenfeld approximately five miles north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631.
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War (1861–1865), and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign.
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir, also known as the Chosin Reservoir Campaign or the Battle of Jhangjin Lake (장진호 전투; hanja: 長津湖戰鬪; rr: Jangjin ho jeontu), was a decisive battle in the Korean War.
The Battle of Crécy (26 August 1346), also spelled Cressy, was an English victory during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
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The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton (Brainston Moor) was a military combat in the War of the League of Cambrai between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, resulting in an English victory.
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The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.
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The battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) was a naval conflict which took place 30 August – 4 October 1363 between the rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang and Chen Youliang during the Red Turban Rebellion which led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty.
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The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
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The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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Battlespace is a term used to signify a unified military strategy to integrate and combine armed forces for the military theatre of operations, including air, information, land, sea, cyber and space to achieve military goals.
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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
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Bidar Fort is situated in Bidar city of the northern plateau of Karnataka, India.
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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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The bombard is a cannon or mortar used throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
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The Boston Pops Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts that specializes in playing light classical and popular music.
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Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
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A breastwork is a temporary fortification, often an earthwork thrown up to breast height to provide protection to defenders firing over it from a standing position.
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
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In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
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In artillery, caliber or calibredifference in British English and American English spelling is the internal diameter of a gun barrel, or by extension a relative measure of the length.
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Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.
Canister shot is a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons.
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Cannon fodder is an informal, derogatory term for combatants who are regarded or treated by government or military command as expendable in the face of enemy fire.
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The Canon obusier de 12 (French:"Canon obusier de campagne de 12 livres, modèle 1853", USA: 12-pounder Napoleon), also known as the "Canon de l’Empereur" was a type of canon-obusier (literally "Shell-gun cannon", "gun-howitzer") developed by France in 1853.
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Carroll & Graf Publishers was an American publishing company, based in New York City, New York, known for publishing a wide range of fiction and non-fiction by both new and established authors, as well as issuing reprints of previously hard-to-find works.
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A carronade is a short, smoothbore, cast iron cannon which was used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland, UK.
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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
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A cascabel is a subassembly of a muzzle-loading cannon - a place to attach arresting ropes to deal with the recoil of firing the cannon.
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Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
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A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
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The Cetbang was a type of cannon produced and used by the Majapahit Empire (1293–1527) and other kingdoms in the Nusantaran archipelago.
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A chain gun is a type of machine gun or autocannon that uses an external source of power to cycle the weapon rather than diverting energy from the cartridge, and does so via a continuous loop of chain similar to that used on a motorcycle or bicycle.
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Champaign is a city in Champaign County, Illinois, United States.
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Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
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Charles Knight (15 March 1791 – 9 March 1873) was an English publisher, editor and author.
Charles Macfarlane (1799–1858) was a Scottish writer, known as much for his historical and travel works as he was for his novels.
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Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
In the military science of ballistics, circular error probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability) is a measure of a weapon system's precision.
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Cividale del Friuli (Cividât (locally Zividât); Östrich; Čedad) is a town and comune in the Province of Udine, part of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northern Italy.
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In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
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Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
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The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
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The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
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Coventry Ordnance Works was a British manufacturer of heavy guns particularly naval artillery jointly owned by Cammell Laird & Co of Sheffield and Birkenhead, Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan, Glasgow and John Brown & Company of Clydebank and Sheffield.
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The COW 37 mm gun was a British automatic cannon that was developed as a heavy-calibre aircraft weapon.
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The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
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A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
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Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.
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A culverin was a relatively simple ancestor of the musket, and later a medieval cannon, adapted for use by the French as "couleuvrine" (from couleuvre "grass snake") in the 15th century, and later adapted for naval use by the English in the late 16th century.
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Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
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The Dardanelles Gun or Great Turkish Bombardhttps://collections.royalarmouries.org/object/rac-object-6177.html (Şahi topu or simply Şahi) is a 15th-century siege cannon, specifically a super-sized bombard, which saw action in the 1807 Dardanelles Operation.
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The Dazu Rock Carvings are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings located in Dazu District, Chongqing, China.
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A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
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The demi-cannon was a medium-sized cannon, similar to but slightly larger than a culverin and smaller than a regular 42 lb (19 kg) cannon, developed in the early 17th century.
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The demi-culverin was a medium cannon similar to but slightly larger than a saker and smaller than a regular culverin developed in the late 16th century.
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The Device Forts, also known as Henrician castles and blockhouses, were a series of artillery fortifications built to defend the coast of England and Wales by Henry VIII.
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Direct fire refers to the launching of a projectile directly at a target within the line-of-sight of the firer.
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A dogfight, or dog fight, is an aerial battle between fighter aircraft, conducted at close range.
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Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
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Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
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Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
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An earplug is a device that is meant to be inserted in the ear canal to protect the user's ears from loud noises or the intrusion of water, foreign bodies, dust or excessive wind.
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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
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The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Enfilade and defilade are concepts in military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire.
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The first usage of cannon in Great Britain was possibly in 1327, when they were used in battle by the English against the Scots.
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The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
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The European Theater of Operations, United States Army (ETOUSA) was a United States Army formation which directed US Army operations in parts of Europe from 1942 to 1945.
Evesham is a market town and parish in the Wychavon district of Worcestershire, southern England with a population of 23,576, according to the 2011 census.
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An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
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Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
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The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The falconet or falcon was a light cannon developed in the late 15th century.
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The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
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Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field.
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A field gun is a field artillery piece.
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A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
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The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th century China during the Jin-Song Wars.
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A firecracker (cracker, noise maker, banger, or bunger) is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang; any visual effect is incidental to this goal.
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The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
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In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.
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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
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"For Those About to Rock (We Salute You)" is a song by the Australian hard rock band AC/DC.
The Foundation for National Parks & Wildlife is an Australian not-for-profit, non-governmental organisation that was incorporated on 29 June 1970.
François-René (Auguste), vicomte de Chateaubriand (4 September 1768 – 4 July 1848), was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
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The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
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In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.
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Geoffrey Alan Hosking OBE FBA FRHistS (born 28 April 1942) is a British historian of Russia and the Soviet Union and formerly Leverhulme Research Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College, London.
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The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
Giovanni Villani (1276 or 1280 – 1348)Bartlett (1992), 35.
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In artillery, grapeshot is a type of shot that is not one solid element, but a mass of small metal balls or slugs packed tightly into a canvas bag.
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Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire that was first developed.
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Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
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ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-23 (Грязев-Шипунов ГШ-6-23) (GRAU designation: 9A-620 for GSh-6-23, 9A-768 for GSh-6-23M modernized variant) is a six-barreled 23 mm rotary cannon used by some modern Soviet/Russian military aircraft.
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A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).
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A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
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A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, and some cone of fire.
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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
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Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
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The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.
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Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements.
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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
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The Hawker Tempest is a British fighter aircraft primarily used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World War.
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The Heilongjiang hand cannon or hand-gun is a bronze hand cannon manufactured no later than 1288 and is possibly the world's oldest confirmed surviving firearm.
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Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
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Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597.
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Sir Henry Morgan (Welsh: Harri Morgan, 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welsh privateer, landowner and, later, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.
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The HS.404 is an autocannon originally designed and produced by Hispano-Suiza in the mid-1930s.
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History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
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The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China.
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The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
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A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
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A hydrostatic test is a way in which pressure vessels such as pipelines, plumbing, gas cylinders, boilers and fuel tanks can be tested for strength and leaks.
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Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
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The was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
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An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct-fire support.
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Historically an infantry square, also known as a hollow square, is a combat formation an infantry unit forms in close order usually when threatened with cavalry attack.
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An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.
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Irving Wallace (March 19, 1916 – June 29, 1990) was an American best-selling author and screenwriter.
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Ivan Petlin (Иван Петлин; 17th-century diminutive form, Ивашко Петлин, Ivashko (Evashko) Petlin), a Siberian Cossack, was the first Russian to have reached China on an official mission (1618-1619).
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The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
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Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Johan t'Serclaes; February 1559 – 30 April 1632) was a field marshal who commanded the Catholic League's forces in the Thirty Years' War.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
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Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
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Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist.
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, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.
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Kenthurst is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 39 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of The Hills Shire.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
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Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
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A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance.
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The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The LAV-25 (Light Armored Vehicle) is an eight-wheeled amphibious armored reconnaissance vehicle used by the United States Marine Corps and Canadian Army.
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A limber is a two-wheeled cart designed to support the trail of an artillery piece, or the stock of a field carriage such as a caisson or traveling forge, allowing it to be towed.
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The line formation is a standard tactical formation which was used in early modern warfare.
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A cannon is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a long distance.
The Lockheed AC-130 gunship is a heavily armed, long-endurance ground-attack variant of the C-130 Hercules transport fixed-wing aircraft.
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A long gun is a category of firearms with longer barrels than other classes.
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The Long Range Land Attack Projectile (LRLAP) is a precision guided 155 mm naval artillery shell for the U.S. Navy's Advanced Gun System.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
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The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
The M2 Bradley, or Bradley IFV, is an American infantry fighting vehicle that is a member of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle family.
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The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.
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The M242 Bushmaster is a 25 mm (25×137mm) chain-driven autocannon.
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The M777 howitzer is a towed 155 mm artillery piece.
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A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
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The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
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The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
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A mangonel, also called the traction trebuchet, was a type of catapult or siege engine used in China starting from the Warring States period, and later across Eurasia in the 6th century AD.
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Marcus Jordanus (* ca. 1531 in Krempe; † 1595 in Krempe) was a Danish cartographer and mathematician.
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Marin Barleti (Marinus Barletius, Marino Barlezio; c. 1450–60 – c. 1512–13) was a historian and Catholic priest from Shkodra.
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The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
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Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
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Mechanicsburg is a borough in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States, west of Harrisburg.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
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Mercury Records is an American-based record label owned by Universal Music Group.
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A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications.
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The MG FF was a drum-fed, blowback-operated, 20 mm aircraft autocannon, developed in 1936 by Ikaria Werke Berlin of Germany.
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The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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The minion (from the French word for cute) was a type of small cannon used during the Tudor period and into the late 17th century.
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The Minnesota Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
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The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
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The Mongol invasion of Java was a military effort made by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty (one of the fragments of the Mongol Empire), to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia.
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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
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A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
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The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
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The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
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A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
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Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
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Nathaniel Nye (baptised 1624 – after 1647) was an English mathematician, astronomer, cartographer and gunner.
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The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
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Naval artillery is artillery mounted on a warship, originally used only for naval warfare, later also for naval gunfire support against targets on land, and for anti-aircraft use.
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Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500, Brescia – 13 December 1557, Venice) was a Venetian mathematician, engineer (designing fortifications), a surveyor (of topography, seeking the best means of defense or offense) and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice (now part of Italy).
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Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
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Nuclear artillery is a subset of limited-yield tactical nuclear weapons, in particular those weapons that are launched from the ground at battlefield targets.
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and --> The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared very early in World War I. It was widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, and many versions still in use today.
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The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
The onager (British /ˈɒnədʒə/, /ˈɒnəɡə/, U.S. /ˈɑnədʒər/) was a imperial-aera Roman torsion powered siege engine.
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The Opus Majus (Latin for "Greater Work") is the most important work of Roger Bacon.
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The Ordnance Quick-Firing 17-pounder (or just 17-pdr)The British military often used the gun's projectile weight to denote different guns of the same calibre.
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The Ordnance QF 2-pounder (QF denoting "quick firing"), or simply "2 pounder gun", was a British anti-tank and vehicle-mounted gun, employed in the Second World War.
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The Ordnance Quick-Firing 6-pounder 7 cwt, or just 6 pounder,British forces traditionally denoted smaller ordnance by the weight of its standard projectile, in this case approximately.
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Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
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The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
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A pannier is a basket, bag, box, or similar container, carried in pairs either slung over the back of a beast of burden, or attached to the sides of a bicycle or motorcycle.
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The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
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The Panzerkampfwagen III, commonly known as the Panzer III, was a medium tank developed in the 1930s by Germany, and was used extensively in World War II.
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The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.
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The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.
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Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (30 June 1755 – 29 January 1829), commonly known as Paul Barras, was a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.
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Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
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The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
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A personal weapon or ordnance weapon is a weapon that is issued to an individual member of a military or paramilitary unit, e.g. to individual soldiers.
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Petrary is a generic term for a medieval stone-throwing siege engine (from the Greek "petra", "stone"), used to hurl large rocks against the walls of the besieged city, in an attempt to break down the wall and create an entry point.
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The Phoenix Iron Works (1855: Phoenix Iron Company; 1949: Phoenix Iron & Steel Company; 1955: Phoenix Steel Corporation), located in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, was a manufacturer of iron and related products during the 19th century and early 20th century.
Pike and shot is a historical infantry combat formation that evolved during the Italian Wars before the late seventeenth century evolution of the bayonet.
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A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.
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Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
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The pot-de-fer was a primitive cannon made of iron.
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Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, (George William Frederick Charles; 26 March 1819 – 17 March 1904) was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III, cousin of Queen Victoria, and maternal uncle of Queen Mary, consort of King George V. The Duke was an army officer by profession and served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (military head of the British Army) from 1856 to 1895.
A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
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Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
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A Quaker gun is a deception tactic that was commonly used in warfare during the 18th and 19th centuries.
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Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
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The L21A1 RARDEN is a British 30mm autocannon used as a combat vehicle weapon.
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Recoil (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged.
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A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick.
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A ricochet is a rebound, bounce or skip off a surface, particularly in the case of a projectile.
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In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
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Robert Recorde (c.1512–1558) was a Welsh physician and mathematician.
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Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
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Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
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A rotary cannon, rotary autocannon, or Gatling-type cannon is a rapid-firing weapon that utilizes multiple barrels in a rotating cluster to provide a sustained rate of fire greater than single-barreled machine guns or automatic cannon of equivalent caliber.
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A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
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Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
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A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a relatively small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a significantly smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used.
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The saker was a medium cannon, slightly smaller than a culverin, developed during the early 16th century and often used by the English.
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Sapping is a term used in siege operations to describe any trench excavated near an attacked, defended fortification, under defensive small arms or artillery fire.
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Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
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In World War II, Schräge Musik was the name Germans gave to upward-firing autocannon that the Luftwaffe mounted in night fighter aircraft.
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A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
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Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.
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Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
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A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
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The Siege of Calais (4 September 1346 – 3 August 1347) occurred when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French garrison of Calais.
The Siege of Kazan in 1552 was the final battle of the Russo-Kazan Wars and led to the fall of the Khanate of Kazan.
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The Siege of Pyongyang was a military conflict fought between the allied Ming-Joseon army and the Japanese First Division under Konishi Yukinaga.
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The Siege of Shkodra of 1478–79 was a confrontation between the Ottoman Empire and the Albanians and Venetians at Shkodra (Scutari in Italian) and its Rozafa Castle during the First Ottoman-Venetian War (1463–79).
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The second and longest Siege of Worcester(21 May – 23 July 1646) took place towards the end of the First English Civil War, when Parliamentary forces under the command of Thomas Rainsborough besieged the city of Worcester, accepting the capitulation of the Royalist defenders on 22 July.
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A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the Middle Ages, a belfryCastle: Stephen Biesty'sSections. Dorling Kindersley Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). Siege towers were invented in 300 BC.) is a specialized siege engine, constructed to protect assailants and ladders while approaching the defensive walls of a fortification.
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A sight is an aiming device used to assist in visually aligning ranged weapons, surveying instruments or optical illumination equipments with the intended target.
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A signoria (from signore, or "lord"; an abstract noun meaning (roughly) "government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship"; plural: signorie) was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.
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Sijilmasa (سجلماسة; also transliterated Sijilmassa, Sidjilmasa, Sidjilmassa and Sigilmassa) was a medieval city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara Desert in Morocco.
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Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
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Slow match, slowmatch or match cord is the slow-burning cord or twine fuse used by early gunpowder musketeers, artillerymen, and soldiers to ignite matchlock muskets, cannons, shells, and petards.
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The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
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Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
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A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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Srirangapatna (also spelled Shrirangapattana; anglicized to Seringapatam during the British Raj) is a town in Mandya district of the Indian state of Karnataka.
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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
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The Sturmgeschütz III (StuG III) assault gun was Germany's second most-produced armoured fighting vehicle during World War II after the Sd.Kfz. 251 half-track.
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A supergun is an extraordinarily large artillery piece.
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Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.
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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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The Swedish History Museum (Historiska museet or Statens historiska museum) is a museum located in Stockholm, Sweden, that covers Swedish archaeology and cultural history from the Mesolithic period to present day.
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The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
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A tank gun is the main armament of a tank.
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Tannic acid is a specific form of tannin, a type of polyphenol.
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The Art of War (Dell'arte della guerra) is a treatise by the Italian Renaissance political philosopher and historian Niccolò Machiavelli.
The Siege of Shkodra is a book written by a Shkodran priest, Marin Barleti (also known as Marinus Barletius), about the Ottoman siege of Shkodra in 1478, led personally by Mehmed II, and about the joint resistance of the Albanians and the Venetians.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
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Thomas Y. Crowell Co. was a publishing company founded by Thomas Y. Crowell.
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Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
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The ton is a unit of measure.
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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
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A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin.
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A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
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Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
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The Trevithick Society is a registered charity named for Richard Trevithick, a Cornish engineer who contributed to the use of high pressure steam engines for transportation and mining applications.
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In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.
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A trunnion (from Old French "trognon", trunk) is a cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting or pivoting point.
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A turtle ship, also known as Geobukseon (거북선), was a type of large Korean warship that was used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navy during the Joseon dynasty from the early 15th century up until the 19th century.
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During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.
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The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
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The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of South Carolina Press (or USC Press), founded in 1944, is a university press that is part of the University of South Carolina.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
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Vendémiaire was the first month in the French Republican Calendar.
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The Vickers Type 161 was an unusual 1930s pusher biplane interceptor, designed to attack aircraft from below with a single upward-angle large calibre gun.
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The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
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A volley gun is a gun with several barrels for firing a number of shots, either simultaneously or in succession.
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Wadding is a disc of material used in guns to seal gas behind a projectile or to separate powder for shot.
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The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.
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Walter de Milemete was an English scholar who in his early twenties was commissioned by Queen Isabella of France to write a treatise on kingship for her son, the young prince Edward, later king Edward III of England called De nobilitatibus, sapientiis, et prudentiis regum in 1326.
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The King's Wardrobe, together with the Chamber, made up the personal part of medieval English government known as the King's household.
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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
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Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
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The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
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The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
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The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
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The Westland C.O.W. Gun Fighter was an attempt to produce a fighter aircraft armed with a heavy calibre gun.
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
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William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing concern on Tyneside.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
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William Augustine Washington (February 28, 1752 – March 6, 1810) was a cavalry officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, who held a final rank of Brigadier General in the newly created United States after the war.
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Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object.
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World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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The Wuwei Bronze Cannon was discovered in 1980 and is probably the oldest and largest cannon dated to the 13th century.
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The oldest extant gun bearing a date of production is the Xanadu Gun, so called because it was discovered in the ruins of Xanadu, the Mongol summer palace in Inner Mongolia.
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Yi Sun-sin (April 28, 1545 – December 16, 1598) was a Korean naval commander famed for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Imjin war in the Joseon Dynasty, who became an exemplar of conduct to both the Koreans and Japanese.
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Youghal is a seaside resort town in County Cork, Ireland.
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The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
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13 Vendémiaire Year 4 (5 October 1795 in the French Republican Calendar) is the name given to a battle between the French Revolutionary troops and Royalist forces in the streets of Paris.
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The Year 1812, festival overture in flat major, Op.
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The 25 mm caliber is a specific size of cannon or autocannon ammunition.
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The 8.8 cm KwK 43 L/71 (Kampfwagenkanone —"fighting vehicle cannon") was an 88 mm 71 calibre tank gun designed by Krupp and used by the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
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The Pak 43 (Panzerabwehrkanone 43 and Panzerjägerkanone 43) was a German 88 mm anti-tank gun developed by Krupp in competition with the Rheinmetall 8.8 cm Flak 41 anti-aircraft gun and used during World War II.
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