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Canton of Bern

Index Canton of Bern

The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. [1]

367 relations: Aarberg, Aarberg District, Aare, Aare Gorge, Aarwangen District, Abraham Davel, Act of Mediation, Adelboden, Aigle, Aigle Castle, Alemanni, Alliance of Independents, Alsace, Amish, Amtsbezirk, Archduchy of Austria, Atheism, Augusta Raurica, Augustinians, Autonomous Socialist Party (Jura), Aventicum, Bailiff, Bailiwick, Bannwil, Baron, Barony of Vaud, Battle of Bibracte, Battle of Grandson, Battle of Laupen, Battle of Morat, Battle of Sempach, Bäuert, Büren District, Bern, Bern District, Bern Switzerland Temple, Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Berner Zeitung, Bernese Alps, Bernese German, Bernese Highlands, Bernese Jura, Bernese March, Berthold II, Duke of Swabia, Biel District, Biel/Bienne, Biel/Bienne (administrative district), Bieler Tagblatt, Bishop of Chur, Bishop of Lausanne, ..., Bishopric of Constance, Blazon, Blüemlisalp, Boltigen, Brünig Pass, Brienz, Bronze, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Burgdorf (district), Burgdorf, Switzerland, Burgdorferkrieg, Burgundian Wars, Burgundians, Cable car, Canon (priest), Canons regular, Canton of Aargau, Canton of Basel-Landschaft, Canton of Fribourg, Canton of Jura, Canton of Léman, Canton of Lucerne, Canton of Neuchâtel, Canton of Nidwalden, Canton of Oberland, Canton of Obwalden, Canton of Solothurn, Canton of Uri, Canton of Valais, Canton of Vaud, Cantons of Switzerland, Carolingian Empire, Census in Switzerland, Charles the Bold, Château-d'Œx, Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, Christian democracy, Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian right, Christian Social Party (Switzerland), Christian socialism, Cistercians, Classical liberalism, Cluny Abbey, Coat of arms, Col de Pierre Pertuis, Collegiate church, Communism, Conservatism, Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, Cortaillod culture, County of Savoy, Courtelary, Courtelary District, Der Bund, Early Middle Ages, Early Modern Switzerland, Eiger, Emme (river), Emmental, Emmental (administrative district), Emmental cheese, Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy, Erlach Abbey, Erlach District, Erlenbach im Simmental, Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland, Evangelicalism, Executive (government), Executive Council of Bern, Fachhochschule, FDP.The Liberals, Federal Democratic Union of Switzerland, Feminism, Feudalism, Fief, Finsteraarhorn, Foederati, Franks, Fratricide, Fraubrunnen District, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, Frederick the Fair, Free imperial city, Freedom Party of Switzerland, French Revolution, Fribourg, Frienisberg Abbey, Frutigen, Frutigen District, Frutigen-Niedersimmental (administrative district), Funicular, Gümmenenkrieg, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Grand Council of Bern, Grandson Castle, Grandson, Switzerland, Greek alphabet, Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green liberalism, Green Party of Switzerland, Green politics, Grimsel Pass, Grindelwald, Grindelwald–Männlichen gondola cableway, Grossaffoltern, Gruyère District, Gruyères, Gstaad, Gugler, Gurdwara, Hallstatt culture, Helvetic Republic, Helvetii, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Herzogenbuchsee, High Middle Ages, Hinduism, Historiography of Switzerland, Holy Roman Empire, Horgen culture, House of Savoy, House of Zähringen, Huttwil, Hydria, Ins, Switzerland, Interlaken, Interlaken District, Interlaken Monastery, Interlaken-Oberhasli (administrative district), Investiture Controversy, Iron Age, Jean de Vienne (archbishop, died 1382), Jet (lignite), John Calvin, Jungfrau, Jungfraujoch, Jura Mountains, Jurassic separatism, Kandersteg, Köniz, Konolfingen District, Kyburg family, La Neuveville, La Neuveville District, La Tène culture, Lake Biel, Lake Brienz, Lake Geneva, Lake Morat, Lake Neuchâtel, Lake Thun, Langenthal, Langnau im Emmental, Last glacial period, Laufen District, Laupen, Laupen Castle, Laupen District, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Lenk im Simmental, Leopold III, Duke of Austria, Liberal Party of Switzerland, Liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland, Lignite, List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland, List of mountains of the canton of Bern, List of supporting Harry Potter characters, List of universities in Switzerland, Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Luxeuil Abbey, Männlichen, Mönch, Mühleberg, Münsingen, Mürren, Mediterranean Basin, Meiringen, Melchnau, Mennonites, Merovingian dynasty, Mesolithic, Minaret, Ministerialis, Mont Raimeux, Moutier District, Moutier-Grandval Abbey, Multilingualism, Murten, National conservatism, Neolithic, Nidau District, Niedersimmental District, Oberaargau, Oberhasli, Obersimmental District, Obersimmental-Saanen (administrative district), Oberwil im Simmental, Oeschinen Lake, Old Swiss Confederacy, Old Zürich War, Oppidum, Order of Saint Benedict, Orthodoxy, Ostermundigen, Ottonian dynasty, Paleolithic, Pays-d'Enhaut District, Petinesca, Pierre Viret, Pledge (law), Popular revolts in late-medieval Europe, Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Primary sector of the economy, Prince-Bishopric of Basel, Priory, Professor Moriarty, Progressive Organizations of Switzerland, Proportional representation, Rawil Pass, Rüeggisberg Priory, Reformation, Reichenbach Falls, Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland, Right-wing populism, Roman Catholic Diocese of Basel, Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion, Roman mosaic, Romance languages, Romansh language, Rudolf I of Germany, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Rudolph I of Burgundy, Rudolph II of Burgundy, Rudolph III of Burgundy, Saanen, Saanen District, Saint-Imier, Salian dynasty, Savoy, Schilthorn, Schreckhorn, Schwarzenburg District, Secondary sector of the economy, Seeland (administrative district), Seeland (Switzerland), Seftigen District, Sempach, Sense District, Sheriff, Sherlock Holmes, Signau, Signau District, Sikh, Simmental, Social democracy, Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social liberalism, Socialism, Solothurn, Sourdough, St. Peter's Island, State religion, Studen, Bern, Susten Pass, Sustenhorn, Swiss Democrats, Swiss federal election, 2007, Swiss federal election, 2011, Swiss franc, Swiss German, Swiss Party of Labour, Swiss People's Party, Swiss Plateau, Swiss Reformed Church, Swissinfo, Switzerland, Switzerland in the Napoleonic era, Switzerland in the Roman era, Tertiary sector of the economy, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Thielle, Thun, Thun (administrative district), Thun Castle, Thun District, Toffen, Town privileges, Trachselwald, Trachselwald District, Treaty of Verdun, Twann, Twann-Tüscherz, UNESCO, Unspunnen Castle, Unterseen, Unterwalden, Uri Alps, Vicus, Vindonissa, Vogt, Waldstätte, Wangen an der Aare, Wangen District, Wengen, Wetterhorn, Wichtrach, Wilderswil, Wildhorn, Wimmis, World Heritage site, Wynau, Zweisimmen. 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Aarberg

Aarberg is a historic town and a municipality in the Seeland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Aarberg District

The Aarberg District was an administrative district of the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Aare

The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.

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Aare Gorge

The Aare Gorge (Aareschlucht) is a section of the river Aare that carves through a limestone ridge near the town of Meiringen, in the Bernese Oberland region of Switzerland.

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Aarwangen District

Aarwangen District was a district in the northeast corner of the canton of Bern in Switzerland, with its seat at Aarwangen.

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Abraham Davel

Jean Daniel Abraham Davel, (Major Davel), (20 October 1670, Morrens - 24 April 1723, Vidy) was a soldier and patriot of Vaud.

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Act of Mediation

The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803 establishing the Swiss Confederation.

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Adelboden

Adelboden is a mountain village and a municipality in Switzerland, located in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the Bernese Highlands.

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Aigle

Aigle (French for "eagle") is a historic town and a municipality and the capital of the district of Aigle in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Aigle Castle

Aigle Castle is a castle in the municipality of Aigle of the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Alemanni

The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.

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Alliance of Independents

The Alliance of Independents, Ring of Independents, or National Ring of Independents, (Landesring der Unabhängigen (LdU), Alliance des Indépendants (AdI), Anello degli Indipendenti) was a social liberal political party in Switzerland that existed between 1936 and 1999.

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Alsace

Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.

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Amish

The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.

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Amtsbezirk

Amtsbezirk is a German language designation for a country subdivision.

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Archduchy of Austria

The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Augusta Raurica

Augusta Raurica is a Roman archaeological site and an open-air museum in Switzerland located on the south bank of the Rhine river about 20 km east of Basel near the villages of Augst and Kaiseraugst.

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Augustinians

The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.

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Autonomous Socialist Party (Jura)

The Autonomous Socialist Party of Southern Jura (Parti socialiste autonome du Sud du Jura, PSA-SJ, or PSA), is a Swiss francophone subcantonal political party in the Northern Bernese Jura district of the Canton of Bern, affiliated to the Jura Socialist Party, itself a part of the Swiss Socialist Party (SP/PS).

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Aventicum

Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland (Helvetia or Civitas Helvetiorum).

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Bailiff

A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.

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Bailiwick

A bailiwick is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ.

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Bannwil

Bannwil is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Baron

Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.

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Barony of Vaud

The Barony of Vaud was an appanage of the County of Savoy, corresponding roughly to the modern Canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Battle of Bibracte

The Battle of Bibracte was fought between the Helvetii and six Roman legions, under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar.

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Battle of Grandson

The Battle of Grandson, which took place on 2 March 1476, was part of the Burgundian Wars, and resulted in a major defeat for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, at the hands of the Swiss.

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Battle of Laupen

The Battle of Laupen was fought on June 21, 1339 between Bern and its allies on one side, and Freiburg together with feudal landholders from the County of Burgundy and Habsburg territories on the other.

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Battle of Morat

The Battle of Morat (also known as the Battle of Murten) was a battle in the Burgundian Wars (1474–77) that was fought on 22 June 1476 between Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and a Swiss Confederate army at Morat/Murten, about 30 kilometres from Bern.

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Battle of Sempach

The Battle of Sempach was fought on 9 July 1386, between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy.

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Bäuert

In some areas of Switzerland (Berner Oberland or Graubünden) a Bäuert is a small farming community.

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Büren District

Büren District was a district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, with its capital at Büren an der Aare.

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Bern

Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".

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Bern District

Bern District (German: Amtsbezirk Bern) was an administrative district in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Bern Switzerland Temple

The Bern Switzerland Temple (formerly the Swiss Temple) is a temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

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Bern-Mittelland (administrative district)

Bern-Mittelland District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010.

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Berner Zeitung

Berner Zeitung (literally: "Journal of Bern"), also branded as BZ, is a Swiss German-language daily newspaper, published by Tamedia in Bern.

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Bernese Alps

The Bernese Alps (Berner Alpen, Alpes bernoises, Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland.

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Bernese German

Bernese German (Standard German: Berndeutsch, Bärndütsch) is the dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions.

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Bernese Highlands

The Berner Oberland (German; Highlands, also referred to in the English-speaking tourism sector as the Bernese Oberland), is the higher part of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the southern end of the canton, and one of the canton's five administrative regions (in which context it is referred to as Oberland without further specification).

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Bernese Jura

Bernese Jura (Jura bernois) is the name for the French-speaking area of the Swiss canton of Bern, and from 2010 one of ten administrative divisions of the canton.

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Bernese March

The Bernese March (German Berner Marsch; French La Marche de Berne) is the traditional anthem of the Swiss Canton of Bern and is played at official occasions.

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Berthold II, Duke of Swabia

Berthold II (– 12 April 1111), also known as Berchtold II, was the Duke of Swabia from 1092 to 1098, then the Duke of Zähringen from around 1100 until his death in 1111.

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Biel District

Biel/Bienne District was a district (Amtsbezirk) in the canton of Bern in Switzerland with its seat Biel/Bienne.

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Biel/Bienne

Biel/Bienne (official bilingual wording;;; Bienna, Bienna, Belna) is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Biel/Bienne (administrative district)

Biel/Bienne District is an administrative district in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Bieler Tagblatt

Bieler Tagblatt is a Swiss German-language daily newspaper, published by Gassmann AG in Biel/Bienne, Canton of Bern.

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Bishop of Chur

The Bishop of Chur (German: Bischof von Chur) is the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chur, Grisons, Switzerland (Latin: Dioecesis Curiensis).

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Bishop of Lausanne

The Bishop of Lausanne (French: Évêque de Lausanne) was a Prince-Bishop of the Holy Roman Empire (since 1011) and the Ordinary of the diocese of Lausanne, Switzerland (Latin: Dioecesis Lausannensis).

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Bishopric of Constance

The Bishopric of Constance, or Prince-Bishopric of Constance, (Hochstift Konstanz, Fürstbistum Konstanz) was a Prince-Bishopric and Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire from the mid–12th century until its secularisation in 1802–1803.

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Blazon

In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image.

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Blüemlisalp

The Blüemlisalp is a massif of the Bernese Alps, in the territory of the municipalities of Kandersteg and Reichenbach im Kandertal.

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Boltigen

Boltigen is a municipality in the Obersimmental-Saanen administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Brünig Pass

The Brünig Pass, at an altitude of, connects the Bernese Oberland and central Switzerland, linking Meiringen in the canton of Bern and Lungern in the canton of Obwalden.

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Brienz

Brienz is a village and municipality on the northern shore of Lake Brienz, at the foot of the Brienzer Rothorn mountain, and in the Bernese Oberland region of Switzerland.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Burgdorf (district)

The Burgdorf District (not to be confused with the Burgdorf District in Switzerland) is a former district (Landkreis) in Germany.

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Burgdorf, Switzerland

Burgdorf (Berthoud) is the largest city in the Emmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Burgdorferkrieg

The Burgdorferkrieg (Burgdorf war) or Kyburgerkrieg (Kyburg war) was a war in 1383-84 between the counts of Neu-Kyburg and the city of Bern for supremacy in the County of Burgundy in what is now Switzerland.

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Burgundian Wars

The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies.

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Burgundians

The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.

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Cable car

A cable car is any of a variety of cable transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate.

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Canon (priest)

A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.

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Canons regular

Canons regular are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.

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Canton of Aargau

The canton of Aargau (German: Kanton; sometimes anglicized Argovia; see also other names) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland.

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Canton of Basel-Landschaft

The canton of Basel-Landschaft (Kanton Basel-Landschaft, canton of Basel-Country, canton de Bâle-Campagne, Cantone di Basilea Campagna; informally: Baselland, Baselbiet), is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland.

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Canton of Fribourg

The canton of Fribourg, also canton of Friburg (canton de Fribourg, Freiburg) is located in western Switzerland.

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Canton of Jura

The Republic and Canton of the Jura (République et canton du Jura), also known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest (founded in 1979) of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland.

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Canton of Léman

Léman was the name of a canton of the Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1803, corresponding to the territory of modern Vaud.

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Canton of Lucerne

The canton of Lucerne (Kanton Luzern) is a canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Neuchâtel

The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (la République et Canton de Neuchâtel) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland.

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Canton of Nidwalden

The canton of Nidwalden, also canton of Nidwald (ˈnidˌvaldən) is a canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Oberland

Oberland (German for Highlands) was the name of a canton of the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803), corresponding to the area of the Bernese Oberland, with its capital at Thun.

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Canton of Obwalden

The canton of Obwalden, also canton of Obwald (ˈɔbˌvaldən) is a canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Solothurn

The canton of Solothurn, also canton of Soleure (German) is a canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Uri

The canton of Uri (German: Kanton) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation.

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Canton of Valais

The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.

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Canton of Vaud

The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.

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Cantons of Switzerland

The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

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Census in Switzerland

The first Federal population census in Switzerland took place in March 1850 under the direction of Federal Councillor Stefano Franscini.

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Charles the Bold

Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).

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Château-d'Œx

Château-d'Œx is a municipality in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland

The Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland is the Swiss member church of the Union of Utrecht of Old Catholic Churches.

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Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.

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Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland

The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz, CVP; Parti Démocrate-Chrétien, PDC; Partito Popolare Democratico, PPD; Partida cristiandemocratica Svizra, PCD) is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland.

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Christian right

Christian right or religious right is a term used mainly in the United States to label conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative policies.

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Christian Social Party (Switzerland)

The Christian Social Party (CSP) (Christlich-soziale Partei, Parti chrétien-social) is a political party in Switzerland.

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Christian socialism

Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Cistercians

A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Cluny Abbey

Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Col de Pierre Pertuis

Col de Pierre Pertuis (el. 827 m.) is a mountain pass in the Jura Mountains in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Collegiate church

In Christianity, a collegiate church is a church where the daily office of worship is maintained by a college of canons; a non-monastic or "secular" community of clergy, organised as a self-governing corporate body, which may be presided over by a dean or provost.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland

The Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland (Bürgerlich-Demokratische Partei Schweiz, BDP; Parti bourgeois démocratique suisse, PBD; Partito Borghese Democratico Svizzero, PBD; Partida burgais democratica Svizra PBD, PBD; all translations mean literally Citizens' Democratic Party of Switzerland) is a conservative political party in Switzerland.

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Cortaillod culture

The Cortaillod culture is one of several archaeologically defined cultures belonging to the Neolithic period of Switzerland.

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County of Savoy

The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century.

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Courtelary

Courtelary is a municipality of the French-speaking Bernese Jura, in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Courtelary District

Courtelary District was located in Switzerland and was one of the three French-speaking districts of the Bernese Jura, along with La Neuveville and Moutier.

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Der Bund

Der Bund (English: The Union) is a Swiss German-language daily newspaper published in Bern.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Early Modern Switzerland

The early modern history of the Old Swiss Confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft, also known as the "Swiss Republic" or Republica Helvetiorum) and its constituent Thirteen Cantons encompasses the time of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) until the French invasion of 1798.

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Eiger

The Eiger is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais.

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Emme (river)

The Emme is a river in Switzerland.

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Emmental

The Emmental is a valley in west central Switzerland, forming part of the canton of Bern.

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Emmental (administrative district)

Emmental District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010.

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Emmental cheese

Emmental (Emmentaler or Emmenthal) is a yellow, medium-hard Swiss cheese that originated in the area around Emmental, Canton Bern.

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Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy

Enguerrand VII de Coucy, KG (1340, Picardy - 18 February 1397, in captivity at Bursa), also known as Ingelram de Coucy, was a 14th-century French nobleman, the last Lord of Coucy, and the son-in-law of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.

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Erlach Abbey

Erlach Abbey (Abbaye Saint-Jean de Cerlier) also known as St.

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Erlach District

Erlach District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Erlenbach im Simmental

Erlenbach im Simmental is a municipality in the district of Niedersimmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland

The Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland (Evangelische Volkspartei der Schweiz, Parti évangelique suisse, Partito Evangelico Svizzero, Partida evangelica da la Svizra) is a Protestant Christian-democratic political party in Switzerland, active mainly in the Cantons of Bern, Basel-Land, Basel-Stadt, Aargau and Zürich.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Executive Council of Bern

The Executive Council (Regierungsrat, Conseil-éxecutif) is the executive of the Swiss canton of Bern.

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Fachhochschule

A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).

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FDP.The Liberals

FDP.The Liberals (FDP.Die Liberalen, PLR.Les Libéraux-Radicaux, PLR.I Liberali, PLD.Ils Liberals) is a liberal political party in Switzerland.

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Federal Democratic Union of Switzerland

The Federal Democratic Union of Switzerland (German: Eidgenössisch-Demokratische Union, EDU; French: Union Démocratique Fédérale, UDF; Italian: Unione Democratica Federale, UDF; Romansch: Uniun Democrata Federala, UDF) is a Christian-right, national conservative political party in Switzerland.

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Feminism

Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fief

A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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Finsteraarhorn

The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland and the most prominent peak of Switzerland.

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Foederati

Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Fratricide

Fratricide (from the Latin words frater "brother" and cida "killer," or cidum "a killing," both from caedere "to kill, to cut down") is the act of killing one's brother.

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Fraubrunnen District

Fraubrunnen District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Frédéric-César de La Harpe

Frédéric-César de La Harpe, 6 April 1754 (Rolle, Vaud, Switzerland) – 30 March 1838 (Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Swiss political leader, scholar, and Vaudois patriot best known for his pivotal role in the formation of the Helvetic Republic, and for serving as a member of the Helvetic Directory.

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Frederick the Fair

Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne) or the Fair (c. 1289 – 13 January 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314 (anti-king until 1325) as Frederick III until his death.

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Freedom Party of Switzerland

The Freedom Party of Switzerland (FPS) (Freiheits-Partei der Schweiz; Parti suisse de la liberté / PSL) is a minor populist right-wing political party in Switzerland.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Fribourg

Fribourg (Fribôrg or Friboua) or Freiburg (German, or Freiburg im Üechtland, Swiss German pronunciation:; Friborgo or Friburgo; Friburg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district La Sarine.

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Frienisberg Abbey

Frienisberg Abbey is a former Cistercian religious house in the Swiss municipality of Seedorf in the Canton of Bern.

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Frutigen

Frutigen is a municipality in the Bernese Oberland in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Frutigen District

Frutigen District was a district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland with its seat at Frutigen.

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Frutigen-Niedersimmental (administrative district)

Frutigen-Niedersimmental District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010.

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Funicular

A funicular is one of the modes of transport, along with a cable railway and an inclined elevator, which uses a cable traction for movement on a steep slope.

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Gümmenenkrieg

The Gümmenenkrieg was a war between the emergent city-states of Bern and Fribourg in 1331-33 in what is now Switzerland.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Grand Council of Bern

The Grand Council (Grosser Rat, Grand conseil) is the parliament of the Swiss canton of Bern.

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Grandson Castle

Grandson Castle (Château de Grandson) is a medieval castle in the Swiss municipality of Grandson in the canton of Vaud.

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Grandson, Switzerland

Grandson is a municipality in the district of Jura-Nord Vaudois in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Green Liberal Party of Switzerland

The Green Liberal Party of Switzerland (Grünliberale Partei der Schweiz, glp; Parti vert'libéral, pvl), abbreviated to glp, is a centrist Green liberal political party in Switzerland.

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Green liberalism

Green liberalism, or liberal environmentalism, is liberalism that includes green politics in its ideology.

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Green Party of Switzerland

The Green Party of Switzerland (Grüne Partei der Schweiz; Les vertsParti écologiste suisse; I VerdiPartito ecologista svizzero; La VerdaPartida ecologica svizra; "The GreensSwiss ecological party") is the fifth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland, and the largest party that is not represented on the Federal Council.

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Green politics

Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.

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Grimsel Pass

The Grimsel Pass (Grimselpass; Col du Grimsel) is a mountain pass in Switzerland, crossing the Bernese Alps at an elevation of.

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Grindelwald

Grindelwald is a village and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Berne in Switzerland.

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Grindelwald–Männlichen gondola cableway

The Grindelwald–Männlichen gondola cableway (Gondelbahn Grindelwald-Männlichen, GGM) is a gondola cableway linking Grindelwald with Männlichen.

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Grossaffoltern

Grossaffoltern is a municipality in the Seeland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Gruyère District

Gruyère (French: District de la Gruyère) is one of seven districts of the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.

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Gruyères

Gruyères (Greyerz) is a town in the district of Gruyère in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.

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Gstaad

Gstaad is a village in the German-speaking section of the Canton of Bern in southwestern Switzerland.

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Gugler

The Gugler (also Gügler) were a body of mostly English and French knights who as mercenaries invaded Alsace and the Swiss plateau under the leadership of Enguerrand VII de Coucy during the Gugler War of 1375.

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Gurdwara

A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.

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Helvetic Republic

In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).

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Helvetii

The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.

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Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.

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Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313)Kleinhenz, pg.

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Herzogenbuchsee

Herzogenbuchsee is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historiography of Switzerland

The historiography of Switzerland is the study of the history of Switzerland.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Horgen culture

The Horgen culture is one of several archaeological cultures belonging to the Neolithic period of Switzerland.

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House of Savoy

The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.

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House of Zähringen

Zähringen is an old German noble family in Swabia, which founded a large number of cities in the area that is today Switzerland and the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Huttwil

Huttwil is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the Swiss canton of Bern.

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Hydria

A hydria (ὑδρία; plural hydriai) is a type of water-carrying vessel in the metalwork and pottery of Ancient Greece.

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Ins, Switzerland

Ins (Anet) is a municipality in the Seeland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Interlaken

Interlaken (lit.: between lakes) is a statistic town and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the Swiss canton of Bern.

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Interlaken District

Interlaken is a former district of the canton of Bern, now part of the Interlaken-Oberhasli district.

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Interlaken Monastery

Interlaken Monastery (Kloster Interlaken or Augustinerchorherrenstift) was a convent of the Augustinian Canons Regular (Augustinerchorherren) from about 1133 until 1528 at Interlaken in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Interlaken-Oberhasli (administrative district)

Interlaken-Oberhasli District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010, uniting the former Interlaken and Oberhasli districts.

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Investiture Controversy

The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Jean de Vienne (archbishop, died 1382)

Jean de Vienne (Johann; died 7 October 1382) was a Burgundian nobleman, prelate and prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Jet (lignite)

Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.

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John Calvin

John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

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Jungfrau

The Jungfrau ("maiden, virgin"The name Jungfrau ("maiden, virgin") of the peak is most likely derived from the name Jungfrauenberg given to Wengernalp, so named for the nuns of Interlaken Monastery, its historical owner, but the "virgin" peak was heavily romanticized as "goddess" or "priestess" in late 18th to 19th century Romanticism; after the first ascent in 1811 by Swiss alpinist Johann Rudolf Meyer, the peak was jokingly referred to as "Mme Meyer" (Mrs. Meyer).) at is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Bern and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch.

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Jungfraujoch

Jungfraujoch is a notable saddleSwiss and Austro-Bavarian German Joch (lit. "yoke") is a term for "ridge between two higher peaks" recorded in the 14th century (Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch "bereits im 14. jahrh. als ortsname: des gotzhus zwing und ban vahet an Rotenhalden und denne die roten bachtalen uf unz an den grat, und den grat obnan hin ob Grüblen hin iemerme, unz an Joch. und ab Joch unz an Stoerben. weisth. 1, 4 (Zürich)").

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Jura Mountains

The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.

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Jurassic separatism

Jurassic separatism (séparatisme jurassien) is a regionalist independence movement in the Bernese Jura in Switzerland.

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Kandersteg

Kandersteg is a municipality in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Köniz

Köniz is a statistical town, however considers itself still as a village, and a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district right on the southern border to Bern in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Konolfingen District

Konolfingen District was a district in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Kyburg family

Kyburg (also Kiburg) was a noble family of grafen (counts) in the Duchy of Swabia, a cadet line of the counts of Dillingen, who in the late 12th and early 13th century ruled the County of Kyburg, corresponding to much of what is now Northeastern Switzerland.

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La Neuveville

La Neuveville (Neuenstadt) is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, located in the French-speaking Bernese Jura (Jura Bernois).

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La Neuveville District

La Neuveville District was one of three French-speaking districts of the Bernese Jura in the canton of Bern with the seat being La Neuveville, the other two being Courtelary and Moutier.

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La Tène culture

The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.

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Lake Biel

Lake Bienne or Lake Biel or (Lac de Bienne, Bielersee) is a lake in the west of Switzerland.

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Lake Brienz

Lake Brienz (Brienzersee) is a lake just north of the Alps, in the canton of Berne in Switzerland.

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Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.

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Lake Morat

Lake Morat or Lake Murten (French: Lac de Morat; German: Murtensee) is a lake located in the cantons of Fribourg and Vaud in the west of Switzerland.

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Lake Neuchâtel

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Lake Thun

Lake Thun (Thunersee) is an Alpine lake in the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland named after the city of Thun, on its northern shore.

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Langenthal

Langenthal is a town and a municipality in the district of Oberaargau in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Langnau im Emmental

Langnau im Emmental is a municipality in the administrative district of Emmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Laufen District

Laufen District or Laufental District (District de Laufon) is one of the five districts of the largely German-speaking canton of Basel-Country, Switzerland.

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Laupen

Laupen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district and its district capital, situated in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Laupen Castle

Laupen Castle (Schloss Laupen) is a castle in the municipality of Laupen of the Canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Laupen District

Laupen District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Lausanne

Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.

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Lauterbrunnen

Lauterbrunnen is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Lenk im Simmental

Lenk im Simmental (or simply Lenk) is a municipality in the Obersimmental-Saanen administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Leopold III, Duke of Austria

Leopold III (1 November 1351 – 9 July 1386), known as the Just, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1365.

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Liberal Party of Switzerland

The Liberal Party of Switzerland (Liberale Partei der Schweiz, Parti liberal suisse, Partito Liberale Svizzero, Partida liberala svizra) was a party with economically liberal policies.

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Liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland

This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland.

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Lignite

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland

This list includes castles and fortresses in Switzerland.

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List of mountains of the canton of Bern

This is a list of mountains of the Swiss canton of Bern.

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List of supporting Harry Potter characters

The following are supporting characters in the Harry Potter series written by J. K. Rowling.

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List of universities in Switzerland

This list of universities in Switzerland lists all 12 Swiss universities (10 cantonal universities and 2 federal institutes of technology) and a number of public Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences and other education institutions, as higher education institutions.

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Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

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Luxeuil Abbey

Luxeuil Abbey was one of the oldest and best-known monasteries in Burgundy, located in what is now the département of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, France.

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Männlichen

The Männlichen is a mountain in the Swiss Alps located within the Canton of Berne.

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Mönch

The Mönch (German: "monk") at is a mountain in the Bernese Alps, in Switzerland.

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Mühleberg

Mühleberg is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Münsingen

Münsingen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Mürren

Mürren is a traditional Walser mountain village in the Bernese Highlands of Switzerland, at an elevation of above sea level and it cannot be reached by public road.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Meiringen

Meiringen is a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Melchnau

Melchnau is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Mennonites

The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Mesolithic

In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Minaret

Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.

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Ministerialis

Ministerialis (plural ministeriales; a post-classical Latin word, used in English, meaning originally "servitor" or "agent", in a broad range of senses) were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility.

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Mont Raimeux

Mont Raimeux is a mountain of the Jura range, located on the border between the Swiss cantons of Jura and Berne.

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Moutier District

Moutier District was one of the three French-speaking districts of the Bernese Jura in the canton of Bern with the seat being Moutier, the other two being Courtelary and La Neuveville.

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Moutier-Grandval Abbey

Moutier-Grandval Abbey was a Benedictine abbey near the villages of Moutier and Grandval in today's Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Murten

Murten (German) or Morat (French) is a municipality in the See district of the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.

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National conservatism

National conservatism is a variant of conservatism that concentrates more on national interests and upholding cultural or ethnic identity than most other conservatives.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Nidau District

Nidau District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Niedersimmental District

Niedersimmental District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Oberaargau

The Oberaargau is the region that encompasses the upper watershed of the Aar River in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Oberhasli

The Oberhasli is a historical Landvogtei or Talschaft in the Bernese Highlands, Switzerland, bordering on the cantons of Obwalden (OW), Nidwalden (NW), Uri (UR) and Wallis (VS).

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Obersimmental District

Obersimmental District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Obersimmental-Saanen (administrative district)

Obersimmental-Saanen District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010.

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Oberwil im Simmental

Oberwil im Simmental is a municipality in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Oeschinen Lake

Oeschinen Lake (German: Oeschinensee) is a lake in Bernese Oberland the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, east of Kandersteg in the Oeschinen valley.

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Old Swiss Confederacy

The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Old Zürich War

The Old Zurich War (Alter Zürichkrieg), 1440–46, was a conflict between the canton of Zurich and the other seven cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy over the succession to the Count of Toggenburg.

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Oppidum

An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.

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Order of Saint Benedict

The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.

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Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Ostermundigen

Ostermundigen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Ottonian dynasty

The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Pays-d'Enhaut District

Pays-d'Enhaut District (Highlands) is a district in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Petinesca

Petinesca is an archeological site on the territory of Studen, a community of the Canton of Bern, in Switzerland, where Celtic and Roman vestiges were found.

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Pierre Viret

Pierre Viret (1511 – 4 May 1571) was a Swiss Reformed theologian and Protestant reformer.

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Pledge (law)

A pledge is a bailment that conveys possessory title to property owned by a debtor (the pledgor) to a creditor (the pledgee) to secure repayment for some debt or obligation and to the mutual benefit of both parties.

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Popular revolts in late-medieval Europe

Popular revolts in late medieval Europe were uprisings and rebellions by (typically) peasants in the countryside, or the bourgeois in towns, against nobles, abbots and kings during the upheavals of the 14th through early 16th centuries, part of a larger "Crisis of the Late Middle Ages".

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Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps is a series of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands.

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Primary sector of the economy

An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.

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Prince-Bishopric of Basel

The Prince-Bishopric of Basel (Fürstbistum Basel) was an ecclesiastical principality within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from 1032 by Prince-Bishops with their seat at Basel, and from 1528 until 1792 at Porrentruy, and thereafter at Schliengen.

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Priory

A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.

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Professor Moriarty

Professor James Moriarty is a fictional character in some of the Sherlock Holmes stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

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Progressive Organizations of Switzerland

The Progressive Organisations of Switzerland (Progressive Organisationen der Schweiz; Organisations progressistes de Suisse) (POCH) were a communist party founded in 1969.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Rawil Pass

The Rawil Pass (el. 2429 m.) (German: Rawilpass) is a high mountain pass across the western Bernese Alps, connecting Lenk in the canton of Berne in Switzerland and Anzère or Crans Montana in the canton of Valais.

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Rüeggisberg Priory

Rüeggisberg Priory (Kloster Rüeggisberg) was a Cluniac priory in the municipality of Rüeggisberg, Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Reichenbach Falls

The Reichenbach Falls (Reichenbachfälle) are a waterfall cascade of seven steps on the creek called Rychenbach in the Bernese Oberland region of Switzerland.

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Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland

The periods of Restoration and Regeneration in Swiss history last from 1814 to 1847.

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Right-wing populism

Right-wing populism is a political ideology which combines right-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Basel

The Diocese of Basel (Bistum Basel; Dioecesis Basileensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese in Switzerland.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion

The Diocese of Sion (Dioecesis Sedunensis, Évêché de Sion, Bistum Sitten) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in the canton of Valais, Switzerland.

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Roman mosaic

A Roman mosaic is a mosaic made during the Roman period, throughout the Roman Republic and later Empire.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romansh language

Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.

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Rudolf I of Germany

Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.

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Rudolf of Rheinfelden

Rudolf of Rheinfelden (– 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079.

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Rudolph I of Burgundy

Rudolph I (859 – October 25, 912) was King of Upper Burgundy from his election in 888 until his death.

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Rudolph II of Burgundy

Rudolph II (c. 880 – 11 July 937), a member of the Elder House of Welf, was King of Burgundy from 912 until his death.

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Rudolph III of Burgundy

Rudolph III (called "the Idle" (Rodolphe le Fainéant, Rudolf der Faule) or "the Pious" (le Pieux); – 6 September 1032) was King of Burgundy from 993 until his death.

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Saanen

Saanen (Gessenay) is a municipality in the canton of Berne in Switzerland.

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Saanen District

Saanen District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Saint-Imier

Saint-Imier is a municipality in the Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Salian dynasty

The Salian dynasty (Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages.

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Savoy

Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.

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Schilthorn

The Schilthorn is a summit in Europe, in the Bernese Alps of Switzerland.

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Schreckhorn

The Schreckhorn (4,078 m) is a mountain in the Bernese Alps.

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Schwarzenburg District

Schwarzenburg District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Secondary sector of the economy

The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.

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Seeland (administrative district)

Seeland District in the Canton of Bern was created on 1 January 2010.

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Seeland (Switzerland)

Seeland (lit.: Lakeland, also Drei-Seen-Land, Pays des trois lacs) is a region in Switzerland, at the south-eastern foot of the mountain range of the Jura Mountains containing the 3 Lakes of Morat, Neuchâtel, and Bienne (Biel).

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Seftigen District

Seftigen District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Sempach

Sempach is a municipality in the district of Sursee in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland.

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Sense District

Sense District (Sensebezirk, French: District de la Singine) is one of the seven administrative districts of the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland, and the only completely German-speaking one.

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Sheriff

A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.

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Sherlock Holmes

Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

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Signau

Signau is a municipality in the administrative district of Emmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Signau District

Signau District was a district in Switzerland in the canton of Bern with its seat Signau.

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Sikh

A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Simmental

The Simmental is an alpine valley in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social Democratic Party of Switzerland

The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Partito Socialista Svizzero; Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Solothurn

Solothurn (Solothurn; Soleure; Soletta; Soloturn) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.

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Sourdough

Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.

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St. Peter's Island

St.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Studen, Bern

Studen is a municipality in the Seeland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Susten Pass

Susten Pass (German: Sustenpass) (el. 2260 m.) is a mountain pass in the Swiss Alps.

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Sustenhorn

The Sustenhorn is a 3,502 metre high mountain in the Uri Alps, located on the border between the cantons of Bern and Uri.

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Swiss Democrats

The Swiss Democrats (Schweizer Demokraten; Démocrates Suisses; Democratici Svizzeri; Democrats Svizers) are a right-wing political party in Switzerland.

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Swiss federal election, 2007

Elections to the Swiss Federal Assembly, the federal parliament of Switzerland, were held on Sunday, 21 October 2007.

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Swiss federal election, 2011

Federal elections were held in Switzerland on 23 October 2011.

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Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

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Swiss German

Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.

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Swiss Party of Labour

The Swiss Party of Labour (Partei der Arbeit der Schweiz; Parti Suisse du Travail - Parti Ouvrier et Populaire; Partito Comunista; Partida svizra da la lavur) is a communist party in Switzerland.

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Swiss People's Party

The Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei, SVP; Partida populara Svizra, PPS), also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre (Union démocratique du centre, UDC; Unione Democratica di Centro, UDC), is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland.

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Swiss Plateau

The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (Schweizer Mittelland; plateau suisse; altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps.

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Swiss Reformed Church

The Swiss Reformed Church (Evangelisch-reformierte Kirchen der Schweiz, "Evangelical Reformed Churches of Switzerland") refers to the Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) and spread within a few years to Basel (Johannes Oecolampadius), Bern (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St. Gallen (Joachim Vadian), to cities in southern Germany and via Alsace (Martin Bucer) to France.

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Swissinfo

SWI swissinfo.ch is a ten-language news and information platform produced by the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Switzerland in the Napoleonic era

During the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary armies marched eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.

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Switzerland in the Roman era

The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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Thielle

The river Thielle (La Thielle, or La Thièle, Zihl), is a tributary to the Aare, in the Swiss Seeland.

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Thun

Thun (Thoune) is a town and a municipality in the administrative district of Thun in the canton of Bern in Switzerland with about 43,783 inhabitants (around 90,000 in the agglomeration), as of 31 December 2013.

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Thun (administrative district)

Thun District in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland was created on 1 January 2010.

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Thun Castle

Thun Castle (Schloss Thun) is a castle in the city of Thun, in the Swiss canton of Bern.

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Thun District

Thun District was one of the 25 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Toffen

Toffen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Town privileges

Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium.

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Trachselwald

Trachselwald is a municipality in the administrative district of Emmental in the Swiss canton of Bern.

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Trachselwald District

Trachselwald District was a district in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Treaty of Verdun

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.

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Twann

Twann (Douanne) was a municipality in the district of Nidau in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Twann-Tüscherz

Twann-Tüscherz or Douanne-Daucher in French is a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Unspunnen Castle

Unspunnen Castle is a castle, now in ruins, located in the municipality of Wilderswil in the Bernese Highlands of Switzerland.

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Unterseen

Unterseen is a historic town and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Unterwalden

Unterwalden (Latinized as Sylvania, later also Subsylvania as opposed to Supersylvania) is the old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy in central Switzerland, south of Lake Lucerne, consisting of two valleys or Talschaften, now organized as two half-cantons, an upper part, Obwalden, and a lower part, Nidwalden.

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Uri Alps

The Uri Alps (also known as Urner Alps, Urner Alpen) are a mountain range in Central Switzerland and part of the Western Alps.

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Vicus

In Ancient Rome, the vicus (plural vici) was a neighborhood or settlement.

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Vindonissa

Vindonissa (from a Gaulish toponym in *windo- "white") was a Roman legion camp at modern Windisch, Switzerland.

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Vogt

A Vogt (from the Old High German, also Voigt or Fauth; plural Vögte; Dutch (land-) voogd; Danish foged; Norwegian fogd; Swedish fogde; wójt; Finnish vouti; Romanian voit; ultimately from Latin vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was a title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord (mostly of nobility) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (Blutgericht) over a certain territory (Landgericht).

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Waldstätte

Waldstätte ("forested sites") is a term, which has been used since the early thirteenth century to refer to the Stätte (singular: Statt, "sites"), or later Ort (plural: Orte, "lieu") or Stand (plural: Stände, "estate") of the early confederate allies of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden in Central Switzerland.

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Wangen an der Aare

Wangen an der Aare is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Wangen District

Wangen District was one of the 26 administrative districts in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

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Wengen

Wengen is a mountain village in the Bernese Oberland of central Switzerland.

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Wetterhorn

The Wetterhorn (3,692 m) is a peak in the Swiss Alps towering above the village of Grindelwald.

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Wichtrach

Wichtrach is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Wilderswil

Wilderswil is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Wildhorn

The Wildhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the border between the Swiss cantons of Bern and Valais.

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Wimmis

Wimmis is a municipality in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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Wynau

Wynau is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Zweisimmen

Zweisimmen is a municipality in the Obersimmental-Saanen administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Redirects here:

Bern (canton), Bern Canton, Berne (Swiss Canton), Berne (canton), Bernese, Canton Bern, Canton Berne, Canton de Berne, Canton of Berne, Canton of bern, History of the canton of Bern, History of the canton of Berne, Kanton Bern.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canton_of_Bern

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