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Index Cantonese

The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China. [1]

230 relations: A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced According to the Dialect of Canton, American-born Chinese, Ampang, Selangor, Asia, Bangi, Malaysia, Barnett–Chao Romanisation, Batam, Batu Gajah, Be language, Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, Bentong, Bidor, British Chinese, British Empire, Cambodia, Canada 2016 Census, Cantonese Braille, Cantonese grammar, Cantonese opera, Cantonese people, Cantonese phonology, Cantonese Pinyin, Cantonese profanity, Cantonese slang, Cantopop, Checked tone, China, Chinatown, Los Angeles, Chinatown, Manhattan, Chinatown, Oakland, Chinatown, San Francisco, Chinatowns in Brooklyn, Chinatowns in Queens, Chinese Americans, Chinese as a foreign language, Chinese Australians, Chinese Cambodian, Chinese Canadians, Chinese diaspora in France, Chinese Indonesians, Chinese language, Chinese people in Portugal, Chinese school, Cinema of Hong Kong, Code-switching, Comparison of Cantonese and Standard Chinese, Culture of Hong Kong, De-Sinicization, Democratic development in Hong Kong, Dim sum, ..., Education Bureau, Elijah Coleman Bridgman, Elmhurst, Queens, English language, Eric Moo, Ernst Johann Eitel, Faye Wong, French Indochina, French language, Fuzhou dialect, Gao-Yang Yue, Gopeng, Government of Hong Kong, Government of Macau, Guangdong, Guangdong Romanization, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guangzhou Broadcasting Network, Guangzhou Television Cantonese controversy, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Hainanese, Hakka Chinese, Hawaii, Historical linguistics, Hoa people, Hokkien, Homecrest, Brooklyn, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Basic Law, Hong Kong Cantonese, Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, Hong Kong people in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong television drama, Hulu Langat District, Icelandic language, Indonesia, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ipoh, Jakarta, James Dyer Ball, John Chalmers (missionary), Johor, Jyutping, Kajang, Kam language, Kampar, Perak, Kinta Valley, Klang Valley, Kra–Dai languages, Kuala Lumpur, Kuantan, Lee Kuan Yew, Liangguang, Lingnan culture, Lingua franca, Linguistic discrimination, Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, List of English words of Chinese origin, List of varieties of Chinese, Little Fuzhou, Loanword, Locke, California, Macau, Made in America (book), Mainland China, Malaysia, Malaysian Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Manhattan, Maonan language, Medium of instruction, Mentakab, Mersing, Meyer–Wempe, Middle Chinese, Mott Street, Mutual intelligibility, Nanjing decade, New Era University College, New York City, Ng (name), Northern California, Official language, Overseas Chinese, Pahang, Pearl River Delta, Perak, Petaling Jaya, Phnom Penh, Pinyin, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese language, Portuguese Macau, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, Protestantism, Puchong, Qing dynasty, Radio Guangdong, Raub, Pahang, Robert Morrison (missionary), Rosemead, California, Routledge, S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols), S. L. Wong (romanisation), Sabah, Sabak Bernam District, Sacramento River, Samuel Wells Williams, San Francisco, San Francisco Bay Area, San Gabriel, California, Sandakan, Sarawak, Sarikei, Sekinchan, Selangor, Selayang, Shah Alam, Shanghainese, Sidney Lau, Silicon Valley, Simplified Chinese characters, Singapore, Song dynasty, South China Morning Post, Southeast Asia, Southern California, Spanish language, Speak Mandarin Campaign, Standard Chinese, Standard language, Standard Zhuang, Stop consonant, Subang Jaya, Sungai Buloh, Sunset Park, Brooklyn, Surabaya, Taishan, Guangdong, Taishanese, Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Tang dynasty, Tapah, Television Southern, Temple City, California, Teochew dialect, Thai Chinese, Thai language, Thailand, The New York Times, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tianyi Film Company, Tone (linguistics), Tone letter, Tone name, Tone number, Traditional Chinese characters, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, Treaty of Nanking, United Kingdom, Varieties of Chinese, Vietnam, Vietnamese language, Western world, William Jones (philologist), Wong Shik Ling, Written Cantonese, Written Chinese, Written vernacular Chinese, Xiguan dialect, Xinhai Revolution, Yale romanization of Cantonese, Yangcheng Evening News, Yue Chinese, Yuehai dialects, Yuen Ren Chao, Zhuang languages. Expand index (180 more) »

A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced According to the Dialect of Canton

A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced According to the Dialect of Canton (粵音韻彙) is a book written by Wong Shik-Ling (黃錫凌) within a few years before being published in Hong Kong, 1941.

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American-born Chinese

American-born Chinese or ABC is a term widely used to refer to American citizens of Chinese descent, excluding first-generation immigrants.

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Ampang, Selangor

Ampang Jaya, more commonly known as just Ampang (p), is a town, a mukim and a parliamentary constituency in Hulu Langat District and parts of Gombak District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Bangi, Malaysia

Bangi is a small town situated south of Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Barnett–Chao Romanisation

The Cantonese Romanisation system known as Barnett–Chao (abbreviated here as B–C) is based on the principles of the Gwoyeu Romatzyh system (GR) developed by Chao Yuenren in the 1920s, which he modified in 1947.

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Batam is the largest city (kota) of Riau Islands Province of Indonesia as well the name of an island.

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Batu Gajah

Batu Gajah (population 34,000) is a municipality in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

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Be language

Be, also known as Ong Be, Bê, or Vo Limgao, is a language spoken by 600,000 people, 100,000 of them monolingual, on the north-central coast of Hainan Island, including the suburbs of the provincial capital Haikou.

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Bensonhurst, Brooklyn

Bensonhurst is a large, multiethnic neighborhood in the southwestern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, in the United States.

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Bentong (Jawi: ﺑﻨﺘﻮڠ) is a municipality located in western Pahang, Malaysia.

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Bidor is a mukim in Batang Padang District, Perak, Malaysia.

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British Chinese

British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Canada 2016 Census

The Canada 2016 Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of the Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688.

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Cantonese Braille

Cantonese Braille (Chinese: 粵語點字) is a braille script used to write Cantonese in Hong Kong.

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Cantonese grammar

Cantonese is an analytic language in which the arrangement of words in a sentence is important to its meaning.

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Cantonese opera

The Cantonese opera is one of the major categories in Chinese opera, originating in southern China's Guangdong Province.

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Cantonese people

The Cantonese people are Han Chinese people originating from or residing in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi (together known as Liangguang), in southern mainland China.

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Cantonese phonology

The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.

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Cantonese Pinyin

Cantonese Pinyin (also known as 教院式拼音方案) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by Rev.

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Cantonese profanity

The five most common Cantonese profanities, vulgar words in the Cantonese language are diu (屌/𨳒), gau (㞗/鳩), lan (𨶙𡳞/撚), tsat (杘/柒) and hai (屄/閪), where the first literally means fuck, “Diu” (or Jiu) is literally the word for Penis.

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Cantonese slang

Cantonese slang is a type of slang used in areas where Cantonese language is spoken.

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Cantopop (a contraction of "Cantonese pop music") or HK-pop (short for "Hong Kong pop music") is a genre of Cantonese music made primarily in Hong Kong, and also used to refer to the cultural context of its production and consumption.

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Checked tone

A checked tone, commonly known by its Chinese calque entering tone, is one of four syllable types in the phonology in Middle Chinese.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinatown, Los Angeles

Chinatown is a neighborhood in Downtown Los Angeles, California that became a commercial center for Chinese and other Asian businesses in Central Los Angeles in 1938.

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Chinatown, Manhattan

Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west.

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Chinatown, Oakland

The Chinatown neighborhood in Oakland, California(), is a pan-Asian neighborhood which reflects Oakland's diverse Asian American community. It is frequently referred to as "Oakland Chinatown" in order to distinguish it from nearby San Francisco's Chinatown. It lies at an elevation of 39 feet (12 m). Chinese were the first Asians to arrive in Oakland in the 1850s, followed by Japanese in the 1890s, Koreans in the 1900s, and Filipinos in the 1930s and 1940s. Southeast Asians began arriving in the 1970s during the Vietnam War. Many Asian languages and dialects can be heard in Chinatown due to its diverse population. Chinatown is located in downtown Oakland, with its center at 8th Street and Webster Street. Its northern edge is 12th Street, and its southern edge is Interstate 880 (located approximately at 6th Street). It stretches from Broadway on the west to the southern tip of Lake Merritt in the east.

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Chinatown, San Francisco

The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and the largest Chinese enclave outside Asia.

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Chinatowns in Brooklyn

The first Brooklyn Chinatown, was originally established in the Sunset Park area of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.

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Chinatowns in Queens

There are multiple Chinatowns in the borough of Queens in New York City.

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Chinese Americans

Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry.

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Chinese as a foreign language

Chinese as a foreign or second language is the study of the Chinese varieties by non-native speakers.

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Chinese Australians

Chinese Australians are Australian citizens of Chinese ancestry.

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Chinese Cambodian

Chinese Cambodians are Cambodian citizens of Chinese or partial Chinese descent.

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Chinese Canadians

Chinese Canadians are Canadians of full or partial Chinese ancestry, sometimes referenced as a CBC or Chinese-born Canadian (with light homage to the CBC, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, or to its American equivalent ABC).

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Chinese diaspora in France

The Chinese diaspora in France consists of people of Chinese ancestry who were born in (called FBCs or French-born Chinese) or immigrated to France.

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Chinese Indonesians

Chinese Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Tionghoa-Indonesia) are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, primarily the Han Chinese.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese people in Portugal

Chinese people in Portugal (Chinese: 葡萄牙華人, Cantonese Yale: pòuh tòuh ngàh wàh yàhn) form the country's largest Asian community, but only the twelfth-largest foreign community overall.

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Chinese school

A Chinese school is a school that is established for the purpose of teaching the varieties of Chinese (in particular, Mandarin and Cantonese), though the purpose can vary to teaching different aspects of Chinese culture such as Chinese art, calligraphy, history and martial arts.

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Cinema of Hong Kong

The cinema of Hong Kong is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema, alongside the cinema of China, and the cinema of Taiwan.

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In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.

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Comparison of Cantonese and Standard Chinese

Cantonese and Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin, are both varieties of Chinese (Sinitic languages).

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Culture of Hong Kong

The culture of Hong Kong, or Hongkongese culture, can best be described as a foundation that began with Lingnan's Cantonese culture (which is distinct to begin with) and, to a much lesser extent, non-Cantonese branches of Han Chinese cultures.

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De-Sinicization (de + Sinicization) is the elimination of Chinese influence.

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Democratic development in Hong Kong

Democratic development in Hong Kong has been a major topic since the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997.

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Dim sum

Dim sum is a style of Chinese cuisine (particularly Cantonese but also other varieties) prepared as small bite-sized portions of food served in small steamer baskets or on small plates.

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Education Bureau

The Education Bureau (abbr. EDB) is responsible for implementing education policies in Hong Kong.

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Elijah Coleman Bridgman

Elijah Coleman Bridgman (April22, 1801November2, 1861) was the first American Protestant Christian missionary appointed to China.

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Elmhurst, Queens

Elmhurst (formerly Newtown) is a working/middle class neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Eric Moo

Eric Moo Chii Yuan (born 9 February 1963), better known as Eric Moo or Wu Qixian, is a Malaysian Chinese award-winning singer-songwriter and record producer.

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Ernst Johann Eitel

Ernst Johann Eitel or alternatively Ernest John Eitel (13 February 1838 – 10 November 1908) was a German Protestant missionary to China born in Württemberg, Germany.

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Faye Wong

Faye Wong (born 8 August 1969) is a Hong Kong singer-songwriter and actress, often referred to as "the Diva" in the Chinese-speaking world.

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French Indochina

French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fuzhou dialect

The Fuzhou dialect, (FR) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of eastern Fujian province.

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Gao-Yang Yue

Gao-Yang, or Gao-Lei, is one of four principal dialects of Yue (Cantonese).

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Gopeng is a town located in Mukim Teja, Kampar District, Perak, Malaysia.

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Government of Hong Kong

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR.

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Government of Macau

The Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Portuguese: Governo da R.A.E. de Macau; conventional short name Macau Government, 澳門政府, Governo de Macau), are headed by secretariats or commissioners and report directly to the Chief Executive of Macau.

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Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangdong Romanization

Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese.

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Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Guangzhou Broadcasting Network

Guangzhou Broadcasting Network, also known as GZBN, is a commercial television network in Guangzhou.

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Guangzhou Television Cantonese controversy

In July 2010, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) Guangzhou Committee, in a written proposal to mayor of Guangzhou Wan Qingliang, suggested increasing Mandarin programming on Guangzhou Television's main and news channels.

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Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.

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Hainanese (Hainan Romanised), also known as Qióng Wén or Qióng yǔ (瓊語/琼语), is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan.

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Hakka Chinese

Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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Hoa people

The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").

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Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.

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Homecrest, Brooklyn

Homecrest is a neighborhood situated in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, sometimes considered as part of Sheepshead Bay.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hong Kong Basic Law

The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

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Hong Kong Cantonese

Hong Kong Cantonese is a dialect of the Cantonese language commonly spoken in Hong Kong, as well as Macau.

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Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority

The Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA), previously known as the Hong Kong Examinations Authority (HKEA), is a statutory body of the Government of Hong Kong responsible for the administration of public examinations and related assessments.

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Hong Kong people in the United Kingdom

Hong Kong people in the United Kingdom are people from Hong Kong who are residing in the United Kingdom, or British citizens of Hong Kong origin or descent.

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Hong Kong television drama

Hong Kong television drama refers to televised dramatic programming produced mainly by the territory's two free-to-air TV networks of Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) and Asia Television (ATV) until its license expired.

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Hulu Langat District

The Hulu Langat District is a district located in the southeastern corner of Selangor, between Kuala Lumpur and Negeri Sembilan.

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Ipoh is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Perak.

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Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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James Dyer Ball

James Dyer Ball (波乃耶) (4 December 1847 in Canton, China – 22 February 1919 in London, England) was a Hong Kong scholar and author born in Canton.

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John Chalmers (missionary)

John Chalmers (1825–1899) was a Scottish Protestant missionary in China and translator.

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Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia.

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Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.

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Kajang (p; Jawi: كاجڠ) is a mukim and the largest city of Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Kam language

The Kam language, also known as Gam (autonym: lix Gaeml), or in Chinese, Dong or Tung-Chia, is a Kam–Sui language spoken by the Dong people.

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Kampar, Perak

Kampar is a mukim in Kampar District, Perak, Malaysia.

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Kinta Valley

Kinta Valley in Perak, Malaysia, has historically been the most productive tin-producing district in the world.

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Klang Valley

Klang Valley (Lembah Klang) is an area in Malaysia which is centered in Kuala Lumpur, and includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor.

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Kra–Dai languages

The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.

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Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.

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Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, Malaysia.

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Lee Kuan Yew

Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.

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Liangguang (postal: Liangkwang) is a Chinese term for the province of Guangdong and former province and present autonomous region of Guangxi, collectively.

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Lingnan culture

The Lingnan culture or Cantonese culture, refers to the regional Chinese culture of the Southern Chinese/Lingnan twin provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic discrimination

Linguistic discrimination (also called linguicism and languagism) is the unfair treatment of an individual based solely on his or her use of language.

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Linguistic Society of Hong Kong

The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) is a non-profit academic association, which was formally registered as a charitable organization in Hong Kong on March 8, 1986.

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List of English words of Chinese origin

Words of Chinese origin have entered the English language and many European languages.

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List of varieties of Chinese

The following is a list of Chinese languages and dialects, many of which are mutually unintelligible.

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Little Fuzhou

Little Fuzhou, or Fuzhou Town, is a neighborhood in the Two Bridges and Lower East Side areas of the borough of Manhattan in New York City in the United States.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Locke, California

Locke, also known as Locke Historic District, is an unincorporated community in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta built by Chinese immigrants during the early 20th century.

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Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Made in America (book)

Made In America is a nonfiction book by Bill Bryson describing the history of the English language in the United States and the evolution of American culture.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Malaysian Chinese

The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.

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Maonan language

The Maonan language is a Kam–Sui language spoken mainly in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, Hechi, northern Guangxi by the Maonan people.

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Medium of instruction

A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching.

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Mentakab (alternately Mentekab, Chinese: 文德甲, Tamil: மெந்தகாப்) is a town, a mukim (commune) and a state assembly constituency in Temerloh District, Pahang, Malaysia, originally known as Pasir Rawa.

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Mersing is a town, mukim and the capital of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia.

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Meyer–Wempe romanization was the system used by two Roman Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe, for romanizing Cantonese in their Student's Cantonese English Dictionary published in 1935.

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Mott Street

Mott Street is a narrow but busy thoroughfare that runs in a north–south direction in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Nanjing decade

The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.

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New Era University College

New Era University College (Chinese: 新纪元大学学院), abbreviated as NEUC is a non-profit, private university college in Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Ng (name)

Ng (pronounced; English approximation often or) is a Cantonese, Shanghainese and Hakka transliteration of the Chinese surnames 吳/吴 (Pinyin transliteration for Mandarin equivalent: Wú) and 伍 (Mandarin Wǔ) meaning "five" or "troops".

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Northern California

Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal or "The Northstate" for the northern interior counties north of Sacramento to the Oregon stateline) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Overseas Chinese

No description.

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Pahang (Jawi: ڤهڠ), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur (Jawi: دار المعمور, "The Abode of Tranquility") is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia.

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Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD), also known as Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao, is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea.

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No description.

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Petaling Jaya

Petaling Jaya (commonly called "PJ" by locals) is a major Malaysian city originally developed as a satellite township for Kuala Lumpur.

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Phnom Penh

Phnom Penh (or; ភ្នំពេញ phnum pɨñ), formerly known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul (ក្រុងចតុមុខសិរិមង្គល), is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia.

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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese Macau

Portuguese Macau was the period of Macau as a Portuguese colony and later, an overseas province under Portuguese administration from 1557 to 1999.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Puchong is a major town and a parliamentary constituency in the Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Radio Guangdong

Radio Guangdong is a public broadcasting organization in Guangdong.

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Raub, Pahang

The Raub is a town in Pahang, Malaysia.

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Robert Morrison (missionary)

Robert Morrison, FRS (5 January 1782 – 1 August 1834), was an Anglo-Scottish Protestant missionary to Portuguese Macao, Qing-era Guangdong, and Dutch Malacca, who was also a pioneering sinologist, lexicographer, and translator considered the "Father of Anglo-Chinese Literature".

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Rosemead, California

Rosemead is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols)

Wong Shik Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a scheme of phonetic symbols for Cantonese based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton.

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S. L. Wong (romanisation)

Wong Shik-Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a romanisation scheme accompanying a set of phonetic symbols for Cantonese based on International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton.

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Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.

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Sabak Bernam District

The Sabak Bernam District is a district and a parliamentary constituency in north-western Selangor, Malaysia.

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Sacramento River

The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California.

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Samuel Wells Williams

Samuel Wells Williams (衛三畏; 22 September 1812 - 16 February 1884) was a linguist, official, missionary and Sinologist from the United States in the early 19th century.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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San Francisco Bay Area

The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.

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San Gabriel, California

San Gabriel is a city in Los Angeles County, California.

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Sandakan (Jawi) formerly known at various times as Elopura, is the capital of the Sandakan District in Sabah, Malaysia.

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Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.

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Sarikei is a town, and the capital of the Sarikei District (985 square kilometres) in Sarikei Division, Sarawak, Malaysia.

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Sekinchan (j) is a small town located in Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Selangor, also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia.

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Selayang is a town in Gombak District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Shah Alam

Shah Alam is a city and the state capital of Selangor, Malaysia and situated within the Petaling District and a small portion of the neighbouring Klang District.

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No description.

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Sidney Lau

Sidney Lau Sek-cheung (劉錫祥) (d.1987) was a Cantonese teacher in the Chinese Language Section of the Government Training Division and Principal of the Government Language School of the Hong Kong Government.

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Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South China Morning Post

The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern California

Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Speak Mandarin Campaign

The Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC) is an initiative by the government of Singapore to encourage the Singaporean Chinese population to speak Standard Mandarin Chinese, one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Standard Zhuang

Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subang Jaya

Subang Jaya is a suburban city located in the Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Sungai Buloh

Sungai Buloh is a city and mukim in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia.

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Sunset Park, Brooklyn

Sunset Park is a neighborhood in the southwestern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.

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Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.

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Taishan, Guangdong

Taishan, formerly romanized in Cantonese as Toishan, in local dialect as Hoisan or Toisan, and formerly known as Xinning or Sunning, is a county-level city in southwestern Guangdong, China.

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Taishanese, or in the Cantonese romanization Toishanese (Taishanese), is a dialect of Yue Chinese.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwanese Hokkien

Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tapah is a town and the capital of Batang Padang District, Perak, Malaysia.

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Television Southern

TVS Television (called TVS), originally known as Southern Television Guangdong is a regional Chinese language sub-network under Guangdong Radio and Television in Southern China.

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Temple City, California

Temple City is a city in Los Angeles County, California.

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Teochew dialect

Teochew (Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world.

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Thai Chinese

Thai of Chinese origin, often called Thai Chinese, consist of Thai people of full or partial Chinese ancestry – particularly Han Chinese.

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Thai language

Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.

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Tianyi Film Company

Tianyi Film Company, also called Unique Film Productions, was one of the "big three" film production companies in pre-Second World War Republic of China.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tone letter

Tone letters are letters that represent the tones of a language, most commonly in languages with contour tones.

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Tone name

In tonal languages, tone names are the names given to the tones these languages use.

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Tone number

Tone numbers are numerical digits used like letters to mark the tones of a language.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong

The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.

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Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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William Jones (philologist)

Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.

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Wong Shik Ling

Wong Shik-Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) (1908–1959) was a prominent scholar in Cantonese research.

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Written Cantonese

Written Cantonese is the written form of Cantonese, the most complete written form of Chinese after that for Mandarin Chinese and Classical Chinese.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Written vernacular Chinese

Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.

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Xiguan dialect

Xiguan accent, or Xiguan dialect, is a sub-dialect of the Guangzhou dialect of Cantonese, spoken in Xiguan.

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Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).

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Yale romanization of Cantonese

The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but later published in 1958.

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Yangcheng Evening News

Yangcheng Evening News is a Chinese newspaper in the Standard Chinese language, national unified publication number CN44-0006 in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

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Yue Chinese

Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.

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Yuehai dialects

Yuehai (粵海方言) is the main branch of Yue Chinese, spoken in the Pearl River Delta of the province of Guangdong, as well as Hong Kong and Macau.

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Yuen Ren Chao

Yuen Ren Chao (3 November 1892 – 25 February 1982) was a Chinese-American linguist, educator, scholar, poet, and composer, who contributed to the modern study of Chinese phonology and grammar.

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Zhuang languages

The Zhuang languages (autonym:, pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.

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Canton dialect, Cantonese (dialect), Cantonese (language), Cantonese (linguistics), Cantonese Chinese, Cantonese Chinese language, Cantonese dialect, Cantonese language, Cantonese romanization, Cantonese-language, Chinese Cantonese Chinese, Guangdonghua, Guangfuhua, Guangzhou Cantonese, Guangzhou dialect, Guangzhouhua, Guǎngdōng huà, Guǎngzhōu huà, Gwongdungwa, Kwong-fu, Metropolitan Cantonese, Modern Cantonese, Modern Cantonese language, Romanization of Cantonese, Spoken Cantonese, Standard Cantonese, Standard Cantonese language, 广东话, 广州话, 广府话, 廣州話, 廣府話, 标准粤语, 標準粵語.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantonese

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