240 relations: AA battery, AC power, Accelerometer, Aerogel, Airbag, Airplane, Alessandro Volta, Alkaline battery, Allied Electronics, Alternating current, Aluminium, Aluminum electrolytic capacitor, Amplifier, Analog sampled filter, Analogue electronics, Analogue filter, Angular frequency, Antiderivative, Artillery battery, Audio crossover, Automotive battery, Avalanche breakdown, Bell Labs, Benjamin Franklin, Breakdown voltage, Brinkley stick, Capacitance, Capacitance meter, Capacitive coupling, Capacitor plague, Capacitor types, Catastrophic failure, Ceramic, Ceramic capacitor, Charge carrier, Charge density, Charge pump, Charge-coupled device, Circuit breaker, Coilgun, Constant of integration, Contact breaker, Coulomb, Coulomb's law, Curie temperature, Damping ratio, Daniel Gralath, Decimal separator, Decoupling capacitor, Deep-level transient spectroscopy, ..., Defibrillation, Depletion region, Dichroism, Dielectric, Dielectric absorption, Dielectric strength, Diode, Direct current, Duality (electrical circuits), Dynamic random-access memory, Electric battery, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric displacement field, Electric field, Electric motor, Electric power transmission, Electric susceptibility, Electrical breakdown, Electrical conductor, Electrical impedance, Electrical injury, Electrical insulation paper, Electrical load, Electrical network, Electrical reactance, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical substation, Electricity, Electroluminescence, Electrolyte, Electrolytic capacitor, Electromagnetic forming, Electromagnetic interference, Electronic circuit, Electronic component, Electronics, Electrostatic generator, Energy density, Equivalent circuit, Equivalent series inductance, Equivalent series resistance, Ewald Georg von Kleist, Exploding-bridgewire detonator, Explosion, Exponential decay, Farad, Feedthrough, Ferroelectricity, Fibrillation, Film capacitor, Filter capacitor, Flashtube, Fluorescent lamp, Fourier analysis, Frequency, Fusion power, Gauss's law, Glass, Groundwater, Guglielmo Marconi, Harmonic oscillator, Henry (unit), High voltage, Hydraulic analogy, IEEE Spectrum, Ignition system, Imaginary unit, Inductance, Induction motor, Inductor, Information, Integral, International System of Units, Jar (unit), John Vincent Atanasoff, Joule, Karol Pollak, Kirchhoff's circuit laws, Landfill, Laplace transform, Laser, LC circuit, Lead (electronics), Lead–acid battery, Leakage (electronics), Leiden University, Letter and digit code, Leyden jar, Line integral, Linear response function, Magnetic field, Marx generator, Mica, Microelectromechanical systems, Microphone, Microphonics, Motor capacitor, Negative feedback, Network analysis (electrical circuits), Nuclear weapon, Operating temperature, Order of integration (calculus), Ordinary differential equation, Oxide, Paper, Parasitic capacitance, Particle accelerator, Passivity (engineering), P–n junction, Permittivity, Phase (waves), Phase-locked loop, Phosphorescence, Pieter van Musschenbroek, Piezoelectricity, Plastic, Plastic film, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polymer capacitor, Polystyrene, Polysulfone, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Pomerania, Porcelain, Potential energy, Power factor, Power supply, Pre-charge, Printed circuit board, Process control, Pulse forming network, Pulsed power, Q factor, Radar, Radio, Radio frequency, Radio receiver, Railgun, Rainer Waser, Reactive armour, Rechargeable battery, Rectifier, Resistor, Resonance, Ringing (signal), Ripple (electrical), RLC circuit, Sample and hold, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device, Sensor, Short circuit, Signal, Silver mica capacitor, Slapper detonator, Snubber, Spark-gap transmitter, Specific energy, Spectrum, Squirrel-cage rotor, Supercapacitor, Surface condenser, Surface-mount technology, Switched-mode power supply, Tantalum, Tantalum capacitor, TEA laser, Television set, Terminal (electronics), Theremin, Three-phase, Time constant, Touch switch, Transistor, Transmission line, Transmitter, Trimmer (electronics), Vacuum, Vacuum state, Vacuum tube, Variable capacitor, Varicap, Vehicle audio, Volt, Voltage, Voltage drop, Wireless telegraphy, Work (thermodynamics), World War II. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
The AA battery—also called a double A or Mignon (French for "dainty") battery—is a standard size single cell cylindrical dry battery.
Power in an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit.
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas.
An airbag is a type of vehicle safety device and is an occupant restraint system.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Allied Electronics is a distributor of electronic components and electromechanical products based in United States Allied is a subsidiary of Electrocomponents plc (LSE: ECM).
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are polarized electrolytic capacitors whose anode electrode (+) is made of a pure aluminum foil with an etched surface.
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
An analog sampled filter an electronic filter that is a hybrid between an analog and a digital filter.
Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.
Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics.
In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.
In calculus, an antiderivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
Audio crossovers are a type of electronic filter circuitry used in a range of audio applications, to split up an audio signal into two or more frequency ranges, so that the signals can be sent to drivers that are designed for different frequency ranges.
An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle.
Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The breakdown voltage of an insulator is the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive.
A Brinkley stick is a safety device used to discharge high voltage capacitors and ensure HT electrical circuits are discharged.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
A capacitance meter is a piece of electronic test equipment used to measure capacitance, mainly of discrete capacitors.
Capacitive coupling is the transfer of energy within an electrical network or between distant networks by means of displacement current between circuit(s) nodes, induced by the electric field.
The capacitor plague was a problem related to a higher-than-expected failure rate of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors, between 1999 and 2007, especially those from some Taiwanese manufacturers, due to faulty electrolyte composition that caused corrosion accompanied by gas generation, often rupturing the case of the capacitor from the build-up of pressure.
Capacitors are manufactured in many forms, styles, lengths, girths, and from many materials.
A catastrophic failure is a sudden and total failure from which recovery is impossible.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor in which ceramic material acts as the dielectric.
In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors.
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.
A charge pump is a kind of DC to DC converter that uses capacitors for energetic charge storage to raise or lower voltage.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit.
A coilgun or Gauss rifle is a type of projectile accelerator consisting of one or more coils used as electromagnets in the configuration of a linear motor that accelerate a ferromagnetic or conducting projectile to high velocity.
In calculus, the indefinite integral of a given function (i.e., the set of all antiderivatives of the function) on a connected domain is only defined up to an additive constant, the constant of integration.
A contact breaker (or "points") is a type of electrical switch, and the term typically refers to the switching device found in the distributor of the ignition systems of spark-ignition internal combustion engines.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.
Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that has the effect of reducing, restricting or preventing its oscillations.
Daniel Gralath (30 May 1708 – 23 July 1767) was a physicist and a mayor of Danzig.
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
A decoupling capacitor is a capacitor used to decouple one part of an electrical network (circuit) from another.
Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is an experimental tool for studying electrically active defects (known as charge carrier traps) in semiconductors.
Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).
In semiconductor physics, the depletion region, also called depletion layer, depletion zone, junction region, space charge region or space charge layer, is an insulating region within a conductive, doped semiconductor material where the mobile charge carriers have been diffused away, or have been forced away by an electric field.
In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours) (not to be confused with dispersion), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Dielectric absorption is the name given to the effect by which a capacitor, that has been charged for a long time, discharges only incompletely when briefly discharged.
In physics, the term dielectric strength has the following meanings.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
In electrical engineering, electrical terms are associated into pairs called duals.
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
In electricity (electromagnetism), the electric susceptibility (\chi_; Latin: susceptibilis "receptive") is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of polarization of a dielectric material in response to an applied electric field.
Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is when current flows through an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
Electrical insulation papers are paper types that are used as electrical insulation in many applications due to pure cellulose having outstanding electrical properties.
An electrical load is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes (active) electric power.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An electrolytic capacitor (e-cap) is a polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an insulating oxide layer through anodization.
Electromagnetic forming (EM forming or magneforming) is a type of high velocity, cold forming process for electrically conductive metals, most commonly copper and aluminium.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
In electrical engineering and science, an equivalent circuit refers to a theoretical circuit that retains all of the electrical characteristics of a given circuit.
Equivalent series inductance (ESL) is an effective inductance that is used to describe the inductive part of the impedance of certain electrical components.
Practical capacitors and inductors as used in electric circuits are not ideal components with only capacitance or inductance.
Ewald Georg von Kleist (10 June 1700 – 11 December 1748) was a German jurist, Lutheran cleric, and physicist.
The exploding-bridgewire detonator (EBW, also known as exploding wire detonator) is a type of detonator used to initiate the detonation reaction in explosive materials, similar to a blasting cap because it is fired using an electric current.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.
A feedthrough is a conductor used to carry a signal through an enclosure or printed circuit board.
Ferroelectricity is a characteristic of certain materials that have a spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers.
Film capacitors, plastic film capacitors, film dielectric capacitors, or polymer film capacitors, generically called “film caps” as well as power film capacitors, are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film as the dielectric, sometimes combined with paper as carrier of the electrodes.
Filter capacitors are capacitors used for filtering of undesirable frequencies.
A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.
In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: where k is a positive constant.
The henry (symbol: H) is the SI derived unit of electrical inductance.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
The electronic–hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.
IEEE Spectrum is a magazine edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc.
The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.
An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
A jar was an early unit of capacitance once used by the British Royal Navy.
John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903 – June 15, 1995) was an American-Bulgarian physicist and inventor, best known for being credited with inventing the first electronic digital computer.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Karol Franciszek Pollak (November 15, 1859 – December 17, 1928) was a Polish electrotechnician, inventor and businessman.
Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
In mathematics, the Laplace transform is an integral transform named after its discoverer Pierre-Simon Laplace.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together.
In electronics, a lead is an electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or a metal pad (SMD) that is designed to connect two locations electrically.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
In electronics, leakage may refer to a gradual loss of energy from a charged capacitor.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
The letter and digit code for resistance and capacitance values and tolerances, which is also known as RKM code or "R notation", is a notation to specify resistor and capacitor values defined in the international standard IEC 60062 (formerly IEC 62) since 1952.
A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar) stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar.
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve.
A linear response function describes the input-output relationship of a signal transducer such as a radio turning electromagnetic waves into music or a neuron turning synaptic input into a response.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A Marx generator is an electrical circuit first described by Erwin Otto Marx in 1924.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Microphonics or microphony describes the phenomenon wherein certain components in electronic devices transform mechanical vibrations into an undesired electrical signal (noise).
A motor capacitor, such as a start capacitor or run capacitor (including a dual run capacitor) is an electrical capacitor that alters the current to one or more windings of a single phase AC induction motor to create a rotating magnetic field.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
In calculus, interchange of the order of integration is a methodology that transforms iterated integrals (or multiple integrals through the use of Fubini's theorem) of functions into other, hopefully simpler, integrals by changing the order in which the integrations are performed.
In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Parasitic capacitance, or stray capacitance is an unavoidable and usually unwanted capacitance that exists between the parts of an electronic component or circuit simply because of their proximity to each other.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop abbreviated as PLL is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
Pieter van Musschenbroek (14 March 1692 – 19 September 1761) was a Dutch scientist.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
A polymer capacitor, or more accurately a polymer electrolytic capacitor, is an electrolytic capacitor (e-cap) with a solid electrolyte of a conductive polymer.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Polysulfones are a family of thermoplastic polymers.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
In electrical engineering, the power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit, and is a dimensionless number in the closed interval of −1 to 1.
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.
Pre-charge of the powerline voltages in a high voltage DC application is a preliminary mode which limits the inrush current during the power up procedure.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.
A pulse forming network (PFN) is an electric circuit that accumulates electrical energy over a comparatively long time, then releases the stored energy in the form of a relatively square pulse of comparatively brief duration for various pulsed power applications.
Pulsed power is the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly, thus increasing the instantaneous power.
In physics and engineering the quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its centre frequency.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.
A railgun is a device that uses electromagnetic force to launch high velocity projectiles, by means of a sliding armature that is accelerated along a pair of conductive rails.
Rainer Waser (born September 16, 1955, in Frankfurt) is a German professor of Electrical Engineering at RWTH Aachen University (Aachen).
Reactive armor is a type of vehicle armor that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected.
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
In electronics, signal processing, and video, ringing is oscillation of a signal, particularly in the step response (the response to a sudden change in input).
Ripple (specifically ripple voltage) in electronics is the residual periodic variation of the DC voltage within a power supply which has been derived from an alternating current (AC) source.
An RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel.
In electronics, a sample and hold (S/H, also "follow-and-hold"Horowitz and Hill, p. 220.) circuit is an analog device that samples (captures, takes) the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal and holds (locks, freezes) its value at a constant level for a specified minimum period of time.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Silver mica capacitors are high precision, stable and reliable capacitors.
A slapper detonator, also called exploding foil initiator (EFI), is a relatively recent kind of a detonator developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US Patent No.
A snubber is a device used to suppress ("snub") a phenomenon such as voltage transients in electrical systems, pressure transients in fluid systems (caused by for example water hammer) or excess force or rapid movement in mechanical systems.
A spark-gap transmitter is a device that generates radio frequency electromagnetic waves using a spark gap.
Specific energy is energy per unit mass.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
A squirrel-cage rotor is the rotating part of the common squirrel-cage induction motor.
A supercapacitor (SC) (also called a supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap) is a high-capacity capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries.
A surface condenser is a commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations.
Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs).
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
A tantalum electrolytic capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor, a passive component of electronic circuits.
A TEA laser is a gas laser energized by a high voltage electrical discharge in a gas mixture generally at or above atmospheric pressure.
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits.
The theremin (--> originally known as the ætherphone/etherphone, thereminophone or termenvox/thereminvox) is an electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer).
In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period.
In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter τ (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system.
A touch switch is a type of switch that only has to be touched by an object to operate.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
A trimmer is a miniature adjustable electrical component.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
A variable capacitor is a capacitor whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed mechanically or electronically.
In electronics, a varicap diode, varactor diode, variable capacitance diode, variable reactance diode or tuning diode is a type of diode designed to exploit the voltage-dependent capacitance of a reversed-biased p–n junction.
Vehicle audio is equipment installed in a car or other vehicle to provide in-car entertainment and information for the vehicle occupants.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Voltage drop describes how the energy supplied by a voltage source is reduced as electric current moves through the passive elements (elements that do not supply voltage) of an electrical circuit.
Wireless telegraphy is the transmission of telegraphy signals from one point to another by means of an electromagnetic, electrostatic or magnetic field, or by electrical current through the earth or water.
In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic forces exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Capacitator, Capacitive, Capacitor (component), Capacitor Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics, Capacitors, Capacitors in Circuits, Condensator, Current reversal, Electric condenser, Electrical Condenser, Electrical capacitor, Electrical condenser, Electrostatic capacitor, Gimmick capacitors, Ideal capacitor, Ideal condenser, Multilayer ceramic capacitor, Non-ideal capacitor, Non-ideal condenser, Parallel Plate Capacitor, Parallel plate capacitor, Parallel-plate capacitor, Power condenser, R46 Capacitor, Real capacitor, Real condenser, Voltage reversal.