98 relations: Albumin, Anaphylatoxin, Angiogenesis, Arteriole, Artery, Autoregulation, Basal lamina, Birth defect, Blood glucose monitoring, Blood lancet, Blood plasma, Blood proteins, Blood sugar level, Blood vessel, Blood–air barrier, Blood–brain barrier, Bone marrow, Capillary action, Carbon dioxide, Central nervous system, Circulatory system, Coronary artery disease, Creatinine, Cytokine, Embryogenesis, Endocrine gland, Endothelial progenitor cell, Endothelium, Epithelium, Extracellular fluid, Fenestra, Fibril, Gastrointestinal tract, Glomerulus (kidney), Glucose, Glucose meter, Gonad, Hagen–Poiseuille equation, Hemoglobin, Hydrostatics, Immune system, Intercellular cleft, Ion, Kidney, Lactic acid, Latin, Liver, Lung, Lymph, Lymph capillary, ..., Lymph node, Macular degeneration, Marcello Malpighi, Mesentery, Metabolism, Metarteriole, Microcirculation, Micrometre, Microvessel, Molecule, Myogenic mechanism, Myogenic response, Nanometre, Oncotic pressure, Organ (anatomy), Osmosis, Oxygen, Pancreas, Paracellular transport, PH, Pinocytosis, Podocyte, Precapillary resistance, Precapillary sphincter, Red blood cell, Risk factor, Sampling (medicine), Sinusoid (blood vessel), Skeletal muscle, Spleen, Starling equation, Surface chemistry of microvasculature, Tight junction, Tissue (biology), Transcellular transport, Tubuloglomerular feedback, Urea, Uric acid, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Vascular permeability, Vasculogenesis, Vein, Venae cavae, Venule, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Water, White blood cell, William Harvey. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Anaphylatoxins, or complement peptides, are fragments (C3a, C4a and C5a) that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Autoregulation is a process within many biological systems, resulting from an internal adaptive mechanism that works to adjust (or mitigate) that system's response to stimuli.
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia).
A blood lancet, or simply lancet, is a small medical implement used for capillary blood sampling.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–air barrier (alveolar–capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to multiple different cell types that play roles in the regeneration of the endothelial lining of blood vessels.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
A fenestra (plural fenestrae) in anatomy, zoology and biology, is any small opening or pore.
Fibrils (from the Latin fibra) are structural biological materials found in nearly all living organisms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The glomerulus, plural glomeruli, is a network of capillaries known as a tuft, located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions may be present.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels located in the spaces between cells (except in the central nervous system and non-vascular tissues) which serve to drain and process extra-cellular fluid.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metarteriole (or arterial capillary) is a short vessel that links arterioles and capillaries.
Microcirculation is the circulation of the blood in the smallest blood vessels, present within organ tissues.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microvessel or microvasculature refers to the smallest systems of blood vessels in a body, including those responsible for microcirculation, the system of smaller blood vessels that distribute blood within tissues.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant.
Myogenic response refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel's plasma (blood/liquid) that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Paracellular transport refers to the transfer of substances across an epithelium by passing through the intercellular space between the cells.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.
Precapillary resistance is the modulation of blood flow by capillaries through vasomotion, either opening (dilating) and letting blood pass through, or by constricting their lumens, reducing bloodflow through the capillary bed (occluding the passage of blood).
A precapillary sphincter is a band of smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into capillaries mainly in the mesenteric microcirculation.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
In medicine, sampling is gathering of matter from the body to aid in the process of a medical diagnosis and/or evaluation of an indication for treatment, further medical tests or other procedures.
A sinusoid is a small blood vessel that is a type of capillary similar to a fenestrated endothelium.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The Starling equation for fluid filtration is named for the British physiologist Ernest Starling, who is also recognised for the Frank–Starling law of the heart.
Microvasculature is defined as vessels (venules or capillaries) with a maximum average diameter of 0.3 millimeters.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell.
In the physiology of the kidney, tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a feedback system inside the kidneys.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
Vascular permeability, often in the form of capillary permeability or microvascular permeability, characterizes the capacity of a blood vessel wall to allow for the flow of small molecules (drugs, nutrients, water, ions) or even whole cells (lymphocytes on their way to the site of inflammation) in and out of the vessel.
Vasculogenesis is the process of blood vessel formation occurring by a de novo production of endothelial cells.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.
A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
Blood capillaries, Blood capillary, Capilary, Capillaries, Capillary (blood vessel), Capillary bed, Capillary beds, Capillary blood, Capillary blood sampling, Capillary blood vessel, Capillary system, Capillary vessel, Pulmonary capillaries, Pulmonary capillary.