320 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Accession of Turkey to the European Union, Adolescence, Adultery, Africa, Age of majority, Aggravation (law), Al-Mu'tadid, Albert Camus, American Civil Liberties Union, American Convention on Human Rights, American University, Amnesty International, An Lushan Rebellion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Apostasy in Islam, Armenia, Arson in royal dockyards, Asia, Associated Press, Athens, Atkins v. Virginia, Azerbaijan, Baghdad, Bangladesh, Baze v. Rees, Benin, Blasphemy, Blood money (restitution), Bloody Code, Blowing from a gun, British America, Buggery, Buggery Act 1533, Burden of proof (law), Burkina Faso, Burundi, Caliphate, Capital punishment by country, Capital punishment debate in the United States, Capital punishment in Afghanistan, Capital punishment in Australia, Capital punishment in Bangladesh, Capital punishment in Belarus, Capital punishment in Botswana, Capital punishment in Brazil, Capital punishment in Canada, Capital punishment in China, Capital punishment in Egypt, ..., Capital punishment in Europe, Capital punishment in Guatemala, Capital punishment in India, Capital punishment in Indonesia, Capital punishment in Iran, Capital punishment in Iraq, Capital punishment in Japan, Capital punishment in Kazakhstan, Capital punishment in Latvia, Capital punishment in Malaysia, Capital punishment in New Zealand, Capital punishment in North Korea, Capital punishment in Oklahoma, Capital punishment in Pakistan, Capital punishment in Poland, Capital punishment in Russia, Capital punishment in Saudi Arabia, Capital punishment in Singapore, Capital punishment in South Africa, Capital punishment in South Korea, Capital punishment in Sri Lanka, Capital punishment in Syria, Capital punishment in Taiwan, Capital punishment in Thailand, Capital punishment in the Philippines, Capital punishment in the United States, Capital punishment in Turkey, Capital punishment in Utah, Capital punishment in Vietnam, Capital punishment in Washington state, Capital punishment in Yemen, Caribbean, Cervical dislocation, Cesare Beccaria, Charles Dickens, Charles Lane (journalist), Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Child murder, China, Christendom, Cities for Life Day, Code of Hammurabi, Communism, Constitution of Turkey, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Corporal punishment, Council of Europe, Court-martial, Cowardice, Cradle of civilization, Crimes against humanity, Criminal code, Criminology, Cruel and unusual punishment, Cultural Revolution, Customary international law, De jure, Death in custody, Death Penalty Focus, Death Penalty Information Center, Death row, Decapitation, Decimation (Roman army), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Desertion, DNA profiling, Draco (lawgiver), Duel, East Asia, East Timor, Electric chair, Electrocution, Emperor Saga, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Espionage, Europe, European Convention on Human Rights, European Union, Execution by firing squad, Execution by shooting, Exile, Fasad, Feud, Financial crime, First World, Furman v. Georgia, Gabon, Gas chamber, Gaza Strip, Genocide, Geoffrey Chaucer, Glossip v. Gross, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Gregg v. Georgia, Guillotine, Guilt-Shame-Fear spectrum of cultures, Hamas, Hanged, drawn and quartered, Hanging, Henry VIII of England, Hirabah, Homicide, Horizon (UK TV series), Hudud, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Human trafficking, Hypnotic, Ideology, Illegal drug trade, Immanuel Kant, Incest, Insubordination, Intellectual disability, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Criminal Court, International Federation for Human Rights, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Iran, Iraq, Islam and blasphemy, Islamic Courts Union, James Pratt and John Smith, Japan, Jared Carter, Jeremy Bentham, Jews, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Judicial corporal punishment, Karl Marx, Kidnapping, Latin, Latin America, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Lethal injection, Life imprisonment, Lingchi, List of methods of capital punishment, Lists of member states of the European Union, Looting, Magic (supernatural), Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, Maimonides, Mandatory sentencing, Mao Zedong, Mass murder, Massacre, Mexicans, Michigan, Middle Ages, Millennials, Miscarriage of justice, Misuse of Drugs Act (Singapore), Mofsed-e-filarz, Moral panic, Moratorium (law), Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, Murder, Mutiny, Nation state, Natural and legal rights, New York Law School, Nigeria, Norsemen, North Korea, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law, Nuremberg trials, Oceania, Old Testament, On Crimes and Punishments, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Pedro II of Brazil, Peremptory norm, Philippines, Piracy Act 1837, Plea bargain, Political corruption, Political repression, Prima facie, Prison, Protest, Psychological torture, Rape, Ratification, Rational choice theory (criminology), Right to life, Rizana Nafeek, Robert Blecker Wants Me Dead, Robert Conquest, Roman Republic (19th century), Roper v. Simmons, Running the gauntlet, Russia, Satanism, Saudi Arabia, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Sect, Sentence (law), Separatism, Shabbat, Shunning, Singapore, Soccer-specific stadium, Social policy, Sodomy, Solon, Somalia, South Asia, South Korea, South Sudan, Southeast Asia, Spinal cord, Sri Lanka, State religion, Stoning, Stoning of Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, Stop Child Executions Campaign, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Supreme Court of the United States, Taiwan, Taliban, Tang dynasty, Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Terrorism, The Canterbury Tales, The Death Penalty: Opposing Viewpoints, The Great Terror, The Lancet, The New York Times International Edition, The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards, The Washington Post, Thing (assembly), Thomas More, Thompson v. Oklahoma, Torah, Torture, Torture murder, Transitional federal government, Republic of Somalia, Treason, Trial by combat, Turkey, Ukraine, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations moratorium on the death penalty, United States, Utilitarianism, Utopia (book), Venezuela, War crime, Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C., Western Asia, William Blackstone, William Muir, Witch trials in the early modern period, Witchcraft, World Coalition Against the Death Penalty, World War II, Yemen, Zambia, Zina, 1980 Turkish coup d'état, 2014 Peshawar school massacre. Expand index (270 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
Aggravation, in law, is "any circumstance attending the commission of a crime or tort which increases its guilt or enormity or adds to its injurious consequences, but which is above and beyond the essential constituents of the crime or tort itself." Aggravated assault, for example, is usually differentiated from simple assault by the offender's intent (e.g., to murder or to rape), the extent of injury to the victim, or the use of a deadly weapon.
Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Talha al-Muwaffaq (854 or 861 – 5 April 902), better known by his regnal name al-Mu'tadid bi-llah (المعتضد بالله, "Seeking Support in God") was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 until his death in 902.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
The American Convention on Human Rights, also known as the Pact of San José, is an international human rights instrument.
The American University (AU or American) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C., United States.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arson in royal dockyards was a criminal offence in the United Kingdom and the British Empire.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atkins v. Virginia,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled 6-3 that executing people with intellectual disabilities violates the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishments, but states can define who has intellectual disability.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Baze v. Rees,, is a decision by the United States Supreme Court, which upheld the constitutionality of a particular method of lethal injection used for capital punishment.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
Blood money, also called bloodwit, is money or some sort of compensation paid by an offender (usually a murderer) or his/her family group to the family or kin group of the victim.
"Bloody Code" is a term used to refer to the system of crimes and punishments in England in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Blowing from a gun was a method of execution in which the victim was typically tied to the mouth of a cannon which was then fired.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The British English term buggery is very close in meaning to the term sodomy, often used interchangeably in law and popular speech.
The Buggery Act 1533, formally An Acte for the punishment of the vice of Buggerie (25 Hen. 8 c. 6), was an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed during the reign of Henry VIII.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country.
Capital punishment debate in the United States existed as early as the colonial period.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Afghanistan.
Capital punishment in Australia has been abolished in all jurisdictions.
Capital punishment in Bangladesh is a legal form of punishment for anyone who is over 16, however in practice will not apply to persons under 18.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Belarus.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Botswana.
Capital punishment is a long unused form of punishment in Brazil, last reported in 1876, not having been officially used since the proclamation of the Republic in 1889.
Capital punishment in Canada dates back to Canada's earliest history, including its period as a French colony and, after 1763, its time as a British colony.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the mainland of the People's Republic of China.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Egypt.
The death penalty has been completely abolished in all European countries except for Belarus and Russia, the latter of which has a moratorium and has not conducted an execution since 1999.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Guatemala, and is carried out by lethal injection and, to a lesser extent, the firing squad.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in India.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Indonesia.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Iran.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Iraq.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Japan.
Capital punishment in Kazakhstan has been abolished for ordinary crimes, but is still permitted for crimes occurring in special circumstances (such as war crimes).
Latvia was the last European Union country to retain capital punishment for murder, but only for wartime murder.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Malaysia.
Capital punishment in New Zealand first appeared in a codified form when it became a British territory in 1840, and was first employed in 1842.
Capital punishment is a legal and often-used form of punishment in North Korea for many offences, such as grand theft, murder, rape, drug smuggling, treason, espionage, political dissidence, defection, piracy, consumption of media not approved by the government and proselytizing religious beliefs that contradict practiced Juche ideology.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Pakistan.
Capital punishment remained in Polish law until April 1, 1997, but from 1989 there was a moratorium on executions, with the last execution taking place one year earlier.
Capital punishment in Russia currently is not allowed.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Saudi Arabia.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Singapore.
Capital punishment in South Africa was abolished on 6 June 1995 by the ruling of the Constitutional Court in the case of S v Makwanyane, following a five-year and four-month moratorium since February 1990.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in South Korea.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Sri Lanka.
Capital punishment is legal in Syria.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Taiwan, officially the Republic of China.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Thailand.
Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and is currently suspended as of 2006.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 31 states, the federal government, and the military.
Capital punishment has been abolished in Turkey as of 2004, and Turkey has not executed any prisoners since October 1984.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of Utah.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Vietnam.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of Washington.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Yemen.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Cervical dislocation is a common method of animal euthanasia.
Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles "Chuck" Lane (born 1961) is an American journalist and editor who is an editorial writer for The Washington Post and a regular guest on Fox News Channel.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.
Child murder or child homicide is the homicide of an individual who is a minor.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christendom has several meanings.
Cities for Life Day is a worldwide festivity that supports the abolition of the death penalty.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excessive self-concern override doing or saying what is right, good, and of help to others or oneself in a time of need — it is the opposite of courage.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
A death in custody is a death of a person in the custody of the police, other authorities or in prison.
Founded in 1988, Death Penalty Focus is a non-profit organization dedicated to the abolition of capital punishment through grassroots organizing, research, and the dissemination of information about the death penalty and its alternatives.
The Death Penalty Information Center (DPIC) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that focuses on disseminating studies and reports related to the death penalty by itself and others to the news media and general public.
Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Decimation (decimatio; decem.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
Draco (Δράκων, Drakōn; fl. c. 7th century BC) was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece.
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Execution by electrocution, performed using an electric chair, is a method of execution originating in the United States in which the condemned person is strapped to a specially built wooden chair and electrocuted through electrodes fastened on the head and leg.
Electrocution is death or serious injury caused by electric shock, electric current passing through the body.
was the 52nd emperor of Japan,Emperor Saga, Saganoyamanoe Imperial Mausoleum, Imperial Household Agency according to the traditional order of succession.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
Execution by shooting is a method of capital punishment in which a person is shot to death by one or more firearms.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Fasad (فساد /fasād/) is an Arabic word meaning rottenness, corruption, or depravity.
A feud, referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, beef, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans.
Financial crime is crime committed against property, involving the unlawful conversion of the ownership of property (belonging to one person) to one's own personal use and benefit.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Furman v. Georgia, was a criminal case in which the United States Supreme Court struck down all death penalty schemes in the United States in a 5–4 decision, with each member of the majority writing a separate opinion.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Glossip v. Gross, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held, 5–4, that lethal injections using midazolam do not constitute cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
Gregg v. Georgia, Proffitt v. Florida, Jurek v. Texas, Woodson v. North Carolina, and Roberts v. Louisiana,, reaffirmed the United States Supreme Court's acceptance of the use of the death penalty in the United States, upholding, in particular, the death sentence imposed on Troy Leon Gregg.
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading.
In cultural anthropology, the distinction between a guilt society (or guilt culture), shame society (also shame culture or honor-shame culture), and a fear society (or culture of fear) has been used to categorize different cultures.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Ḥirābah (حرابة) is an Arabic word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
Horizon is an ongoing and long-running British documentary television series on BBC that covers science and philosophy.
Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
Insubordination is the act of willfully disobeying an order of one's superior.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Blasphemy in Islam is impious utterance or action concerning God, Muhammad or anything considered sacred in Islam.
The Islamic Courts Union (ICU; Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga; اتحاد المحاكم الإسلامية Ittihād al-mahākim al-islāmiyya) was a group of Sharia courts that united themselves to form a rival administration to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, with Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as their head.
James Pratt (1805–1835) also known as John Pratt, and John Smith (1795–1835) were two London men who, in November 1835, became the last two to be executed for sodomy in England.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jared Carter is an American poet and editor.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Judicial corporal punishment (JCP) is the infliction of corporal punishment as a result of a sentence by a court of law.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away (asportation) and confinement of a person against his or her will.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
Lethal injection is the practice of injecting one or more drugs into a person (typically a barbiturate, paralytic, and potassium solution) for the express purpose of causing immediate death.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
Lingchi, translated variously as the slow process, the lingering death, or slow slicing, and also known as death by a thousand cuts, was a form of torture and execution used in China from roughly 900 CE until it was banned in 1905.
This is a list of methods of capital punishment, also known as execution.
Following are lists of member states of the European Union.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Mahmoud Asgari (محمود عسگری), aged 16, and Ayaz Marhoni (عیاض مرهونی), aged 18, were Iranian teenagers from the province of Khorasan who were publicly hanged in Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, northeast Iran, on July 19, 2005.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Mandatory sentencing requires that offenders serve a predefined term for certain crimes, commonly serious and violent offenses.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
Mexicans (mexicanos) are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Millennials (also known as Generation Y) are the generational demographic cohort following Generation X. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years.
A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime they did not commit.
The Misuse of Drugs Act is a drug control law in Singapore classifying substances into three categories, Classes A, B, and C. Section 44 provides that "The Minister may, by an order published in the Gazette" add, remove, or transfer drugs among the classes.
Mofsed-e-filarz (مفسد فی الارض, also Mofsed fel-Arz, Afsad-i fil Arz, or fasad-fel-arz, المفسد في الأرض Al-Mofsid fi al-Arḏ, also fasad fi 'l-ard) is the title of capital crimes (or the person guilty of them) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, that has been translated in English language sources variously as "spreading corruption on Earth", "spreading corruption that threatens social and political well-being", "corrupt of the earth; one who is charged with spreading corruption," "gross offenders of the moral order",, Paul Sprauchman, and "enemies of God on Earth.".
A moral panic is a feeling of fear spread among a large number of people that some evil threatens the well-being of society.
A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law.
Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, (مظفرالدین شاه قاجار, Mozaffar Ŝāh-e Qājār,; 23 March 1853 – 3 January 1907) was the fifth Qajar king of Persia (Iran), reigning from 1896 until his death in 1907.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
New York Law School is an ABA-accredited private law school that was founded in 1891 in the Tribeca neighborhood of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is one of the professional graduate schools of Northwestern University, located in Chicago, Illinois.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
On Crimes and Punishments (Dei delitti e delle pene), is a treatise written by Cesare Beccaria in 1764.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Piracy Act 1837 (7 Will 4 & 1 Vict c 88) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations.
Psychological torture is a type of torture that relies primarily on psychological effects, and only secondarily on any physical harm inflicted.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
In criminology, rational choice theory adopts a utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice.
The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being.
Rizana Nafeek (රිසානා නෆීක්, ரிசானா நபீக்; 4 February 1988 – 9 January 2013) was a Sri Lankan woman convicted and subsequently executed in Saudi Arabia for the murder of four-month-old Naif al-Quthaibi.
Robert Blecker Wants Me Dead is an independent documentary film about retributivist death penalty advocate Robert Blecker and his relationship with Daryl Holton, a death row inmate who murdered his own four children, and who was executed by the state of Tennessee in September 2007.
George Robert Acworth Conquest, CMG, OBE, FBA, FAAAS, FRSL, FBIS (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was an English-American historian, propagandist and poet.
The Roman Republic was a short-lived state declared on 9 February 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily replaced by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX's flight to Gaeta.
Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005), was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that it is unconstitutional to impose capital punishment for crimes committed while under the age of 18.
To run the gauntlet is to take part in a form of corporal punishment in which the party judged guilty is forced to run between two rows of soldiers who strike out and attack them.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on Satan.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty is a side agreement to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shunning can be the act of social rejection, or emotional distance.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Soccer-specific stadium is a term used mainly in the United States and Canada to refer to a sports stadium either purpose-built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose stadium which is for a variety of sports.
Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
The stoning of Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow was a public execution carried out by the Al-Shabaab militant group on October 27, 2008 in the southern port town of Kismayo, Somalia.
Stop Child Executions is a non-profit organization co-founded by Nazanin Afshin-Jam that aims to put an end to executions of minors in Iran.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tanner Lectures on Human Values is a multiversity lecture series in the humanities, founded in 1978, at Clare Hall, Cambridge University, by the American scholar Obert Clark Tanner.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Death Penalty: Opposing Viewpoints is a book in the Opposing Viewpoints series.
The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties is a book by British historian Robert Conquest, published in 1968.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards is a Middle English religious text document containing statements by leaders of the English medieval movement, the Lollards, inspired by teachings of John Wycliffe.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thompson v. Oklahoma, 487 U.S. 815 (1988), was the first case since the moratorium on capital punishment was lifted in the United States in which the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the death sentence of a minor on grounds of "cruel and unusual punishment." The holding in Thompson was expanded on by Roper v. Simmons (2005), where the Supreme Court extended the "evolving standards" rationale to those under 18 years old.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
A torture murder is a murder where death was preceded by the torture of the victim.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was the internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of witnesses or a confession in which two parties in dispute fought in single combat; the winner of the fight was proclaimed to be right.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
At Italy's instigation, the UN moratorium on the death penalty resolution was presented by the EU in partnership with eight co-author member States to the General Assembly of the United Nations, calling for general suspension (not abolition) of capital punishment throughout the world.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Utopia (Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia) is a work of fiction and socio-political satire by Thomas More (1478–1535) published in 1516 in Latin.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
American University Washington College of Law (WCL) is the law school of American University.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
Sir William Muir, KCSI (27 April 1819 – 11 July 1905) was a Scottish Orientalist, scholar of Islam, and colonial administrator, serving as Principal of the University of Edinburgh and Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Provinces of India.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 16th to 18th centuries.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The World Coalition Against the Death Penalty is an alliance of NGOs, bar associations, local bodies and unions whose aim is to strengthen the international anti-death penalty movement.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse.
The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".
On 16 December 2014, six gunmen affiliated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) conducted a terrorist attack on the Army Public School in the northwestern Pakistani city of Peshawar.
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