202 relations: 'Nduja, Abiotic stress, Aerosol, Agriculture, Agriculture in Mesoamerica, Ajvar, American English, Analgesic, Argentina, Australian English, Aztecs, Banana pepper, Bangladesh, Basilicata, Bell pepper, Berbere, Berry, Bhut jolokia, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Bird's eye chili, Black pepper, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cajun cuisine, Calcium, Capsaicin, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum cardenasii, Capsicum chacoense, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum flexuosum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum mirabile, Capsicum pubescens, Capsicum rhomboideum, Carbohydrate, Carl Linnaeus, Carolina Reaper, Cayenne pepper, Chile, Chili con carne, Chili pepper, Chili powder, China, Chipotle, Chorizo, Circulatory system, ..., Columbian Exchange, Cornell University, Cubanelle, Cultivar, Cultivar group, Curry, Czech language, Damping off, Delicatessen, Dietary fiber, Dietary Reference Intake, Dominance (genetics), Dutch language, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Ethiopian cuisine, Fat, Flowering plant, Folate, Food energy, Fruit preserves, Gazpacho, Gene, Generally recognized as safe, Genetics, Genus, Greek language, Greenhouse, Habanero, Hot sauce, Hungarian language, Hungary, Hybrid (biology), Hydroponics, India, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indonesia, Insect, Insecticide, International unit, Iron, Italian cuisine, Italy, Jalapeño, Jamaican cuisine, Kilogram, Latin, Lecsó, Lipophilicity, List of Capsicum cultivars, List of taxa named by Ruiz and Pavón, List of vegetables, Ljutenica, Loam, Locule, Louisiana Creole cuisine, Magnesium in biology, Malaysia, Mammal, Maya peoples, Mesoamerica, Mexican cuisine, Mexico, Microgram, Mineral, Morphology (biology), Nahuatl, New Mexican cuisine, New Mexico, New Mexico chile, New Mexico State University, New Zealand English, Niacin, Non-lethal weapon, Oaxaca, Olive oil, Online Etymology Dictionary, Orange (fruit), Oregon State University, Organic farming, Oxford English Dictionary, Paprika, Peperoncino, Pepper spray, Pepperoni, Peru, Phosphorus, Photoperiodism, Pickling, Pimiento, Piper (plant), Piperine, Piri piri, Pisto, Pith, Ploidy, Poblano, Polbo á feira, Polish language, Potassium, Potato, Protein (nutrient), Puebla, Puerto Rico, Pungency, Quechuan languages, Republic of Macedonia, Riboflavin, Richard Pankhurst (academic), Riot control, Scotch bonnet, Scoville scale, Seed, Self-pollination, Serbia, Shewa, Shimla, Shopska salad, Sichuan cuisine, Sichuan pepper, Singapore, Slovak language, Sodium, Solanaceae, Solanum, South Africa, South Asian cuisine, Spain, Species, Sri Lanka, Stimulant, Sugar, Tamil language, Tear gas, The Guardian, Thiamine, Tomato, Tonne, Topical medication, Torshi, Transposable element, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, University of California, Davis, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Zinc. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
'Nduja is a particularly spicy, spreadable pork salumi from Italy.
Abiotic stress is defined as the negative impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture in Mesoamerica dates to the Archaic period of Mesoamerican chronology (8000–2000 BC).
Ajvar (Albanian: ajvari; aйвар; aјвар; ajвар) is a pepper-based condiment made principally from red bell peppers and oil.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The banana pepper (also known as the yellow wax pepper or banana chili) is a medium-sized member of the chili pepper family that has a mild, tangy taste.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Basilicata, also known with its ancient name Lucania, is a region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia (Puglia) to the north and east, and Calabria to the south.
The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
Berbere (በርበሬ bärbäre, በርበረ bärbärä) is a spice mixture whose constituent elements usually include chili peppers, garlic, ginger, basil, korarima, rue, ajwain or radhuni, nigella, and fenugreek.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
The Bhut jolokia (IPA), also known as ghost pepper, ghost chili, U-morok, red naga, naga jolokia, and ghost jolokia, is an interspecific hybrid chili pepper cultivated in the Northeast Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland and Manipur.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Bird's eye chili, bird eye chili, bird's chili, piri piri or Thai chili is a chili pepper, a cultivar from the species Capsicum annuum, commonly found in Ethiopia and Southeast Asia.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cajun cuisine (Cuisine cadienne) is a style of cooking named for the French-speaking Acadian people deported by the British from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
Capsicum annuum is a species of the plant genus Capsicum (peppers) native to southern North America and northern South America.
Capsicum baccatum is a member of the genus Capsicum, and is one of the five domesticated pepper species.
Capsicum cardenasii is a plant species in the genus Capsicum and the family Solanaceae.
Capsicum chacoense is a species of the genus Capsicum native to South America.
Capsicum chinense is a species of chili pepper native to the Americas.
Capsicum eximium is a member of the genus Capsicum with 2n.
Capsicum flexuosum is a member of the genus Capsicum with 2n.
Capsicum frutescens is a species of chili pepper that is sometimes considered to be part of the species Capsicum annuum.
Capsicum mirabile is a wild species of the genus Capsicum, which is found in the rainforests of Brazil.
Capsicum pubescens Is originally from Peru and dates back to Pre-Incan times, finding traces of its presence in the Guitarrero Caves.
Capsicum rhomboideum is a perennial member of the genus Capsicum with 2n.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
The Carolina Reaper, originally named the HP22B, is a cultivar of the Capsicum chinense plant.
The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chili con carne, commonly known in American English as simply "chili", is a spicy stew containing chili peppers, meat (usually beef), and often tomatoes and beans.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chili powder (also powdered chili, chile powder or chilli powder) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (also sometimes known as chili powder blend).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chipotle, or chilpotle, which comes from the Nahuatl word chilpoctli (meaning "smoked chili"), is a smoke-dried jalapeño.
Chorizo (or, from Spanish; or) or Chouriço (from Portuguese) is a type of pork sausage.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Cubanelle, also known as "Cuban pepper" and "Italian frying pepper", is a variety of sweet pepper of the species Capsicum annuum.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
A Group (previously cultivar-groupInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, 4th edition (1969), 5th edition (1980) and 6th edition (1995)) is a formal category in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) used for cultivated plants that share a defined characteristic.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Damping off (or damping-off) is a horticultural disease or condition, caused by a number of different pathogens that kill or weaken seeds or seedlings before or after they germinate.
A delicatessen or deli is a retail establishment that sells a selection of unusual or foreign prepared foods.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.
Ethiopian cuisine (የኢትዮጵያ ምግብ) characteristically consists of vegetable and often very spicy meat dishes.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
Gazpacho Andalusian gazpacho or Gabacho is a cold soup made of raw blended vegetables.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
The habanero is rated as a hot variety of chili pepper.
Hot sauce, also known as chili sauce or pepper sauce, is any condiment, seasoning, or salsa made from chili peppers and other ingredients.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The jalapeño is a medium-sized chili pepper pod type cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum.
Jamaican cuisine includes a mixture of cooking techniques, flavours, spices and influences from the indigenous people on the island of Jamaica, and the Spanish, Irish, British, Africans, Indian and Chinese who have inhabited the island.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lecsó (Lecho,; lecsó; Czech and Slovak: lečo; Letscho; leczo; лечо) is a Hungarian thick vegetable ragout or stew which features explicitly yellow pointed peppers, tomato, onion, salt, and ground sweet and/or hot paprika as a base recipe.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
This is a list of Capsicum cultivars belonging to the five major species of cultivated peppers (genus Capsicum): C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. Due to the large and changing number of cultivars, and the variation of cultivar namings in different regions, this list only gives a few examples of the estimated 50,000 pepper varieties that exist.
Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón Jiménez are jointly cited as the authors of many botanical names.
This is a list of plants that have a culinary role as vegetables.
Ljutenica, lyutenitsa or lutenica (lyuto or luto meaning "hot") is a spicy vegetable relish or chutney in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian cuisines.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
A locule (plural locules) or loculus (plural loculi) (meaning "little place" in Latin) is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism (animal, plant, or fungus).
Louisiana Creole cuisine (Cuisine créole, Cocina criolla) is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana, United States, which blends French, Spanish, West African, Amerindian, Haitian, German, Italian, influences, as well as influences from the general cuisine of the Southern United States.
Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mexican cuisine began about 9,000 years ago, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
New Mexican cuisine is the cuisine of the Southwestern US state of New Mexico, the region is primarily known for its fusion of Pueblo Native American with Hispano Spanish and Mexican cuisine originating in Nuevo México.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Mexico chile or New Mexican chile (chile de Nuevo México, chile del norte) is a group of cultivars of the chile pepper from the US State of New Mexico, first grown by Pueblo and Hispano communities throughout Santa Fe de Nuevo México, the modern peppers were developed by pioneer horticulturist Fabián Garcia at New Mexico State University in 1894, then known as the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.
New Mexico State University (NMSU or NM State) is a public, land-grant, research university in Las Cruces, New Mexico, United States, and the flagship campus of NMSU System.
New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.
Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.
For the dish with a similar name in Japanese culture, see Spaghetti aglio e olio For the sweet pepper sometimes known by the same name, see Friggitello Peperoncino (plural peperoncini; sometimes spelled pepperoncino or pepperoncini in English) is the generic Italian name for hot chili peppers, specifically the cultivars of the species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens.
Pepper spray (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.
Pepperoni (also known as pepperoni sausage) is an American variety of salami, made from cured pork and beef mixed together and seasoned with paprika or other chili pepper.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
A pimiento, pimento, or cherry pepper is a variety of large, red, heart-shaped chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) that measures 3 to 4 in (7 to 10 cm) long and 2 to 3 in (5 to 7 cm) wide (medium, elongate).
Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines (a term used for certain Clematis in older times), are an economically and ecologically important genus in the family Piperaceae.
Piperine, along with its isomer chavicine, is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper.
Piri piri (also spelled peri peri or pili pili, also called bird's eye chili), is a cultivar of Capsicum frutescens, a chili pepper that grows both wild and as a crop.
Pisto (also known as Pisto manchego) is a Spanish dish originally from the Region of Murcia and Castilla La Mancha.
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
The poblano (Capsicum annuum) is a mild chili pepper originating in the state of Puebla, Mexico.
Polbo á feira (Pulpo a feira in Spanish) (Galician name literally meaning "fair-style octopus") alternatively known as pulpo estilo feira is a traditional Galician dish.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Pungency is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor that is often so strong that it is unpleasant.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Richard Keir Pethick Pankhurst OBE (3 December 1927 – 16 February 2017) was a British academic, founding member of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies, and former professor at the University of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest.
Scotch bonnet, also known as bonney peppers, or Caribbean red peppers, is a variety of chili pepper named for its resemblance to a tam o' shanter hat.
The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency (spiciness/heat of pepper) of chili peppers, or other spicy foods, as reported in Scoville Heat Units (SHU), a function of capsaicin concentration.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shewa (ሸዋ, Šawā; Šewā), formerly romanized as Shoa (Scioà in Italian), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Shopska salad, also known as Bulgarian salad (Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbian Cyrillic: Шопска салата; Bosnian and Croatian: Šopska salata; Salata bulgărească; Šopský salát; Sałatka szopska; Sallatë Shope; Sopszka saláta), is a Bulgarian cold salad popular throughout the Balkans and Central Europe.
Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan Province.
Sichuan pepper, Sichuan peppercorn, or Szechuan pepper, is a commonly used spice in Chinese cuisine.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include two food crops of high economic importance, the potato and the tomato.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines from South Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) comprising the traditional cuisines from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives and when included in the definition, also that of Afghanistan.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Torshi (Aramaic:ܡܟ̇ܠܠArabic: مخلل mukhallal, Persian: ترشى torshi; Kurdish: ترشى Tirşîn, tirşî, trshin; turşu; τουρσί toursi; туршия turshiya; Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: turšija/туршија; Albanian: turshi Hebrew: חמוצים, khamusim) are the pickled vegetables of the cuisines of many Balkan and Middle East countries.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.