319 relations: Abbey (1922 automobile), Air pollution, Airbag, Alfred P. Sloan, Alternative fuel, Amsterdam, Ancient Greek, Apocrypha, Apperson, Armand Peugeot, Assembly line, Auguste Doriot, Auto mechanic, Autogas, Automobile air conditioning, Automobile safety, Automotive industry, Automotive industry in China, Automotive industry in India, Automotive industry in the United States, Automotive navigation system, Émile Levassor, Étienne Lenoir, Bad Cannstatt, Battery electric vehicle, Benz Patent-Motorwagen, Bertha Benz, Bicycle-sharing system, Biocomposite, Biofuel, Birr, County Offaly, BMW, Brake, BRIC, British English, Bus, Cadillac, Car classification, Car costs, Car platform, Car-free movement, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon nanotube, Carfree city, Carpool, Carriage, Carsharing, Cart, Chariot, ..., Charles Duryea, Charles F. Kettering, Charles Terront, Chevrolet, Chevrolet Suburban, Citroën, City car, City Car Club, Classical compound, Climate change, Cole Motor Car Company, Combustion, Commercial vehicle, Commuting, Compressed natural gas, Connected car, Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, Controlled-access highway, Copenhagen, Cowley, Oxfordshire, Crankshaft, Czech lands, Daihatsu, Daimler Company, Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, Daytime running lamp, De Rivaz engine, Death of Henry H. Bliss, Deflagration, Depreciation, Detonation, Developed country, Diesel engine, Diesel fuel, Dorris Motors Corporation, Driving under the influence, Duco, Duralumin, Duryea Motor Wagon, Dutch language, EG Wrigley and Company, Electric car, Emil Jellinek, Energy security, Energy Tax Act, English language, Environmental law, Ethanol fuel, Euro NCAP, Ferdinand Verbiest, Fiat S.p.A., Fiberglass, Flat engine, Flemish people, Flexible-fuel vehicle, Ford Model T, Ford Motor Company, Fordism, Fossil fuel, Four-stroke engine, François Isaac de Rivaz, France, Frederick W. Lanchester, French language, Fuel cell, Fuel efficiency, Fuel tax, Full-size car, Gasoline, Gaulish language, Gauls, General Motors Companion Make Program, George B. Selden, German language, Global warming, Gottlieb Daimler, Great Depression, Greenhouse gas, Gustave Trouvé, Habitat destruction, Hacker culture, Harry John Lawson, Hatchback, Haynes Automobile Company, Headlamp, Henry Ford, Highland Park Ford Plant, Hippomobile, History of the automobile, Homogeneous charge compression ignition, Honda, Horse-drawn vehicle, Horseless carriage, Hotchkiss (car), Hurtu, Hybrid vehicle, Hydrogen, Hydrogen vehicle, IDrive, Ignition system, Ignition timing, In-car entertainment, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Internal combustion engine, International Exposition of Electricity, Intersection (road), Isuzu Motors, Japan black, Jesuit China missions, Jet car, Joint-stock company, Karl Benz, Keiretsu, Lacquer, Land speed record, Land use, Lansing, Michigan, LaSalle (automobile), Latin, Light truck, Liquid nitrogen engine, List of countries by motor vehicle production, List of countries by vehicles per capita, Lists of automobile-related articles, Locomotive Acts, Lycopodium, Lycopodium powder, Mannheim, Marc Isambard Brunel, Mary Ward (scientist), Mazda, Mazda Wankel engine, Metro Center, Springfield, Massachusetts, Michael E. Arth, Middle English, Minivan, Mitsubishi, Mitsubishi Model A, Morris Motors, Mors (automobile), Motor vehicle, Motor vehicle theft, MyFord Touch, Natural gas, Natural gas vehicle, Newly industrialized country, Nicéphore Niépce, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, Nissan, Noise pollution, Obesity, OECD, Oldsmobile, On-board diagnostics, Ontario, Opel, Opel Laubfrosch, Open design, OScar, Oxygen, Paint, Paris–Brest–Paris, Parking, Peak car, Peak oil, Personal rapid transit, Peter Kay's Car Share, Peugeot, Peugeot 5CV, Peugeot Type 3, Phaeton (carriage), Piston, Pistonless rotary engine, Plug-in electric vehicle, Plug-in hybrid, Pontiac, Portsmouth Block Mills, Powertrain, Präsident, Primary production, Production line, Propulsion, Public health, Public transport, Pyréolophore, Ransom E. Olds, Rapid transit, Rüsselsheim am Main, Recycling, Renault, Richard Trevithick, Rickett (car), Riversimple, Road, Road tax, Road trip, Roadkill, Rochester, New York, Rocket car, Roundabout, Royal Automobile Club, Rudolf Diesel, Saône, Samuel Brown (engineer), Samuel Morey, Santler, Seat belt, Sedan (automobile), Service (motor vehicle), Shell Eco-marathon, Siegfried Marcus, Smart Fortwo, Solar energy, Speed bump, Speed limit enforcement, Sport utility vehicle, Sports car, Springfield Armory, Springfield, Massachusetts, Starter (engine), Station wagon, Steam bus, Steam car, Steamroller, Steering, Steering wheel, Stirling engine, Studebaker, Subaru, Subaru Corporation, Suspension (vehicle), Sustainable transport, Suzuki, Tatra (company), Telematics, Texting while driving, Thomas Blanchard (inventor), Tire, TomTom, Toyota, Toyota Industries, Traffic collision, Traffic congestion, Tram, Transport, Trolleybus, Truck, Two-stroke engine, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Cambridge, Urban sprawl, Valentigney, Vegetable oil, Vertical integration, Virtual reality, Walking, Wankel engine, Waste, Water footprint, Waymo, Wildlife corridor, Wildlife crossing, Wilhelm Maybach, Wolseley Motors, Working animal, World War I, Xtra (automobile), 1980s oil glut, 2000s energy crisis. 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The Abbey was a short-lived friction drive car assembled by the Abbey Auto Engineering Co.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An airbag is a type of vehicle safety device and is an occupant restraint system.
Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr. (May 23, 1875–February 17, 1966) was an American business executive in the automotive industry.
Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
The Apperson was a brand of American automobile manufactured from 1901 to 1926 in Kokomo, Indiana.
Armand Peugeot (26 March 1849 – 4 January 1915) was an industrialist in France, pioneer of the automobile industry and the man who transformed Peugeot into a manufacturer of bicycles and, later, of automobiles.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Auguste Frédéric Doriot (24 October 1863 – 1955) was a French motoring pioneer who developed, built and raced cars for Peugeot before founding his own manufacturing company D.F.P. in combination with Ludovic Flandrin and the Parant brothers.
An auto mechanic (automotive technician in most of North America, car mechanic in British English, and motor mechanic in Australian English) is a mechanic with a variety of automobile makes or either in a specific area or in a specific make of automobile.
Autogas is the common name for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles as well as in stationary applications such as generators.
Automobile air conditioning (also called A/C) systems use air conditioning to cool the air in a vehicle.
Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
The automotive industry in China has been the largest in the world measured by automobile unit production since 2008.
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world with an annual production of 23.96 million vehicles in FY (fiscal year) 2015–16, following a growth of 2.57 per cent over the last year.
The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world.
An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile.
Émile Constant Levassor (21 January 1843 – 14 April 1897) was a French engineer and a pioneer of the automobile industry and car racing in France.
Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir also known as Jean J. Lenoir (12 January 1822 – 4 August 1900) was a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858.
Bad Cannstatt, formerly just "Cannstatt" or "Kannstadt" (until 1900), is one of the outer stadtbezirke, or city districts, of Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
A battery electric vehicle (BEV), or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs.
The Benz Patent-Motorwagen ("patent motorcar"), built in 1885, is sometimes regarded as the world's first 'production' automobile, that is, a vehicle designed to be propelled by an internal combustion engine.
(born Bertha Ringer, 3 May 1849 – 5 May 1944) was a German automotive pioneer.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
Biocomposite (from Greek alive) is a composite material formed by a matrix (resin) and a reinforcement of natural fibers.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Birr (Biorra, meaning "plain of water") is a town in County Offaly, Ireland.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.
In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
Cadillac, formally the Cadillac Motor Car Division, is a division of the U.S.-based General Motors (GM) that markets luxury vehicles worldwide.
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others.
The car internal costs are all the costs consumers pay to afford owning and running a car.
A car platform is a shared set of common design, engineering, and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and even types of cars, often from different, but related marques.
The car-free movement is a broad, informal, emergent network of individuals and organizations including social activists, urban planners and others brought together by a shared belief that large and/or high-speed motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, tractor units, motorcycles,...) are too dominant in most modern cities.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
A car-free city or car free city is a population center that relies primarily on public transport, walking, or cycling for transport within the urban area.
Carpooling (also car-sharing, ride-sharing and lift-sharing) is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car, and prevents the need for others to have to drive to a location themselves.
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters (palanquins) and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles.
Carsharing or car sharing (AU, NZ, CA, & US) or car clubs (UK) is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour.
A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
Charles Edgar Duryea (December 15, 1861 – September 28, 1938) was the engineer of the first-ever working American gasoline-powered car and co-founder of Duryea Motor Wagon Company.
Charles Franklin Kettering (August 29, 1876 – November 25, 1958) sometimes known as Charles "Boss" Kettering was an American inventor, engineer, businessman, and the holder of 186 patents.
Charles Terront (9 April 1857 – 31 October 1932) was the first major French cycling star.
Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).
The Chevrolet Suburban is a full-size suv from Chevrolet.
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).
A city car (also known as urban car or a mini) is a small car designed to be used primarily in urban areas and conurbations.
City Car Club, now Enterprise Car Club, is a British car club operator.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The Cole Motor Car Company was an early automobile maker based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A commercial vehicle is any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paying passengers.
Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
A connected car is a car that is equipped with Internet access, and usually also with a wireless local area network.
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (CNAM; National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts) is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment (or grand établissement) and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cowley in Oxford, England, is a residential and industrial area that forms a small conurbation within greater Oxford.
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
is one of the oldest surviving Japanese internal combustion engine manufacturers, later known for its range of smaller kei models and off-road vehicles.
The Daimler Company Limited, until 1910, the Daimler Motor Company Limited, was an independent British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in London by H. J. Lawson in 1896, which set up its manufacturing base in Coventry.
Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) (Daimler Motors Corporation) was a German engineer and later automobile manufacturer, in operation from 1890 until 1926.
A daytime running lamp (DRL, also daytime running light) is an automotive lighting and bicycle lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle or bicycle, automatically switched on when the vehicle is in drive, emitting white, yellow, or amber light to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight conditions.
The de Rivaz engine was a pioneering reciprocating engine designed and developed from 1804 by the Franco-Swiss inventor Isaac de Rivaz.
The death of Henry H. Bliss (June 13, 1830 – September 14, 1899) was the first recorded case of a person being killed by a motor vehicle accident in the Western Hemisphere.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
The Dorris Motor Car Company was founded by George Preston Dorris in 1906.
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.
Duco was a trade name assigned to a product line of automotive lacquer developed by the DuPont Company in the 1920s.
Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, dural(l)ium, or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys.
The Duryea Motor Wagon was among the first standardized automobiles and among the first powered by gasoline.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
E G Wrigley & Co Limited was a British tool maker, car component, and mechanical parts manufacturer, located at Foundry Lane, Soho, Birmingham active from 1897 to 1923.
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.
Emil Jellinek, known after 1903 as Emil Jellinek-Mercedes (6 April 1853 – 21 January 1918) was a wealthy European automobile entrepreneur with Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft ('DMG'), responsible in 1900 for commissioning the first 'modern' car, the Mercedes 35hp.
Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.
The Energy Tax Act (enacted November 9, 1978) is a law passed by the U.S. Congress as part of the National Energy Act.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) is a European car safety performance assessment programme (i.e. a New Car Assessment Program) based in Brussels (Belgium) and founded in 1997 by the Transport Research Laboratory for the UK Department for Transport and backed by several European governments, as well as by the European Union.
Father Ferdinand Verbiest (9 October 1623 – 28 January 1688) was a Flemish Jesuit missionary in China during the Qing dynasty.
Fiat S.p.A., or Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin), was an Italian holding company whose original and core activities were in the automotive industry, and that was succeeded by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (FCA).
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with horizontally-opposed cylinders.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual-fuel vehicle (colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank.
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
Fordism is the basis of modern economic and social systems in industrialized, standardized mass production and mass consumption.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft.
François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was an inventor and a politician.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frederick William Lanchester LLD, Hon FRAeS, FRS (23 October 1868 – 8 March 1946), was an English polymath and engineer who made important contributions to Automotive engineering and to Aerodynamics, and co-invented the topic of operations research.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
A fuel tax (also known as a petrol, gasoline or gas tax, or as a fuel duty) is an excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel.
"Full-size car" is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
General Motors pioneered the idea that consumers would aspire to buy up an automotive product ladder if a company met certain price points.
George Baldwin Selden (September 14, 1846 in Clarkson, New York – January 17, 1922 in Rochester, New York) was a patent lawyer and inventor who was granted a U.S. patent for an automobile in 1895.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now Germany.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Gustave Pierre Trouvé (2 January 1839 – 27 July 1902) was a French electrical engineer and inventor in the 19th century.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes.
Henry John Lawson, also known as Harry Lawson, (1852–1925) was a British bicycle designer, racing cyclist, motor industry pioneer, and fraudster.
A hatchback is a car with a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and often a shared volume for the passenger and cargo areas.
The Haynes Automobile Company was a United States automobile manufacturing company that produced automobiles in Kokomo, Indiana, from 1905 to 1924.
A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead.
Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.
The Highland Park Ford Plant is a former Ford Motor Company factory located at 91 Manchester Avenue (at Woodward Avenue) in Highland Park, Michigan.
The Hippomobile is an automobile invented by Étienne Lenoir in 1863 which carried its own internal combustion engine.
The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion.
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition.
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses.
Horseless carriage is a term for early automobiles; at the time it was common that carriages were pulled by animals, typically horses, but the automobiles were not.
Hotchkiss were luxury cars made between 1903 and 1955 by the French company Hotchkiss et Cie in Saint-Denis, Paris.
Hurtu was a pioneering French car made by Diligeon et Cie based in Albert, Somme from 1896 to 1930.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power.
iDrive is a system used to control most secondary vehicle systems in many current BMW cars.
An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc.
In a spark ignition internal combustion engine, Ignition timing refers to the timing, relative to the current piston position and crankshaft angle, of the release of a spark in the combustion chamber near the end of the compression stroke.
In-car entertainment (ICE), or in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), is a collection of hardware and software in automobiles that provides audio or video entertainment.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is a U.S. nonprofit organization funded by auto insurers, established in 1959 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The first International Exposition of Electricity in Paris ran from August 15, 1881 through to November 15, 1881 at the Palais de l'Industrie on the Champs-Élysées.
An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads meet or cross.
, trading as Isuzu, is a Japanese commercial vehicle and diesel engine manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo.
Japan black (also called black japan) is a lacquer or varnish suitable for many substrates but known especially for its use on iron and steel.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.
A jet car is a car propelled by a jet engine.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Karl Friedrich Benz (25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer.
A is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings.
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.
The land speed record (or absolute land speed record) is the highest speed achieved by a person using a vehicle on land.
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
Lansing is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan.
LaSalle was an American brand of luxury automobiles manufactured and marketed by General Motors' Cadillac division from 1927 through 1940.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Light truck or light-duty truck is a US classification for trucks or truck-based vehicles with a gross vehicle weight up to and a payload capacity up to 4,000 pounds (1,815 kg).
A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank.
This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2016 and earlier.
This article is a list of countries by the number of road motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants.
This is a list of automobile-related articles.
The Locomotive Acts (or Red Flag Acts) were a series of Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom regulating the use of mechanically propelled vehicles on British public highways during the latter part of the 19th century.
Lycopodium (from Greek lukos, wolf and podion, diminutive of pous, foot) is a genus of clubmosses, also known as ground pines or creeping cedar, in the family Lycopodiaceae, a family of fern-allies (see Pteridophyta).
Lycopodium powder is a yellow-tan dust-like powder historically used as a flash powder.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (25 April 1769 – 12 December 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in England.
Mary Ward (née King; 27 April 1827 – 31 August 1869, age) was an Anglo-Irish naturalist, astronomer, microscopist, author, and artist.
, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
The Mazda Wankel engines are a family of Wankel rotary combustion car engines produced by Mazda.
Metro Center is the original colonial settlement of Springfield, Massachusetts, located beside a bend in the Connecticut River.
Michael E. Arth is an American artist, home/landscape/urban designer, public policy analyst, advocate for the homeless, futurist, documentary filmmaker and author.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
A minivan (American English), people carrier (British English),, MPV (multi-purpose vehicle) or MUV (multi-utility vehicle) is a vehicle size classification describing a high-roof vehicle with a flexible interior layout.
The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
The Mitsubishi Model A is the only car built by the Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company, a member of the Mitsubishi keiretsu which would eventually evolve into Mitsubishi Motors, and the first series production automobile manufactured in Japan.
Morris Motors Limited was a British privately owned motor vehicle manufacturing company formed in 1919 to take over the assets of William Morris's WRM Motors Limited and continue production of the same vehicles.
The Mors automobile factory was an early French car manufacturer.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Motor vehicle theft or grand theft auto is the criminal act of stealing or attempting to steal a motor vehicle.
MyFord Touch (branded as MyLincoln Touch on Ford's Lincoln brand products, Ford News Center.) is an in-car communications and entertainment system developed by the Ford Motor Company, based on Microsoft technologies.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG).
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (26 February 1725 – 2 October 1804) was a French inventor who built the first working self-propelled land-based mechanical vehicle, the world's first automobile.
, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Oldsmobile was a brand of American automobiles produced for most of its existence by General Motors.
On-board diagnostics (OBD) is an automotive term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.
The Opel 4 PS, popularly known as the Laubfrosch (treefrog), is a small two-seater car introduced by the auto maker Opel early in 1924.
Open design is the development of physical products, machines and systems through use of publicly shared design information.
OScar is the first attempt to design an entire automobile using open-source principles.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Paris–Brest–Paris (PBP) is a long-distance cycling event.
Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied.
Peak car (also peak car use or peak travel) is a hypothesis that motor vehicle distance traveled per capita, predominantly by private car, has peaked and will now fall in a sustained manner.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Personal rapid transit (PRT), also referred to as podcars, is a public transport mode featuring small automated vehicles operating on a network of specially built guideways.
Peter Kay's Car Share is a British sitcom set around supermarket assistant manager John Redmond (Peter Kay) and promotions rep Kayleigh Kitson (Sian Gibson), and their participation in a company car-sharing scheme.
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.
Peugeot 5CV was a popular name for several models of the Peugeot Type 172 between 1925 and 1929.
The Peugeot Type 3 was an early French automobile; it was Peugeot's first model to be produced in significant numbers.
A Phaeton (also Phaéton) was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.
A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons.
A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels.
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power as well by its on-board engine and generator.
Pontiac is a now-defunct car brand that was owned, made, and sold by General Motors.
The Portsmouth Block Mills form part of the Portsmouth Dockyard at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, and were built during the Napoleonic Wars to supply the British Royal Navy with pulley blocks.
In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant describes the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air.
The Präsident was an automobile manufactured by Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriks-Gesellschaft A.G. (NW, now known as Tatra) in 1897.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory where materials are put through a refining process to produce an end-product that is suitable for onward consumption; or components are assembled to make a finished article.
Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
The Pyréolophore (pea-ray-oh-loh-for) was the world's first internal combustion engine. It was invented in the early 19th century in Chalon-sur-Saône, France, by the Niépce brothers: Nicéphore (who went on to invent photography) and Claude. In 1807 the brothers ran a prototype internal combustion engine, and on 20 July 1807 a patent was granted by Napoleon Bonaparte after it had successfully powered a boat upstream on the river Saône. The Pyréolophore ran on what were believed to be "controlled dust explosions" of various experimental fuels. The fuels included mixtures of Lycopodium powder (the spores of Lycopodium, or clubmoss), finely crushed coal dust, and resin. Operating independently, in 1807 the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built the De Rivaz engine, a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine. These practical engineering projects may have followed the 1673 theoretical design of an internal combustion engine by the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens. The separate, virtually contemporaneous implementations of this design in different modes of transport means that the de Rivaz engine may be correctly described as the first use of an internal combustion engine in an automobile (1808), whilst the Pyréolophore was the first use of an internal combustion engine in a boat (1807).
Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864 – August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of the American automotive industry, after whom the Oldsmobile and REO brands were named.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rüsselsheim am Main is the largest city in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833) was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England.
Thomas Rickett from Buckingham, England, made a steam-powered car in 1860.
Riversimple is a United Kingdom-based car manufacturer of hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Road tax, known by various names around the world, is a tax which has to be paid on, or included with, a wheeled vehicle to use it on a public road.
A road trip is a long distance journey on the road.
Roadkill refers to an animal or animals that have been struck and killed by motor vehicles on highways.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
A rocket car is a land rocket vehicle powered by a rocket engine.
A roundabout, also called a traffic circle, road circle, rotary, rotunda or island, is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island.
The Royal Automobile Club is a British private club and is not to be confused with RAC, an automotive services company, which it formerly owned.
Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine, and for his mysterious death.
The Saône (La Saône; Arpitan Sona, Arar) is a river of eastern France.
Samuel Brown (died september 16,1849) was an English engineer and inventor credited with developing one of the earliest examples of an internal combustion engine, during the early 19th century.
Samuel Morey (October 23, 1762 – April 17, 1843) was an American inventor, who worked on early internal combustion engines and was a pioneer in steamships who accumulated a total of 20 patents.
The Santler was a British car built in Malvern Link, Worcestershire, England, between 1889 and 1922.
A seat belt (also known as a seatbelt or safety belt) is a vehicle safety device designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop.
A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.
A motor vehicle service or tune-up is a series of maintenance procedures carried out at a set time interval or after the vehicle has travelled a certain distance.
Shell Eco-marathon is a world-wide energy efficiency competition sponsored by Shell.
Siegfried Samuel Marcus (18 September 1831 – 1 July 1898) was a German inventor.
The Smart Fortwo (stylized as "smart fortwo") is a rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive, 2-seater hatchback city car manufactured and marketed by the Smart division of Daimler AG, introduced in 1998, now in its third generation.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
For other uses, see Speed bump (disambiguation). For the speed changes in cinematography, see Speed ramping. Speed bumps (or speed breakers) are the common name for a family of traffic calming devices that use vertical deflection to slow motor-vehicle traffic in order to improve safety conditions.
Speed limit enforcement is the effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits.
Sport-utility (vehicle), SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification, typically a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, and available four-wheel drive.
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small, usually two-seater, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling.
The Springfield Armory, located in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, was the primary center for the manufacture of United States military firearms from 1777 until its closing in 1968, it was one of the first companies dedicated to the manufacture of weapons.
Springfield is a city in western New England, and the historical seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.
A starter (also self-starter, self, cranking motor, or starter motor) is a device used to rotate (crank) an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engine's operation under its own power.
A station wagon, also called an estate car, estate wagon, or simply wagon or estate, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk/boot lid.
A steam bus is a bus powered by a steam engine.
A steam car is a car (automobile) powered by a steam engine.
A steamroller (or steam roller) is a form of road roller – a type of heavy construction machinery used for leveling surfaces, such as roads or airfields – that is powered by a steam engine.
Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.
A steering wheel (also called a driving wheel or a hand wheel) is a type of steering control in vehicles and vessels (ships and boats).
A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.
Studebaker was an American wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana.
(or) is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.
, formerly known as (FHI), is a Japanese multinational corporation and conglomerate primarily involved in aerospace and ground transportation manufacturing, known for its line of Subaru automobiles.
Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport that is sustainable in the senses of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely.
is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu, that manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines.
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice.
Telematics is an interdisciplinary field that encompasses telecommunications, vehicular technologies, road transportation, road safety, electrical engineering (sensors, instrumentation, wireless communications, etc.), and computer science (multimedia, Internet, etc.). Telematics can involve any of the following.
Texting while driving, also called texting and driving, is the act of composing, sending, reading text messages, email, or making similar use of the web on a mobile phone while operating a motor vehicle.
Thomas Blanchard (June 24, 1788 – April 16, 1864) was an American inventor who lived much of his life in Springfield, Massachusetts, where in 1819, he pioneered the assembly line style of mass production in America, and also invented the major technological innovation known as interchangeable parts.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
TomTom NV is a Dutch company that produces traffic, navigation and mapping products.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
Toyota Industries Corporation (株式会社豊田自動織機, Kabushiki-gaisha Toyota Jidō Shokki) is a Japanese machine maker.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Valentigney is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption by people.
Waymo is an autonomous car development company and subsidiary of Google's parent company, Alphabet Inc. Google began testing self-driving cars in 2009.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
Wildlife crossings are structures that allow animals to cross human-made barriers safely.
(9 February 1846 – 29 December 1929) was an early German engine designer and industrialist.
Wolseley Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in early 1901 by the Vickers armaments combine in conjunction with Herbert Austin.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
For the cargo bicycle producer see: Xtracycle The Xtra was an English three-wheel cyclecar built from 1922 to 1924 by Xtra Cars, Ltd., of Chertsey, Surrey.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.
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