76 relations: Acceptable daily intake, Acetic acid, Acid, Alkali, Allergen, Ammonia solution, Ammonium carbonate, Barley malt syrup, Batter (cooking), Beer, Bicarbonate, Bisulfite, Brandy, Brown, Calcium hydroxide, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Proposition 65 (1986), Caramelization, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Citric acid, Code of Federal Regulations, Cola, Colloid, Custard, Defoamer, E number, Emulsion, European Food Safety Authority, Flocculation, Food and Drug Administration, Food Chemicals Codex, Food coloring, Fructose, Fruit preserves, Glucose, Gluten-free diet, Glycerol, Good manufacturing practice, Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Hydrolysate, Ice cream, International Numbering System for Food Additives, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Inverted sugar syrup, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Lactose, Linner hue index, Microorganism, ..., Milk, Molasses, Mutagen, Parts-per notation, Phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Pickled cucumber, Potassium carbonate, Potassium hydroxide, Potato chip, Precipitation (chemistry), Redox, Rum, Salt (chemistry), Sauce, Sedimentation, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, Specific gravity, Sucrose, Sulfate, Sulfuric acid, Sulfurous acid, Vinegar, Whisky, 4-Methylimidazole. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water.
Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
Barley malt syrup is an unrefined sweetener processed by extraction from sprouted, i.e., malted, barley, containing approximately 65 percent maltose, 30 percent complex carbohydrate, 3% protein.
Batter is thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bisulfite ion (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogen sulfite) is the ion HSO3−.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
Brown is a composite color.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, commonly referred to as OEHHA (pronounced oh-EEE-ha), is a specialized department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) with responsibility for evaluating health risks from environmental chemical contaminants.
Proposition 65 (formally titled The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986) is a California law passed by direct voter initiative in 1986 by a 63%–37% vote.
Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.
Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk.
A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) is a collection of internationally recognized standards for the purity and identity of food ingredients.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
The Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) of Health Canada manages the health-related risks and benefits of health products and food by minimizing risk factors while maximizing the safety provided by the regulatory system.
Hydrolysate refers to any product of hydrolysis.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
The International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS) is a European-based naming system for food additives, aimed at providing a short designation of what may be a lengthy actual name.
The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) was formed in 1980 and is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, to establish a scientific basis for safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.
Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.
The Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives was an international report of the World Health Organization.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
The Linner hue index,R T Linner, "Caramel color: a new method of determining its color hue and tinctorial power." Proceedings of the Society of Soft Drink Technologists Annual Meeting, 1970, p 63-72.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada and a gherkin in Britain, Ireland, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Potato chips or crisps are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In cooking a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sulfurous acid (also sulphurous acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.
4-Methylimidazole (4-MeI or 4-MEI) is a heterocyclic organic chemical compound with molecular formula – or.
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