32 relations: Aldose, Amino acid, Anomer, Brown sugar, Caramel, Chemical equilibrium, Cola, Condensation reaction, Confiture de lait, Dehydration reaction, Diacetyl, Disaccharide, Dulce de leche, Food browning, French onion soup, Fructose, Galactose, Glucose, Inverted sugar syrup, Isomerization, Ketose, Maillard reaction, Maltose, Molasses, Monosaccharide, PH, Polymer, Pyrolysis, Slate (magazine), Sucrose, Sugar, Volatility (chemistry).
An aldose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar) with a carbon backbone chain with a carbonyl group on the endmost carbon atom, making it an aldehyde, and hydroxyl groups connected to all the other carbon atoms.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An anomer is a type of geometric variation found in at certain atoms in carbohydrate molecules.
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.
Caramel is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Confiture de lait is a thick, sweet caramel sauce prepared from milk and sugar.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Dulce de leche (doce de leite) is a confection prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a substance that derives its flavor from the Maillard reaction, also changing color, with an appearance and flavor similar to caramel.
Browning is the process of food turning brown due to the chemical reactions that take place within.
French onion soup (French: soupe à l’oignon) is a type of soup usually based on meat stock and onions, and often served gratinéed with croutons and cheese on top or a large piece of bread.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.