90 relations: Absence seizure, Adverse drug reaction, Agranulocytosis, Antipsychotic, Aplastic anemia, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Basel, Benzodiazepine, Bioavailability, Biosolids, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar I disorder, Bone marrow, Breastfeeding, Calcium channel blocker, Central nervous system, Cimetidine, Combined oral contraceptive pill, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Developing country, Dextropropoxyphene, Diplopia, Drug interaction, Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Effluent, Epilepsy, Epoxide, Epoxide hydrolase, Erythromycin, Focal seizure, Food and Drug Administration, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, Generic drug, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Helvetica Chimica Acta, Hematology, HLA-B75, Human leukocyte antigen, Hyponatremia, Imipramine, Lamotrigine, Lithium (medication), Liver, Mania, McGraw-Hill Education, Medication, Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, ..., Methadone, Mixed affective state, Modified-release dosage, Motor coordination, Myoclonus, Nausea, Neuropathic pain, Novartis, Odds ratio, Off-label use, Oxcarbazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Platelet, Pregnancy, Primidone, Schizophrenia, Seizure types, Semitone, Serotonin releasing agent, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sludge, Sodium channel blocker, Somnolence, Spina bifida, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Suicidal ideation, Switzerland, Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, Theophylline, TLR4, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Trigeminal neuralgia, United Kingdom, United States, Valnoctamide, Valproate, Warfarin, White blood cell, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Biosolids is a term used for several types of treated sewage sludges that can be used as soil conditioner.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome), also termed drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), is a rare reaction to certain medications.
Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
Epoxide hydrolases (EH's), also known as epoxide hydratases, are enzymes that metabolize compounds that contain an epoxide residue; they convert this residue to two hydroxyl residues through a dihydroxylation reaction to form diol products.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Helvetica Chimica Acta is a scientific journal founded by the.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
HLA-B75 (B75) is an HLA-B serotype.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, referred to as The Merck Manual, is the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the oldest continuously published English language medical textbook.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy. There is some evidence for oxcarbazepine as a mood-stabilizing agent and thus, it can be used as add-on therapy for bipolar disorder in patients that have failed or are unable to tolerate approved treatments. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, double vision and trouble with walking. Although not common, anaphylaxis may occur. Due to its structural similarities to carbamazepine there is approximately a 25–30% chance of cross-reactivity between the two medications. Oxcarbazepine is marketed as Trileptal by Novartis and available in some countries as a generic drug. There is also an extended-release formulation marketed as Oxtellar XR by Supernus Pharmaceuticals.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Primidone (INN, BAN, USP) is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Seizure types most commonly follow the classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981.
A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.
Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair the conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is characterized by excessive unsuppressible release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) either from the posterior pituitary gland, or an abnormal non-pituitary source.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Valnoctamide (INN, USAN) has been used in France as a sedative-hypnotic since 1964.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
ATC code N03AF01, ATCvet code QN03AF01, Apo-Carbamazepine, Atretol, Cabamazepine, Calepsin, Carbamazapine, Carbamazepen, Carbatrol, Carbazepine, Carbelan, Carbimazepine, Carbmazepine, Carsol, Environmental fate and occurrence of carbamazepine, Epitol, Equetro, Finlepsin, Karbamazepin, Neurotol, Novo-Carbamaz, Nu-Carbamazepine, Sirtal, Stazepin, Stazepine, Taro-Carbamazepine, Taro-Carbamazepine Cr, Tegretal, Tegretol, Tegretol Chewtabs, Tegretol Cr, Tegretol-Xr, Tegretol-xr, Telesmin, Teril, Timonil.