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Index Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n). [1]

202 relations: -ose, Acetic acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Aldehyde, Aldohexose, Aldose, Amadori rearrangement, Amylopectin, Amylose, Anabolism, Anomer, Arabinoxylan, Atom, Beta, Biochemistry, Biomolecule, Bioplastic, Biosynthesis, Blood sugar level, Calorie, Carbohydrate acetalisation, Carbohydrate chemistry, Carbohydrate digestion, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbonyl group, Catabolism, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Cengage, Chemical energy, Chemical formula, Chemistry, Chirality (chemistry), Chitin, Cis–trans isomerism, Citric acid cycle, Coagulation, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colloid, Consortium for Functional Glycomics, Covalent bond, Cyanohydrin reaction, Dehydration reaction, Deoxyribose, Developmental biology, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diauxie, Dietary fiber, ..., Digestion, Dihydroxyacetone, Disaccharide, DNA, Empirical formula, Enantiomer, Energy, Epimer, Escherichia coli, Fermentation, Fertilisation, Fischer projection, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food energy, Food fortification, Food science, Formaldehyde, Fructose, Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, Fructose 6-phosphate, Fruit preserves, Fucose, Functional group, Fungus, Furanose, Galactolipid, Galactose, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glycemic index, Glycemic load, Glyceraldehyde, Glycerol, Glycobiology, Glycogen, Glycoinformatics, Glycolaldehyde, Glycolipid, Glycolysis, Glycome, Glycomics, Glycoprotein, Glycoside hydrolase, Glycosidic bond, Glycosyl, Glycosylation, Gram, Greek language, Hemiacetal, Hemicellulose, Heterocyclic compound, Hexose, Hydrate, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, Immune system, Inositol, Insulin, Insulin index, Isomer, Ketoacidosis, Ketohexose, Ketone, Ketone bodies, Ketose, Ketosis, Koenigs–Knorr reaction, Lac operon, Lactic acid, Lactose, Le Bel–Van 't Hoff rule, Life, Lipid, Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation, Long Island University, Lyxose, Macromolecule, Maltodextrin, Maltose, Mannitol, Mannose, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Molecular mass, Monosaccharide, N-Acetylglucosamine, National Academies Press, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nature Publishing Group, Nef reaction, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrogen, No-carbohydrate diet, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of carbohydrates, Nutrient, Nutrition, Nutrition facts label, Oligosaccharide, Open-chain compound, Organic reaction, Organism, Oxygen, Pathogenesis, PDF, Pectin, Pentose, Pentose phosphate pathway, Photosynthesis, Plant, Polarization (waves), Polyol, Polysaccharide, Purdue University, Pyranose, Raffinose, Resistant starch, Ribose, Ribulose, RNA, Ruminant, Saccharic acid, Semen, Sorbitol, Stachyose, Starch, Stereocenter, Stereoisomerism, Sucrose, Sugar, Systematic name, Termite, Tetrose, Tissue (biology), Trehalose, Triglyceride, Triose, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, Uronic acid, USDA National Nutrient Database, Water, Western Kentucky University, Whole grain, Wohl degradation, World Health Organization, Xylose, Xylulose. Expand index (152 more) »


The suffix -ose is used in biochemistry to form the names of sugars.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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An aldohexose is a hexose with an aldehyde group on one end.

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An aldose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar) with a carbon backbone chain with a carbonyl group on the endmost carbon atom, making it an aldehyde, and hydroxyl groups connected to all the other carbon atoms.

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Amadori rearrangement

The Amadori rearrangement is an organic reaction describing the acid or base catalyzed isomerization or rearrangement reaction of the N-glycoside of an aldose or the glycosylamine to the corresponding 1-amino-1-deoxy-ketose.

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Amylopectin is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.

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Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.

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Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.

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An anomer is a type of geometric variation found in at certain atoms in carbohydrate molecules.

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Arabinoxylan is a hemicellulose found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants, including woods and cereal grains, consisting of copolymers of two pentose sugars – arabinose and xylose.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Carbohydrate acetalisation

In carbohydrate chemistry carbohydrate acetalisation is an organic reaction and a very effective means of providing a protecting group.

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Carbohydrate chemistry

Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates.

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Carbohydrate digestion

All carbohydrates absorbed in the small intestine must be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides prior to absorption.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbonyl group

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Chemical energy

In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Cis–trans isomerism

Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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Consortium for Functional Glycomics

The Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) is a large research initiative funded in 2001 by a glue grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) to “define paradigms by which protein-carbohydrate interactions mediate cell communication”.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cyanohydrin reaction

A cyanohydrin reaction is an organic chemical reaction by an aldehyde or ketone with a cyanide anion or a nitrile to form a cyanohydrin.

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Dehydration reaction

In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.

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Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Dextrorotation and levorotation

Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".

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Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.

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Diauxie is a Greek word coined by Jacques Monod to mean two growth phases.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Dihydroxyacetone, or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple saccharide (a triose) with formula.

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A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Empirical formula

In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.

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In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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In stereochemistry, an epimer is one of a pair of stereoisomers.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Fischer projection

The Fischer projection, devised by Hermann Emil Fischer in 1891, is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection.

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Food fortification

Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

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Food science

Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.

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No description.

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Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as Harden-Young ester, is fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 (i.e., is a fructosephosphate).

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Fructose 6-phosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group.

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Fruit preserves

Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.

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Fucose is a hexose deoxy sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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A furanose is a collective term for carbohydrates that have a chemical structure that includes a five-membered ring system consisting of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

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Galactolipids are a type of glycolipid whose sugar group is galactose.

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Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glucose 6-phosphate

Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.

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Glycemic index

The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.

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Glycemic load

The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it.

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Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3.

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Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.

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Defined in the narrowest sense, glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycoinformatics is a field of bioinformatics that pertains to the study of carbohydrates involved in protein post-translational modification.

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Glycolaldehyde is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2-CHO.

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Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.

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Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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The glycome is the entire complement of sugars, whether free or present in more complex molecules, of an organism.

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Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycomes (the entire complement of sugars, whether free or present in more complex molecules of an organism), including genetic, physiologic, pathologic, and other aspects.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Glycoside hydrolase

Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars.

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Glycosidic bond

In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

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A glycosyl group is a univalent free radical or substituent structure obtained by removing the hemiacetal hydroxyl group from the cyclic form of a monosaccharide and, by extension, of a lower oligosaccharide.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.

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A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.

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In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin index

The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour period after the food is ingested.

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An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.

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A ketohexose is a ketone-containing hexose (a six-carbon monosaccharide).

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In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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Ketone bodies

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.

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Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.

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Koenigs–Knorr reaction

The Koenigs–Knorr reaction in organic chemistry is the substitution reaction of a glycosyl halide with an alcohol to give a glycoside.

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Lac operon

The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactose is a disaccharide.

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Le Bel–Van 't Hoff rule

In organic chemistry, the Le Bel–Van 't Hoff rule states that the number of stereoisomers of an organic compound containing no internal planes of symmetry is 2n, where n represents the number of asymmetric carbon atoms.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation

In carbohydrate chemistry, the Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation also known as the Lobry de Bruyn–Alberda–van Ekenstein transformation is the base or acid catalyzed transformation of an aldose into the ketose isomer or vice versa, with a tautomeric enediol as reaction intermediate.

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Long Island University

Long Island University (LIU) is a private, non-profit, nonsectarian institution of higher education with locations and programs spanning the New York metropolitan area, overseas, and online.

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Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.

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Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.

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Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.

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Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.

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National Academies Press

The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Nature Publishing Group

Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.

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Nef reaction

The Nef reaction is an organic reaction describing the acid hydrolysis of a salt of a primary or secondary nitroalkane (1) to an aldehyde or a ketone (3) and nitrous oxide (4).

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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No-carbohydrate diet

A no-carbohydrate diet (no-carb diet, zero carb diet) excludes dietary consumption of all carbohydrates (including dietary fiber) and suggests fat as the main source of energy with sufficient protein.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of carbohydrates

Carbohydrate NMR Spectroscopy is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to structural and conformational analysis of carbohydrates.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Nutrition facts label

The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.

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An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

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Open-chain compound

In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.

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Organic reaction

Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.

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A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.

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Pentose phosphate pathway

The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Purdue University

Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.

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Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

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Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose.

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Resistant starch

Resistant starch (RS) is starch, including its degradation products, that escapes from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.

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Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Saccharic acid

Saccharic acid, also called glucaric acid, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H10O8.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.

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Stachyose is a tetrasaccharide consisting of two α--galactose units, one α--glucose unit, and one β--fructose unit sequentially linked as gal(α1→6)gal(α1→6)glc(α1↔2β)fru.

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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.

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In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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Sucrose is common table sugar.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Systematic name

A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection.

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Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Trehalose is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs

The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977.

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Uronic acid

The Fischer projections of glucose and glucuronic acid. Glucose's terminal carbon's primary alcohol group has been oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Uronic acids are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups.

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USDA National Nutrient Database

The USDA National Nutrient Database is a database produced by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides the nutritional content of many generic and proprietary-branded foods.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Western Kentucky University

Western Kentucky University is a public university in Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States.

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Whole grain

A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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Wohl degradation

The Wohl degradation in carbohydrate chemistry is a chain contraction method for aldoses.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.

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Xylulose is a ketopentose, a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group.

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ATC code B05BA03, ATCvet code QB05BA03, Carbohydrates, Carbon hydrate, Carbonhydrate, Carbos, Carbs, Complex carbohydrate, Complex carbohydrates, Complex carbs, Plant sugar, Plant sugars, Polyhydroxyketone, Saccharide, Saccharides, Sugar (chemistry), Sugar chain.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate

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