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Carbon dioxide

Index Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. [1]

380 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acidosis, Active laser medium, Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier, Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, Aerobic organism, Air gun, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Algae, Alkalinity, Alkalosis, Alkyl, Allosteric regulation, American Journal of Science, American Veterinary Medical Association, Amino acid, Ammonia production, Amorphous carbonia, Amorphous solid, Amphibian, Amphoterism, Anaerobic organism, Anaerobic respiration, Apnea, Argon, Arterial blood gas test, Artery, Aryl, Ash (analytical chemistry), ASHRAE, Asphyxiant gas, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Autoregulation, Autotroph, Azolla event, Baker's yeast, Baking powder, Bar (unit), Beaujolais, Beer, Bicarbonate, Biodiesel, Biogeosciences, Biosynthesis, Bjerrum plot, ..., Blackdamp, Blast furnace, Blood plasma, Bohr effect, Bond length, Bosch reaction, Bottled gas, Bread, Brewing, Brittleness, Bromine, C3 carbon fixation, Caffeine, Calcification, Calcination, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium reactor, Cameroon, Capillary, Carbamino, Carbanion, Carbogen, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide cleaning, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carbon dioxide laser, Carbon dioxide sensor, Carbon diselenide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon fixation, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, Carbon sequestration, Carbon sink, Carbon suboxide, Carbon trioxide, Carbon-based fuel, Carbonate, Carbonate rock, Carbonated water, Carbonation, Carbon–oxygen bond, Carbonic acid, Carbonic anhydrase, Carbonic maceration, Carbonyl sulfide, Carboxylate, Cask ale, Cave of Dogs, Cellular respiration, Centrosymmetry, Charcoal, Chemical formula, Chemical kinetics, Climate change, Coal, Coca-Cola, Coccolithophore, Coffee, Coke (fuel), Combustion, Compensation point, Coral, Covalent bond, Critical point (thermodynamics), Crustacean, Cyanobacteria, Davy lamp, Decaffeination, Decomposition, Deforestation, Degenerate energy levels, Deposition (phase transition), Deprotonation, Diamond anvil cell, Dicarbon monoxide, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Diesel fuel, Dipole, Diprotic acid, Distillation, Dolomite, Domestic canary, Double bond, Dry cleaning, Dry ice, Dry-ice blasting, E number, Echinoderm, EcoCute, Ecosystem, Effervescence, Electrophile, Emiliania huxleyi, Emission standard, Energy, Enhanced coal bed methane recovery, Enhanced oil recovery, Enzyme, Eos (magazine), Ethanol, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fermentation in winemaking, Fire extinguisher, Fish, Fish physiology, Flemish people, Food additive, Food chain, Foraminifera, Fossil fuel, Free-air concentration enrichment, Fuel, Gas, Gas chamber, Gas metal arc welding, Gasoline, Geophysical Research Letters, Germanium dioxide, Geyser, Gilbert Plass, Glacier, Global and Planetary Change, Global warming, Global warming potential, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, Glucose, Goma, Grape, Green chemistry, Greenhouse gas, Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite, Grignard reaction, Groundwater, Haldane effect, Helium, Hemoglobin, Henry's law, Heterotroph, Hot spring, Humphry Davy, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroxide, Hypercapnia, Hyperventilation, Ice cap, Ideal gas, Industrial gas, Industrial Revolution, Infrared spectroscopy, Integrative and Comparative Biology, International Maritime Organization, International Space Station, Iron, Isobutanol, Isobutyraldehyde, Italy, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Joseph Black, Joseph Priestley, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Journal of Geophysical Research, Jurassic, Kaya identity, Kerosene, Kolbe–Schmitt reaction, Lake, Lake Kivu, Lake Monoun, Lake Nyos, Landfill gas, Lead dioxide, Leavening agent, Life, Ligand, Light, Limestone, Limewater, Linear molecular geometry, Lipophilicity, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of least carbon efficient power stations, Lithium, Magnesium, Mariana Trench, Mazuku, Medication, Meromictic lake, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metal carbon dioxide complex, Methane, Methanol, Michael Faraday, Milankovitch cycles, Millimeter of mercury, Miner, Mole fraction, Molecule, Mollusca, Monosaccharide, Mount Nyiragongo, Must, NASA, Natural gas, Nature (journal), Nature Geoscience, Nitrogen, Northern Hemisphere, Nucleic acid, Nucleophile, Ocean acidification, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Okinawa Trough, Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2, Organic compound, Organochloride, Organolithium reagent, Oxide, Oxygen, Oxygen mask, Paintball, Partial pressure, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), PCO2, Peat, Periodic Videos, Petroleum, PH, Photosynthesis, Phototroph, Picometre, Pig iron, Planetary boundary layer, Plant, Poise (unit), Polysaccharide, Pop Rocks, Popular Science, Positive feedback, Poultry, Pounds per square inch, Precambrian, Precipitation (chemistry), Pressure, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Propane, Protein, Pteropoda, Pulmonary gas pressures, Raman spectroscopy, Rapolano Terme, Red blood cell, Redox, Reduction potential, Reef aquarium, Reference range, Refrigerant, Respiratory acidosis, Respiratory adaptation, Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, River, RuBisCO, Sabatier reaction, Scanning electron microscope, Scotland, Seawater, Sedimentary rock, Shellfish, Shortness of breath, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium salicylate, Soft drink, Solubility, Solvent, Sparkling wine, Spider mite, Spring (hydrology), Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard hydrogen electrode, Steam reforming, Storage of wine, Sublimation (phase transition), Submarine, Sugar, Sulfuric acid, Supercooling, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Supercritical drying, Supercritical fluid, Supersaturation, Sustainable automotive air conditioning, Swahili language, Synechococcus, The Christian Science Monitor, The New York Times, Thomson Corporation, Tin(IV) Oxide, Trace gas, Triple point, Tuscany, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, United States Army, Urea, Vein, Vertebrate, Volcano, Water, Water-gas shift reaction, Water-use efficiency, Welding, Whisky, Whitefly, Wine, Winemaking, Wood, World Bank, Yeast, Yeast in winemaking, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. 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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Acid dissociation constant

An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

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Acid strength

The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).

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Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).

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Active laser medium

The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.

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Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier

Adrien-Jean-Pierre Thilorier (16 February 1790 – 2 December 1844) was a French inventor who was the first person to produce solid carbon dioxide ("dry ice").

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Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor

The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) is a type of nuclear reactor designed and operated in the United Kingdom.

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Aerobic organism

An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

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Air gun

An air gun (or airgun) is any kind of gun that launches projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are pressurized mechanically without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which relies on an exothermic chemical oxidation (deflagration) of combustible propellants to generate propulsive energy.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.

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Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).

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In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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American Journal of Science

The American Journal of Science (AJS) is the United States of America's longest-running scientific journal, having been published continuously since its conception in 1818 by Professor Benjamin Silliman, who edited and financed it himself.

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American Veterinary Medical Association

The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), founded in 1863, is a not-for-profit association representing more than 91,000 U.S. veterinarians working in private and corporate practice, government, industry, academia, and uniformed services.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia production

Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals.

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Amorphous carbonia

Amorphous carbonia, also called a-carbonia or a-CO2, is an exotic amorphous solid form of carbon dioxide that is analogous to amorphous silica glass.

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).

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Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Arterial blood gas test

An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.

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Ash (analytical chemistry)

In analytical chemistry, ashing or ash content determination is the process of mineralization for preconcentration of trace substances prior to a chemical analysis, such as chromatography, or optical analysis, such as spectroscopy.

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The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (doing business since 2012 as ASHRAE) is a global professional association seeking to advance heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems design and construction.

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Asphyxiant gas

An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Autoregulation is a process within many biological systems, resulting from an internal adaptive mechanism that works to adjust (or mitigate) that system's response to stimuli.

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An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).

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Azolla event

The Azolla event occurred in the middle Eocene epoch, around, when blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla are thought to have happened in the Arctic Ocean.

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Baker's yeast

Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.

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Baking powder

Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.

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Bar (unit)

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).

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Beaujolais is a French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) wine generally made of the Gamay grape which has a thin skin and is low in tannins.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.

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Biogeosciences is an open-access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research within Earth science.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Bjerrum plot

A Bjerrum plot (named after Niels Bjerrum) is a graph of the concentrations of the different species of a polyprotic acid in a solution, as functions of the solution's pH, when the solution is at equilibrium.

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Blackdamp (also known as stythe or choke damp) is an asphyxiant, reducing the available oxygen content of air to a level incapable of sustaining human or animal life.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Bohr effect

The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr: hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity (see Oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve) is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide.

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Bond length

In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

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Bosch reaction

The Bosch reaction is a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and hydrogen that produces elemental carbon (graphite), water, and a 10% return of invested heat.

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Bottled gas

Bottled gas is a term used for substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure (STP) and have been compressed and stored in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or composite bottles known as gas cylinders.

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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.

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# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.

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Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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C3 carbon fixation

carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

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The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Calcium reactor

In marine and reef aquariums, a calcium reactor creates a balance of alkalinity.

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No description.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Carbamino refers to a compound composed by the addition of carbon dioxide with a free amino group in an amino acid or a protein, such as hemoglobin forming carbaminohemoglobin.

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A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).

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Carbogen, also called Meduna's Mixture after its inventor Ladislas Meduna, is a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen gas.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide cleaning

Carbon dioxide cleaning (CO2 cleaning) comprises a family of methods for parts cleaning and sterilization, using carbon dioxide in its various phases.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carbon dioxide laser

The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed.

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Carbon dioxide sensor

A carbon dioxide sensor or CO2 sensor is an instrument for the measurement of carbon dioxide gas.

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Carbon diselenide

Carbon diselenide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CSe2.

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

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Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase

In enzymology, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are CO, H2O, and A, whereas its two products are CO2 and AH2.

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Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.

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Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.

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Carbon suboxide

Carbon suboxide, or tricarbon dioxide, is an oxide of carbon with chemical formula C3O2 or O.

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Carbon trioxide

Carbon trioxide (CO3) is an unstable oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon).

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Carbon-based fuel

Carbon-based fuel is any fuel principally from the oxidation or burning of carbon.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Carbonate rock

Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.

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Carbonated water

Carbonated water (bubbly water, fizzy water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, either by technology or by a natural geologic source.

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Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.

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Carbon–oxygen bond

A carbon–oxygen bond is a polar covalent bond between carbon and oxygen.

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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Carbonic anhydrase

The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).

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Carbonic maceration

Carbonic maceration is a winemaking technique, often associated with the French wine region of Beaujolais, in which whole grapes are fermented in a carbon dioxide rich environment prior to crushing.

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Carbonyl sulfide

Carbonyl sulfide is the chemical compound with the linear formula OCS.

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A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Cask ale

Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned (including secondary fermentation) and served from a cask without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure.

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Cave of Dogs

The Cave of Dogs (in Italian Grotta del Cane, literally "Cave of the Dog") is a small cave on the eastern side of the Phlegraean Fields near Pozzuoli, Naples.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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In crystallography, a point group which contains an inversion center as one of its symmetry elements is centrosymmetric.

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Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical kinetics

Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.

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A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Compensation point

The (light) compensation point is the light intensity on the light curve where the rate of photosynthesis exactly matches the rate of cellular respiration.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Davy lamp

The Davy lamp is a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy.

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Decaffeination is the removal of caffeine from coffee beans, cocoa, tea leaves, and other caffeine-containing materials.

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Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Degenerate energy levels

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.

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Deposition (phase transition)

Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.

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Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.

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Diamond anvil cell

A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.

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Dicarbon monoxide

Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.

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Diprotic acid

In chemistry, diprotic acid is a class of Arrhenius acids which are capable of donating two protons or hydrogen cations per molecule when dissociating in aqueous solutions.

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.

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Domestic canary

The domestic canary, often simply known as the canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica), is a domesticated form of the wild canary, a small songbird in the finch family originating from the Macaronesian Islands (The Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands).

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Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Dry cleaning

Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a chemical solvent other than water.

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Dry ice

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.

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Dry-ice blasting

Dry ice-blasting is a form of carbon dioxide cleaning, where dry ice, the solid form of carbon dioxide, is accelerated in a pressurized air stream and directed at a surface in order to clean it.

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E number

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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The EcoCute is an energy efficient electric heat pump, water heating and supply system that uses heat extracted from the air to heat water for domestic, industrial and commercial use.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.

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In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Emiliania huxleyi

Emiliania huxleyi, often abbreviated "EHUX", is a species of coccolithophore found in almost all ocean ecosystems the equator to sub-polar regions, and from nutrient rich upwelling zones to nutrient poor oligotrophic waters.

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Emission standard

Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Enhanced coal bed methane recovery

Enhanced coal bed methane recovery is a method of producing additional coalbed methane from a source rock, similar to enhanced oil recovery applied to oil fields.

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Enhanced oil recovery

Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eos (magazine)

Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, is a weekly magazine of Earth science published by John Wiley & Sons for the American Geophysical Union (AGU).

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fermentation in winemaking

The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.

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Fire extinguisher

A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fish physiology

Fish physiology is the scientific study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish.

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Flemish people

The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.

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Food additive

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Free-air concentration enrichment

Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) is a method used by ecologists and plant biologists that raises the concentration of in a specified area and allows the response of plant growth to be measured.

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A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas chamber

A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.

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Gas metal arc welding

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a welding process in which an electric arc forms between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece metal(s), which heats the workpiece metal(s), causing them to melt and join.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Geophysical Research Letters

Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.

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Germanium dioxide

Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.

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A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.

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Gilbert Plass

Gilbert Norman Plass (22 March 1920 – 1 March 2004) was a Canadian physicist who in the 1950s made predictions about the increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels in the 20th century and its effect on the average temperature of the planet that closely match measurements reported half a century later.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Global and Planetary Change

Global and Planetary Change is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research into the earth sciences, particularly pertaining to changes in aspects thereof such as sea level and the chemical composition of the atmosphere.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Goma is the capital city of North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Green chemistry

Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite

The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSat), also known as, is an Earth observation satellite and the world's first satellite dedicated to greenhouse-gas-monitoring.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Haldane effect

The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin first described by John Scott Haldane.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Henry's law

In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase.

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A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Hypercapnia, also known as hypercarbia and CO2 retention, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.

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Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.

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Ice cap

An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).

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Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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Industrial gas

Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Integrative and Comparative Biology

Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).

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International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methylpropan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH (sometimes represented as i-BuOH).

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Isobutyraldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCHO.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jan Baptist van Helmont

Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.

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Joseph Black

Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

The Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology is a peer-reviewed bimonthly journal which publishes work on the biochemistry, physiology, behaviour, and genetics of marine plants and animals in relation to their ecology.

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Journal of Geophysical Research

The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Kaya identity

The Kaya identity is an identity stating that the total emission level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide can be expressed as the product of four factors: human population, GDP per capita, energy intensity (per unit of GDP), and carbon intensity (emissions per unit of energy consumed).

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Kolbe–Schmitt reaction

The Kolbe–Schmitt reaction or Kolbe process (named after Hermann Kolbe and Rudolf Schmitt) is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenoxide (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125 °C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid.

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Lake Kivu

Lake Kivu is one of the African Great Lakes.

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Lake Monoun

Lake Monoun is a lake in West Province, Cameroon, that lies in the Oku Volcanic Field.

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Lake Nyos

Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, located about northwest of Yaoundé the capital.

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Landfill gas

Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.

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Lead dioxide

Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.

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Leavening agent

A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide.

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Linear molecular geometry

In chemistry, the linear molecular geometry describes the geometry around a central atom bonded to two other atoms (or ligands) placed at a bond-angle of 180°.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency released in 2015.

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List of least carbon efficient power stations

This is a list of least carbon efficient power stations in selected countries.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.

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In geology, a mazuku (Swahili: evil wind) is a pocket of carbon dioxide–rich air that can be lethal to any human or animal life inside.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Meromictic lake

A meromictic lake has layers of water that do not intermix.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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Metal carbon dioxide complex

Metal carbon dioxide complexes are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.

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Millimeter of mercury

A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.

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A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.

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Mole fraction

In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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Mount Nyiragongo

Mount Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano with an elevation of in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift.

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Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Geoscience

Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals are a set of internationally accepted specifications for the testing of chemicals decided on by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Okinawa Trough

The (also called, literally China-Ryukyu Border Trough) is a seabed feature of the East China Sea.

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Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2

Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) is an American environmental science satellite which launched on 2 July 2014.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Organolithium reagent

Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen mask

An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs.

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Paintball is a competitive team shooting sport in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with spherical dye-filled gelatin capsules ("paintballs") that break upon impact.

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Partial pressure

In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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The pCO2, PCO2, p_\ceor P_\ce is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), often used in reference to blood, but also used in oceanography to describe the partial pressure of CO2 in the Ocean, and in life support systems engineering and underwater diving to describe the partial pressure in a breathing gas.

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Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.

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The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Pig iron

Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.

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Planetary boundary layer

In meteorology the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Poise (unit)

The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Pop Rocks

Pop Rocks is a candy, owned by Zeta Espacial S.A. Pop Rocks ingredients include sugar, lactose (milk sugar), and flavoring.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

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Pounds per square inch

The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pteropoda (common name pteropods, from the Greek meaning "wing-foot") are specialized free-swimming pelagic sea snails and sea slugs, marine opisthobranch gastropods.

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Pulmonary gas pressures

The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Rapolano Terme

Rapolano Terme is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Siena in the Italian region Tuscany, located about southeast of Florence and about east of Siena in the area known as the Crete Senesi.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reduction potential

Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.

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Reef aquarium

A reef aquarium or reef tank is a marine aquarium that prominently displays live corals and other marine invertebrates as well as fish that play a role in maintaining the tropical coral reef environment.

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Reference range

In health-related fields, a reference range or reference interval is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons (for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen).

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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Respiratory acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis).

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Respiratory adaptation

Respiratory adaptation is the specific changes that the respiratory system undergoes in response to the demands of physical exertion.

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Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is an organic substance that is involved in photosynthesis.

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A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

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Sabatier reaction

The Sabatier reaction or Sabatier process was discovered by the French chemist Paul Sabatier in the 1910s.

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Scanning electron microscope

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

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Sodium salicylate

Sodium salicylate is a sodium salt of salicylic acid.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Sparkling wine

Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.

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Spider mite

Spider mites are members of the Acari (mite) family Tetranychidae, which includes about 1,200 species.

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Spring (hydrology)

A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Standard hydrogen electrode

The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.

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Steam reforming

Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.

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Storage of wine

Storage of wine is an important consideration for wine that is being kept for long-term aging.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.

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Supercritical carbon dioxide

Supercritical carbon dioxide (s) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.

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Supercritical drying

Supercritical drying is a process to remove liquid in a precise and controlled way.

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Supercritical fluid

A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.

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Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.

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Sustainable automotive air conditioning

Sustainable automotive air conditioning is the subject of a debate – nicknamed the Cool War – about the next-generation refrigerant in car air conditioning.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Synechococcus (from the Greek synechos, in succession, and the Greek kokkos, granule) is a unicellular cyanobacterium that is very widespread in the marine environment.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thomson Corporation

The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies.

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Tin(IV) Oxide

Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.

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Trace gas

A trace gas is a gas which makes up less than 1% by volume of the Earth's atmosphere, and it includes all gases except nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%).

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Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member States.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water-gas shift reaction

The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.

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Water-use efficiency

Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.

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Whiteflies are small Hemipterans that typically feed on the undersides of plant leaves.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Yeast in winemaking

The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice.

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).

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3-Phosphoglyceric acid

3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).

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ATC code V03AN02, ATCvet code QV03AN02, Acidum aereum, Acidum mephiticum, CO2, CO², CO₂, Carban dioxide, Carbon (IV) Oxide, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon dioxide partial pressure, Carbondioxide, Carbonic acid gas, Carbonic anhydride, Carbonic gas, Carbonic oxide, Carbonic-acid gas, Co2, E290, Fixed air, O=C=O, R-744, R744, Soda gas, Spiritus sylvestris.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

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