268 relations: Acetic acid, Acetylenediol, Activated carbon, Active laser medium, Acyl group, Aktion T4, Aldehyde, Alkene, Aluminium chloride, Ammonia solution, Anti-inflammatory, Antibonding molecular orbital, Aristotle, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmosphere of Venus, Benzaldehyde, Benzene, Benzenehexol, Beta Pictoris, Bioorganometallic chemistry, Blast furnace, Blast furnace gas, Bond dipole moment, Bond length, Bond-dissociation energy, Borane, Borane carbonyl, Boudouard reaction, Breath carbon monoxide, Bushfires in Australia, Butyllithium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium oxide, Carbanion, Carbocation, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide (data page), Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, Carbon monoxide detector, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carbon suboxide, Carbonate, Carboxyhemoglobin, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Catalytic converter, Cell signaling, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ..., Central nervous system, Chełmno extermination camp, Chemical polarity, Chlorine, Chloroform, Cis effect, Claude Bernard, Coal, Coal gas, Coke (fuel), Colonization of Mars, Comet, Constellation, Coordinate covalent bond, Coordination complex, Covalent bond, Criteria air pollutants, Crop residue, Cyanide, Cyclohexanehexone, Cyclopentanepentone, Cytochrome c oxidase, Cytokine, Debye, Dehydration reaction, Detergent, Diesel fuel, Dimethylformamide, Dizziness, Electrolysis, Electron, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Ellingham diagram, Entropy, Enzyme, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, European Union, Euthanasia, Extermination camp, Fatigue, Fetus, Fischer–Tropsch process, Florida Department of Health, Food and Drug Administration, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Fossil fuel, Galen, Gas heater, Gas van, Gasification, Gasoline, Gattermann reaction, Generally recognized as safe, Globus pallidus, Greenhouse gas, Ground state, Guanylate cyclase, Halley's Comet, Halogenation, Headache, Heart, Heme, Heme oxygenase, Hemoglobin, High-temperature electrolysis, Hurricane Katrina, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogenation, Hydroiodic acid, Hydroxy group, Ideal gas law, Industrial gas, Inflammation, Infrared excess, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Internal combustion engine, Interstellar medium, Iodoform, Iridium(III) chloride, Iron, Iron pentacarbonyl, Isoelectronicity, Kerosene heater, Laser, Ligand, List of highly toxic gases, Long-term memory, Los Angeles Times, Macular degeneration, Mantle (geology), Metal, Metal carbonyl, Methane, Methanogen, Methanol, Metmyoglobin, Microbiology (journal), Mitochondrion, Modified atmosphere, Molar mass, Mole fraction, Molecular cloud, Molecular mass, Molecular orbital, Mond process, Monsanto process, MOPITT, Motor vehicle, Myoglobin, Nanometre, Natural gas, Nausea, Neovascularization, Neurotransmitter, Nickel, Nickel tetracarbonyl, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrosonium, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Octet rule, Open hearth furnace, Ore, Oxalate, Oxalic acid, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxocarbon, Oxygen, Ozone, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Peroxide, Phagocytosis, Phosgene, Photochemistry, Photon, Physical Review, Pi backbonding, Pi bond, Picometre, Pictor, Pluto, Polycarbonyl, Potassium, Pressure, Producer gas, Pyrometallurgy, Radiative forcing, Radical (chemistry), Radio telescope, Redox, Regenerative heat exchanger, Resolvin, Retina, Rhodium, Rhodizonic acid, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubicon Foundation, Science (journal), Sepsis, Sequela, Shell higher olefin process, Sigma bond, Silver nitrate, Singapore, Singlet state, Smog, Sodium, Solid oxide electrolyser cell, Space telescope, Specialized pro-resolving mediators, Spectral line, Star, Star formation, Steam, Stove, Sugarcane, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Synapse, Syncope (medicine), Syngas, The Holocaust, Triphenylphosphine, Triple bond, Troposphere, Tropospheric ozone, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, United States House of Representatives, University of Liverpool, Vaska's complex, Vasodilation, Volcano, Volume fraction, Vomiting, Water gas, Water on Mars, Water-gas shift reaction, White blood cell, Wildfire, William Cumberland Cruikshank, Wood gas, Wood gas generator, World War II, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zirconium dioxide, 2-Methoxyethanol. Expand index (218 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetylenediol, or ethynediol, is a chemical substance with formula HO-C≡C-OH.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.
An acyl group is a moiety derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl groups from an oxoacid, including inorganic acids.
Aktion T4 (German) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
In chemical bonding theory, an antibonding orbital is a type of molecular orbital (MO) that weakens the bond between two atoms and helps to raise the energy of the molecule relative to the separated atoms.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.
Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Benzenehexol, also called hexahydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with formula C6H6O6 or C6(OH)6.
Beta Pictoris (β Pic, β Pictoris) is the second brightest star in the constellation Pictor.
Bioorganometallic chemistry is the study of biologically active molecules that contain carbon directly bonded to metals or metalloids.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to metallic iron.
The bond dipole moment uses the idea of electric dipole moment to measure the polarity of a chemical bond within a molecule.
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
Bond-dissociation energy (BDE or D0) is one measure of the strength of a chemical bond.
Borane (systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Borane carbonyl is the inorganic compound with the formula H3BCO.
The Boudouard reaction, named after Octave Leopold Boudouard, is the redox reaction of a chemical equilibrium mixture of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at a given temperature.
Breath carbon monoxide is the level of carbon monoxide in a person's exhalation.
Bushfires are frequent events during the warmer months of the year, due to Australia's mostly hot, dry climate.
Butyllithium may refer to one of 5 isomeric organolithium reagents of which 3 are commonly used in chemical synthesis.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on carbon monoxide.
In enzymology, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are CO, H2O, and A, whereas its two products are CO2 and AH2.
A carbon monoxide detector or CO detector is a device that detects the presence of the carbon monoxide (CO) gas in order to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Carbon suboxide, or tricarbon dioxide, is an oxide of carbon with chemical formula C3O2 or O.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carboxyhemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin (symbol COHb or HbCO) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin (Hb) that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide (CO).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
In inorganic chemistry, the cis effect is defined as the labilization (making unstable) of CO ligands that are ''cis'' to other ligands.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Mars is the focus of much scientific study about possible human colonization.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Criteria air Pollutants (CAP), or criteria pollutants, are a set of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, and other health hazards.
There are two types of agricultural crop residues.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyclohexanehexone, also known as hexaketocyclohexane and triquinoyl, is an organic compound with formula C6O6, the sixfold ketone of cyclohexane.
Cyclopentanepentone, also known as leuconic acid, is a hypothetical organic compound with formula C5O5, the fivefold ketone of cyclopentane.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
An Ellingham diagram is a graph showing the temperature dependence of the stability for compounds.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
The Florida Department of Health is responsible for protecting the public health and safety of the residents and visitors of the state of Florida.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A gas heater is a space heater used to heat a room or outdoor area by burning natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, propane or butane.
A gas van or gas wagon (душегубка (dushegubka); Gaswagen) was a vehicle reequipped as a mobile gas chamber.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The Gattermann reaction, (also known as the Gattermann formylation and the Gattermann salicylaldehyde synthesis) is a chemical reaction in which aromatic compounds are formylated by hydrogen cyanide in the presence of a Friedel–Crafts catalyst (e.g. AlCl3).
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Guanylate cyclase (also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme.
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Heme oxygenase or haem oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
High-temperature electrolysis (also HTE or steam electrolysis) is a technology for producing hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide from water and/or carbon dioxide with oxygen as a by-product.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
An infrared excess is a measurement of an astronomical source, typically a star, that in their spectral energy distribution has a greater measured infrared flux than expected by assuming the star is a blackbody radiator.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Iodoform is the organoiodine compound with the formula CHI3.
Iridium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula IrCl3.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula5.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
A kerosene heater, also known as a paraffin heater, is typically a portable, unvented, kerosene-fueled, space (i.e., convectional) heating device.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Many gases have toxic properties, which are often assessed using the LC50 (median lethal dose) measure.
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Metmyoglobin is the oxidised form of the oxygen-carrying hemeprotein myoglobin.
Microbiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research in all aspects of microbiology, including the biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, physiology, pathogenicity, biodiversity, biotechnology, evolution, and genetics of microorganisms and viruses.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Modified atmosphere is the practice of modifying the composition of the internal atmosphere of a package (commonly food packages, drugs, etc.) in order to improve the shelf life.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
The Mond process, sometimes known as the carbonyl process, is a technique created by Ludwig Mond in 1890, to extract and purify nickel.
The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.
MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA on board the Terra satellite in 1999.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neovascularization is the natural formation of new blood vessels (neo- + vascular + -ization), usually in the form of functional microvascular networks, capable of perfusion by red blood cells, that form to serve as collateral circulation in response to local poor perfusion or ischemia.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The nitrosonium ion is NO+, in which the nitrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom with a bond order of 3, and the overall diatomic species bears a positive charge.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
An oxocarbon or oxide of carbon is a chemical compound consisting only of carbon and oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
π backbonding, also called π backdonation, is a concept from chemistry in which electrons move from an atomic orbital on one atom to an appropriate symmetry antibonding orbital on a π-acceptor ligand.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Pictor is a constellation in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, located between the star Canopus and the Large Magellanic Cloud.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Polycarbonyl, (also known as polymeric-CO, p-CO or poly-CO) is a solid metastable and explosive polymer of carbon monoxide.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Producer gas is fuel gas that is manufactured from material such as coal, as opposed to natural gas.
Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A regenerative heat exchanger, or more commonly a regenerator, is a type of heat exchanger where heat from the hot fluid is intermittently stored in a thermal storage medium before it is transferred to the cold fluid.
Resolvins are metabolic byproducts of omega-3 fatty acids, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and clupanodonic acid.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Rhodizonic acid is a chemical compound with formula C6H2O6 or (CO)4(COH)2.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rubicon Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit organization devoted to contributing to the interdependent dynamic between research, exploration, science and education.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
The Shell higher olefin process is a chemical process for the production of linear alpha olefins via ethylene oligomerization and olefin metathesis invented and exploited by Royal Dutch Shell.
In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
In quantum mechanics, a singlet state usually refers to a system in which all electrons are paired.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is a solid oxide fuel cell that runs in regenerative mode to achieve the electrolysis of water (and/or carbon dioxide) by using a solid oxide, or ceramic, electrolyte to produce hydrogen gas (and/or carbon monoxide) and oxygen.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
A stove is an enclosed space in which fuel is burned to heat either the space in which the stove is situated, or items placed on the heated stove itself.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is an independent agency of the United States government.
The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) is an organization based in the US which supports research on matters of hyperbaric medicine and physiology, and provides a certificate of added qualification for physicians with an unrestricted license to practice medicine and for limited licensed practitioners, at the completion of the Program for Advanced Training in Hyperbaric Medicine.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England.
Vaska's complex is the trivial name for the chemical compound trans-carbonylchlorobis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I), which has the formula IrCl(CO)2.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
In chemistry, the volume fraction φi is defined as the volume of a constituent Vi divided by the volume of all constituents of the mixture V prior to mixing: Being dimensionless, its unit is 1; it is expressed as a number, e.g., 0.18.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Water gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthesis gas.
Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
William Cumberland Cruikshank (1745 in Edinburgh – 27 June 1800) was a British chemist and anatomist.
Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels.
A wood gas generator is a gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into wood gas, a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, traces of methane, and other gases, which - after cooling and filtering - can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
2-Methoxyethanol, or methyl cellosolve, is an organic compound with formula that is used mainly as a solvent.