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A carbon star is a late-type star similar to a red giant (or occasionally to a red dwarf) whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance. [1]

64 relations: Absolute magnitude, Angelo Secchi, Apparent magnitude, Astronomy, Asymptotic giant branch, Barium, Barium star, Binary star, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, CH star, CNO cycle, Convection, Cosmic dust, Cyanogen, Declination, Diatomic carbon, Dredge-up, Graphite, Gravity, Helium flash, Henry Draper Catalogue, Infrared, IRC +10216, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, La Superba, Late-type star, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, Lithium, Long-period variable star, Main sequence, Marc Aaronson, Mass transfer, Metallicity, Molecular cloud, Oxygen, Planetary nebula, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Purkinje effect, R Coronae Borealis variable, R Leporis, Red dwarf, Red giant, Right ascension, Rod cell, Ruby (color), S-process, S-type star, Soot, ..., Spectroscopy, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar wind, Submillimetre astronomy, Sun, Swan band, Technetium star, The Astrophysical Journal, Tricarbon, Triple-alpha process, United States, Variable star, White dwarf. Expand index (14 more) »

Absolute magnitude is the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object.

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Pietro Angelo Secchi SJ (29 June 1818 – 26 February 1878) was an Italian astronomer.

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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.

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Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

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The asymptotic giant branch is the region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolving low- to medium-mass stars.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Barium stars are spectral class G to K giants, whose spectra indicate an overabundance of s-process elements by the presence of singly ionized barium, Ba II, at λ 455.4 nm.

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A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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CH stars are particular type of carbon stars which are characterized by the presence of exceedingly strong absorption bands due to CH (methylidyne) in their spectra.

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The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.

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Convection is the concerted, collective movement of groups or aggregates of molecules within fluids (e.g., liquids, gases) and rheids, through advection or through diffusion or as a combination of both of them.

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Cosmic dust is dust which exists in space.

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Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.

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In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.

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Diatomic carbon (systematically named ethenediylidene and dicarbon(C—C)), also called dicarbon, is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula C.

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A dredge-up is a period in the evolution of a star where a surface convection zone extends down to the layers where material has undergone nuclear fusion.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.

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A helium flash is a very brief thermal runaway nuclear fusion of large quantities of helium into carbon through the triple-alpha process in the core of low mass stars (between 0.8 solar masses and 2.0) during their red giant phase (the Sun is predicted to experience a flash 1.2 billion years after it leaves the main sequence).

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The Henry Draper Catalogue (HD) is an astronomical star catalogue published between 1918 and 1924, giving spectroscopic classifications for 225,300 stars; it was later expanded by the Henry Draper Extension (HDE), published between 1925 and 1936, which gave classifications for 46,850 more stars, and by the Henry Draper Extension Charts (HDEC), published from 1937 to 1949 in the form of charts, which gave classifications for 86,933 more stars.

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Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).

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IRC +10216 or CW Leonis is a well-studied carbon star that is embedded in a thick dust envelope.

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The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada since 1907.

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La Superba (Y CVn, Y Canum Venaticorum) is a variable star in the constellation Canes Venatici, well known for its strikingly red appearance.

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In stellar classification, a late-type star is a star of class K or class M. The term was coined in the early 20th century, when there was a belief that stars began their history as early-type stars of class O, B, or A, and subsequently cooled to late-type stars.

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This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes, grouped by the number of component atoms.

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Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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A long-period variable (LPV) star is a type of pulsating cool giant variable star with periods from a few days to a thousand or more, sometimes poorly defined, and sometimes irregular.

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In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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Marc Aaronson (24 August 1950 – 30 April 1987) was an American astronomer.

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Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning a stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.

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In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).

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A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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A planetary nebula, often abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a kind of emission nebula consisting of an expanding glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from old red giant stars late in their lives.

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Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (PASJ) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astronomy published by the Astronomical Society of Japan on a bimonthly basis.

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Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is a monthly scientific journal which publishes astronomy research and review papers, instrumentation papers and dissertation summaries.

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The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift, or dark adaptation and named after the Czech anatomist Jan Evangelista Purkyně) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels.

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An R Coronae Borealis variable (abbreviated RCB, RCrB) is an eruptive variable star that varies in luminosity in two modes, one low amplitude pulsation (a few tenths of a magnitude), and one irregular unpredictably sudden fading by 1 to 9 magnitudes.

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R Leporis (R Lep), sometimes called Hind's Crimson Star, is a well-known variable star in the constellation Lepus, near its border with Eridanus.

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A red dwarf is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, either late K or M spectral type.

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A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.

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Rod cells, or rods, are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Ruby is a color that is a representation of the color of the cut and polished ruby gemstone and is a shade of red or pink.

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The s-process or slow-neutron-capture-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs at relatively low neutron density and intermediate temperature conditions in stars.

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A star with spectral type S is a late-type giant star (similar to class K5–M) whose spectrum displays bands from zirconium oxide, in addition to the titanium oxide bands characteristically exhibited by K and M class giant stars.

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Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes during its lifetime.

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A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.

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Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.

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Swan bands are a characteristic of the spectra of carbon stars, comets and of burning hydrocarbon fuels.

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A technetium star, or more properly a Tc-rich star, is a star whose stellar spectrum contains absorption lines of the light radioactive metal technetium.

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The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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Tricarbon (systematically named 1λ2,3λ2-propadiene and μ-carbidodicarbon) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written or). It is a colourless gas that only persists in dilution or solution as an adduct.

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The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.

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A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Redirects here:

C star, C-type star, Carbon Star, Carbon Stars, Carbon giant, Carbon stars, H star, Hd star, N star, Oxygen star, Type-C stars.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_star

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