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Carbon star

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A carbon star is typically an asymptotic giant branch star, a luminous red giant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance. [1]

69 relations: Absolute magnitude, Angelo Secchi, Apparent magnitude, Astronomy, Asymptotic giant branch, Barium, Barium star, Binary star, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, CEMP star, CH star, CNO cycle, Convection, Cosmic dust, CW Leonis, Cyanogen, Declination, Diatomic carbon, Dredge-up, Graphite, Gravity, Helium flash, Henry Draper Catalogue, Infrared, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, La Superba, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, Long-period variable star, Main sequence, Marc Aaronson, Mass transfer, Metallicity, Molecular cloud, Nucleosynthesis, Oxygen, Philip Childs Keenan, Planetary nebula, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Purkinje effect, R Coronae Borealis variable, R Leporis, R-process, Red dwarf, Red giant, Right ascension, Rod cell, Ruby (color), S-process, ..., S-type star, Soot, Spectroscopy, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar wind, Submillimetre astronomy, Sun, Supergiant star, Swan band, Technetium, Technetium star, The Astrophysical Journal, Tricarbon, Triple-alpha process, United States, Variable star, White dwarf, Zirconium. Expand index (19 more) »

Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.

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Angelo Secchi


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Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Barium star

Barium stars are spectral class G to K giants, whose spectra indicate an overabundance of s-process elements by the presence of singly ionized barium, Ba II, at λ 455.4 nm.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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CEMP star

Carbon enhanced metal poor stars, usually referred to as CEMP stars, are a class of chemically peculiar star.

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CH star

CH stars are particular type of carbon stars which are characterized by the presence of exceedingly strong absorption bands due to CH (methylidyne) in their spectra.

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CNO cycle

The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.

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Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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Cosmic dust

Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.

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CW Leonis

IRC +10216 or CW Leonis is a well-studied carbon star that is embedded in a thick dust envelope. It was first discovered in 1969 by a group of astronomers led by Eric Becklin, based upon infrared observations made with the Caltech Infrared Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory. Its energy is emitted mostly at infrared wavelengths. At a wavelength of 5 μm, it was found to have the highest flux of any object outside the Solar System.

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Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.

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In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.

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Diatomic carbon

Diatomic carbon (systematically named ethenediylidene and dicarbon(C—C)), also called dicarbon, is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula C.

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A dredge-up is a period in the evolution of a star where a surface convection zone extends down to the layers where material has undergone nuclear fusion.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Helium flash

A helium flash is a very brief thermal runaway nuclear fusion of large quantities of helium into carbon through the triple-alpha process in the core of low mass stars (between 0.8 solar masses and 2.0) during their red giant phase (the Sun is predicted to experience a flash 1.2 billion years after it leaves the main sequence).

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Henry Draper Catalogue

The Henry Draper Catalogue (HD) is an astronomical star catalogue published between 1918 and 1924, giving spectroscopic classifications for 225,300 stars; it was later expanded by the Henry Draper Extension (HDE), published between 1925 and 1936, which gave classifications for 46,850 more stars, and by the Henry Draper Extension Charts (HDEC), published from 1937 to 1949 in the form of charts, which gave classifications for 86,933 more stars.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada

The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada since 1907.

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La Superba

La Superba (Y CVn, Y Canum Venaticorum) is a variable star in the constellation Canes Venatici, well known for its strikingly red appearance.

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List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules

This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes, grouped by the number of component atoms.

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Long-period variable star

The descriptive term long-period variable star refers to various groups of cool luminous pulsating variable stars.

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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Marc Aaronson

Marc Aaronson (24 August 1950 – 30 April 1987) was an American astronomer.

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Mass transfer

Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.

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In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.

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Molecular cloud

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Philip Childs Keenan

Philip Childs Keenan (March 31, 1908 – April 20, 2000) was an American astronomer.

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Planetary nebula

A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.

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Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan

Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (PASJ) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astronomy published by the Astronomical Society of Japan on a bimonthly basis.

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Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (often abbreviated as PASP in references and literature) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal managed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

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Purkinje effect

The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation.

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R Coronae Borealis variable

An R Coronae Borealis variable (abbreviated RCB, R CrB) is an eruptive variable star that varies in luminosity in two modes, one low amplitude pulsation (a few tenths of a magnitude), and one irregular, unpredictably-sudden fading by 1 to 9 magnitudes.

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R Leporis

R Leporis (R Lep), sometimes called Hind's Crimson Star, is a well-known variable star in the constellation Lepus, near its border with Eridanus.

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The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.

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Red giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Right ascension

Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Ruby (color)

Ruby is a color that is a representation of the color of the cut and polished ruby gemstone and is a shade of red or pink.

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The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.

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S-type star

An S-type star (or just S star) is a cool giant with approximately equal quantities of carbon and oxygen in its atmosphere.

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Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.

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Stellar wind

A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.

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Submillimetre astronomy

Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Supergiant star

Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.

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Swan band

Swan bands are a characteristic of the spectra of carbon stars, comets and of burning hydrocarbon fuels.

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Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Technetium star

A technetium star, or more properly a Tc-rich star, is a star whose stellar spectrum contains absorption lines of the light radioactive metal technetium.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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Tricarbon (systematically named 1λ2,3λ2-propadiene and catena-tricarbon) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written or). It is a colourless gas that only persists in dilution or solution as an adduct.

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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Variable star

A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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Redirects here:

C star, C-type star, Carbon Star, Carbon Stars, Carbon giant, Carbon stars, H star, Hd star, N star, Oxygen star, Type-C stars, Type-R star.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_star

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