122 relations: Acetal, Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Acetylacetone, Acetylcysteine, Acetylide, Acid anhydride, Acid dissociation constant, Acrolein, Acrylic acid, Acyl chloride, Acyl halide, Addition reaction, Aldehyde, Aldol condensation, Aldol reaction, Alkene, Alkylation, Alpha and beta carbon, Amide, Amine, Ammonia, Atom, Bromine, Cannizzaro reaction, Carbamate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonate ester, Carbonyl alpha-substitution reactions, Carbonyl reduction, Carbonyl sulfide, Carboxylic acid, Chemical polarity, Chemoselectivity, Chloroformate, Clemmensen reduction, Condensation reaction, Conjugated system, Cyanide, Cyanohydrin, Diethyl malonate, DNA, Double bond, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition, Enol, Enone, ..., Ester, Frostburg State University, Functional group, Glutathione, Grignard reaction, Hemiacetal, Hydration reaction, Hydrazone, Hydride, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogenation, Hydroxamic acid, Hydroxylamine, Imide, Imine, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Inorganic compound, Ion, Isocyanate, Ketone, Lactam, Lactone, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lone pair, Maleic acid, Meldrum's acid, Mesityl oxide, Metal carbonyl, Methane, Michael reaction, Monensin, Mozingo reduction, Nickel tetracarbonyl, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic abstraction, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleophilic conjugate addition, Orbital hybridisation, Organic acid anhydride, Organic chemistry, Organolithium reagent, Organometallic chemistry, Oxaziridine, Oxime, Oxocarbenium, Oxygen, Perkin reaction, Phosgene, Pi bond, Prentice Hall, Primary (chemistry), Resonance (chemistry), Saturation (chemistry), Secondary (chemistry), Sodium borohydride, Tautomer, Tebbe's reagent, Thermodynamic versus kinetic reaction control, Thioacetal, Thioester, Tishchenko reaction, Total synthesis, Urea, Vinylogy, Wavenumber, Wittig reaction, Wolff–Kishner reduction, Yoshito Kishi. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal.
An acid anhydride is formed when two acid structures combine with loss of a water molecule.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde.
Acrylic acid (IUPAC: propenoic acid) is an organic compound with the formula CH2.
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is a chemical compound derived from an oxoacid by replacing a hydroxyl group with a halide group.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.
The aldol reaction is a means of forming carbon–carbon bonds in organic chemistry.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
The Cannizzaro reaction, named after its discoverer Stanislao Cannizzaro, is a chemical reaction that involves the base-induced disproportionation of a non-enolizable aldehyde.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carbonate ester (organic carbonate or organocarbonate) is an ester of carbonic acid.
Alpha-substitution reactions occur at the position next to the carbonyl group, the α-position, and involve the substitution of an α hydrogen atom by an electrophile, E, through either an enol or enolate ion intermediate.
In organic chemistry, carbonyl reduction is the organic reduction of any carbonyl group by a reducing agent.
Carbonyl sulfide is the chemical compound with the linear formula OCS.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chemoselectivity is the preferential outcome of a chemical reaction over a set of possible alternative reactions.
Chloroformates are a class of chemical compounds which are esters of chloroformic acid.
Clemmensen reduction is a chemical reaction described as a reduction of ketones (or aldehydes) to alkanes using zinc amalgam and hydrochloric acid.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
A cyanohydrin is a functional group found in organic compounds in which a cyano and a hydroxy group are attached to the same carbon atom.
Diethyl malonate, also known as DEM, is the diethyl ester of malonic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
An enone, also called an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, is a type of organic compound consisting of an alkene conjugated to a ketone.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Frostburg State University (FSU) is a public university in Frostburg, Maryland.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
Semihydrazone Hydrazones are a class of organic compounds with the structure.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
A hydroxamic acid is a class of organic compounds bearing the functional group RC(O)N(OH)R', with R and R' as organic residues and CO as a carbonyl group.
Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.
In organic chemistry, an imide is a functional group consisting of two acyl groups bound to nitrogen.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R–N.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
A lactam is a cyclic amide.
Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Maleic acid or cis-butenedioic acid is an organic compound that is a dicarboxylic acid, a molecule with two carboxyl groups.
Meldrum's acid or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione is an organic compound.
Mesityl oxide is a α,β-unsaturated ketone with the formula CH3C(O)CH.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.
Monensin is a polyether antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis.
The Mozingo reduction, also known as Mozingo reaction or thioketal reduction, is a chemical reaction capable of fully reducing a ketone or aldehyde to the corresponding alkane.
Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nucleophilic abstraction is a type of an organometallic reaction which can be defined as a nucleophilic attack on a ligand which causes part or all of the original ligand to be removed from the metal along with the nucleophile.
In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.
Nucleophilic conjugate addition is a type of organic reaction.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
An oxaziridine is an organic molecule that features a three-membered heterocycle containing oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon.
An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.
An oxocarbenium ion (or oxacarbenium ion) is a chemical species characterized by a central sp2-hybridized carbon, an oxygen substituent, and an overall positive charge that is delocalized between the central carbon and oxygen atoms.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Perkin reaction is an organic reaction developed by English chemist William Henry Perkin that is used to make cinnamic acids.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Primary is a term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds (e.g. alcohols, alkyl halides, amines) or reactive intermediates (e.g. alkyl radicals, carbocations).
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Secondary is a term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds (e. g. alcohols, alkyl halides, amines) or reactive intermediates (e. g. alkyl radicals, carbocations).
Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
The Tebbe reagent is the organometallic compound with the formula (C5H5)2TiCH2ClAl(CH3)2.
Thermodynamic reaction control or kinetic reaction control in a chemical reaction can decide the composition in a reaction product mixture when competing pathways lead to different products and the reaction conditions influence the selectivity or stereoselectivity.
Thioacetals are the sulfur analogues of acetals.
In chemistry thioesters are compounds with the functional group R–S–CO–R'.
The Tishchenko reaction is an organic chemical reaction that involves disproportionation of an aldehyde in the presence of an alkoxide.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vinylogy is the transmission of electronic effects through a conjugated organic bonding system.
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.
The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.
The Wolff–Kishner reduction is a reaction used in organic chemistry to convert carbonyl functionalities into methylene groups.
is the Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry at Harvard University.
1,2-Unsaturated ketone, 1,3-dicarbonyl compound, A,b-unsaturated carbonyl compound, Alpha-beta unsaturated acid, C=O, Carbonyl, Carbonyl Group, Carbonyl compound, Carbonyl compounds, Carbonyls, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Carboxylic acid derivative, Ene-one, Α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compound, Α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, Α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.