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Carboxylic acid

Index Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(. [1]

191 relations: Acetate, Acetic acid, Acetoacetic acid, Acetone, Acid anhydride, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acrylic acid, Acyl chloride, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipic acid, Alcohol, Aldaric acid, Aldehyde, Alkene, Alpha and beta carbon, Alpha hydroxy acid, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Arachidic acid, Arndt–Eistert reaction, Aromaticity, Aspirin, Atmosphere of Earth, Barbier–Wieland degradation, Base (chemistry), Benzilic acid rearrangement, Benzoic acid, Bicarbonate buffer system, Blood, Body odor, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Breast milk, Butter, Butyric acid, Cannizzaro reaction, Caprylic acid, Carbocation, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonic acid, Carbonyl reduction, Carbonylation, Carboxy-lyases, Carboxylate, Carboxylation, Chemical polarity, Chloroacetic acid, Chocolate, ..., Citric acid, Citrus, Coconut, Coconut oil, Conjugate acid, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Dakin–West reaction, Decanoic acid, Decarboxylation, Deprotonation, Diazomethane, Dicarboxylic acid, Dichloroacetic acid, Diisobutylaluminium hydride, Dissociation (chemistry), Divinylether fatty acids, Docosahexaenoic acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Enthalpy of vaporization, Enzyme, Enzyme Commission number, Ester, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Formic acid, Fukuyama reduction, Glyceric acid, Glycolic acid, Goat, Grignard reaction, Haloform reaction, Halogenation, Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation, Heptadecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Hexanoic acid, Hunsdiecker reaction, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogenation, Hydroxy group, Infrared spectroscopy, Insect bites and stings, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodide, Ion, Isobutylene, Isocitric acid, Jones oxidation, Keto acid, Keto–enol tautomerism, Ketone, Ketonic decarboxylation, Koch reaction, Kolbe electrolysis, Kolbe–Schmitt reaction, Lactic acid, Lauric acid, Lewis acids and bases, List of carboxylic acids, Lithium aluminium hydride, Maleic acid, Metabolism, Methylene bridge, Molar concentration, Molecule, Myristic acid, Nitrile, Nonadecylic acid, Nonanoic acid, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nutmeg, Nylon, Organic acid, Organic compound, Organolithium reagent, Oxalic acid, Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, Oxidative decarboxylation, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Ozonolysis, Palm kernel oil, Palm oil, Palmitic acid, Parent structure, Peanut oil, Pelargonium, Pentadecanoic acid, Peptide, Perfume, Phenol, Phenyl alkanoic acids, Pheromone, Phthalic acid, Pivalic acid, Polyester, Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate, Properties of water, Propionic acid, Protein, Pseudoacid, Pyruvic acid, Radical (chemistry), Resonance (chemistry), Rosenmund reduction, Salicylic acid, Salt (chemistry), Schmidt reaction, Soap, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium chlorite, Stearic acid, Substituent, Tartaric acid, Terephthalic acid, Tetrahedral carbonyl addition compound, Thiocarboxylic acid, Thioester, Thionyl chloride, Toluene, Tricarboxylic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Tridecylic acid, Trifluoroacetic acid, Triglyceride, Trivial name, UMB66, Undecylic acid, Valerian (herb), Valeric acid, Vinegar, Vomiting, Von Richter reaction, Walter Reppe, Xylene, 2-Furoic acid. Expand index (141 more) »


An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetoacetic acid

Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acid anhydride

An acid anhydride is formed when two acid structures combine with loss of a water molecule.

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Acid dissociation constant

An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

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Acid strength

The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).

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Acrylic acid

Acrylic acid (IUPAC: propenoic acid) is an organic compound with the formula CH2.

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Acyl chloride

In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adipic acid

Adipic acid or hexanedioic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Aldaric acid

Aldaric acids are a group of sugar acids, where the terminal hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of the sugars have been replaced by terminal carboxylic acids, and are characterised by the formula HOOC-(CHOH)n-COOH.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alpha and beta carbon

The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.

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Alpha hydroxy acid

α-Hydroxy acids, or alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Arachidic acid

Arachidic acid, also known as eicosanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 20-carbon chain.

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Arndt–Eistert reaction

The Arndt–Eistert synthesis is a series of chemical reactions designed to convert a carboxylic acid to a higher carboxylic acid homologue (i.e. contains one additional carbon atom) and is considered a homologation process.

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In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Barbier–Wieland degradation

The Barbier–Wieland degradation is a procedure for shortening the carbon chain of a carboxylic acid by one carbon.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Benzilic acid rearrangement

The benzilic acid rearrangement is the rearrangement reaction of benzil with potassium hydroxide to benzilic acid.

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Benzoic acid

Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.

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Bicarbonate buffer system

The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate ion (HCO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to maintain pH in the blood and duodenum, among other tissues, to support proper metabolic function.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Body odor

Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).

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Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory

The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.

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Breast milk

Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.

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Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.

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Butyric acid

Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.

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Cannizzaro reaction

The Cannizzaro reaction, named after its discoverer Stanislao Cannizzaro, is a chemical reaction that involves the base-induced disproportionation of a non-enolizable aldehyde.

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Caprylic acid

Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid.

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A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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Carbonyl reduction

In organic chemistry, carbonyl reduction is the organic reduction of any carbonyl group by a reducing agent.

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Carbonylation refers to reactions that introduce carbon monoxide into organic and inorganic substrates.

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Carboxy-lyases, also known as decarboxylases, are carbon–carbon lyases that add or remove a carboxyl group from organic compounds.

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A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chloroacetic acid

Chloroacetic acid, industrially known as monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is the organochlorine compound with the formula ClCH2CO2H.

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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.

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Coconut oil

Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

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Conjugate acid

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Dakin–West reaction

The Dakin–West reaction is a chemical reaction that transforms an amino-acid into a keto-amide using an acid anhydride and a base, typically pyridine.

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Decanoic acid

Decanoic acid (capric acid) is a saturated fatty acid.

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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.

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Diazomethane is the chemical compound CH2N2, discovered by German chemist Hans von Pechmann in 1894.

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Dicarboxylic acid

A dicarboxylic acid is an organic compound containing two carboxyl functional groups (−COOH).

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Dichloroacetic acid

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), sometimes called bichloroacetic acid (BCA), is the chemical compound with formula.

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Diisobutylaluminium hydride

Diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBALH, DIBAL, DIBAL-H or DIBAH) is a reducing agent with the formula (i-Bu2AlH)2, where i-Bu represents isobutyl (-CH2CH(CH3)2).

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Dissociation (chemistry)

Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.

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Divinylether fatty acids

Divinylether fatty acids contain a fatty acid chemically combined with a doubly unsaturated carbon chain linked by an oxygen atom (ether).

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme Commission number

The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Formic acid

Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.

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Fukuyama reduction

The Fukuyama reduction is an organic reaction and an organic reduction in which a thioester is reduced to an aldehyde by a silyl hydride in presence of a catalytic amount of palladium.

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Glyceric acid

Glyceric acid is a natural three-carbon sugar acid obtained from the oxidation of glycerol.

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Glycolic acid

Glycolic acid (hydroacetic acid or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also written as HOCH2CO2H), is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).

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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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Haloform reaction

The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen) is produced by the exhaustive halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R–CO–CH3 group) in the presence of a base.

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Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation

The Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation reaction halogenates carboxylic acids at the α carbon.

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Heptadecanoic acid

Heptadecanoic acid, or margaric acid, is a saturated fatty acid.

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Heptanoic acid

Heptanoic acid, also called enanthic acid, is an organic compound composed of a seven-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid.

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Hexanoic acid

Hexanoic acid (caproic acid) is the carboxylic acid derived from hexane with the chemical formula.

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Hunsdiecker reaction

The Hunsdiecker reaction (also called the Borodin reaction or the Hunsdiecker–Borodin reaction) is a name reaction in organic chemistry whereby silver salts of carboxylic acids react with a halogen to produce an organic halide.

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Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Insect bites and stings

Insect bites and stings occur when an insect is agitated and seeks to defend itself through its natural defense mechanisms, or when an insect seeks to feed off the bitten person.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Isobutylene (or 2-methylpropene) is a hydrocarbon of industrial significance.

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Isocitric acid

Isocitric acid is a structural isomer of citric acid.

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Jones oxidation

The Jones oxidation is an organic reaction for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively.

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Keto acid

Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.

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Keto–enol tautomerism

In organic chemistry, keto–enol tautomerism refers to a chemical equilibrium between a keto form (a ketone or an aldehyde) and an enol (an alcohol).

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In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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Ketonic decarboxylation

Ketonic decarboxylation (also known as ketonization) is a type of organic reaction and a decarboxylation converting two equivalents of a carboxylic acid to a symmetric ketone by the application of heat with expulsion of one equivalent of water and one equivalent of carbon dioxide.

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Koch reaction

The Koch reaction is an organic reaction for the synthesis of tertiary carboxylic acids from alcohols or alkenes.

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Kolbe electrolysis

The Kolbe electrolysis or Kolbe reaction is an organic reaction named after Hermann Kolbe.

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Kolbe–Schmitt reaction

The Kolbe–Schmitt reaction or Kolbe process (named after Hermann Kolbe and Rudolf Schmitt) is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenoxide (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125 °C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lauric acid

Lauric acid or systematically, dodecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus having many properties of medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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List of carboxylic acids

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group.

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Lithium aluminium hydride

Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.

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Maleic acid

Maleic acid or cis-butenedioic acid is an organic compound that is a dicarboxylic acid, a molecule with two carboxyl groups.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methylene bridge

In organic chemistry, a methylene bridge, methylene spacer, or methanediyl group is any part of a molecule with formula --; namely, a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms and connected by single bonds to two other distinct atoms in the rest of the molecule.

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Molar concentration

Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Myristic acid

Myristic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 1-tetradecanoic acid) is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH.

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A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.

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Nonadecylic acid

Nonadecylic acid, or nonadecanoic acid, is a 19-carbon long saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)17COOH.

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Nonanoic acid

Nonanoic acid, also called pelargonic acid, is an organic compound composed of a nine-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3(CH2)7COOH.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.

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Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.

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Organic acid

An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organolithium reagent

Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.

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Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.

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Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids

The oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important oxidation reaction in organic chemistry.

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Oxidative decarboxylation

Oxidative decarboxylation reactions are oxidation reactions in which a carboxylate group is removed, forming carbon dioxide.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.

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Palm kernel oil

Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis.

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Palm oil

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.

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Palmitic acid

Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.

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Parent structure

In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.

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Peanut oil

Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts.

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Pelargonium is a genus of flowering plants which includes about 200 species of perennials, succulents, and shrubs, commonly known as geraniums (in the United States also storksbills).

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Pentadecanoic acid

Pentadecanoic acid is a saturated fatty acid.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Phenyl alkanoic acids

Short chain ω-phenylalkanoic acids have long been known to occur in natural products.

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Phthalic acid

Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.

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Pivalic acid

Pivalic acid is a carboxylic acid with a molecular formula of (CH3)3CCO2H.

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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Potassium dichromate

Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. As with all hexavalent chromium compounds, it is acutely and chronically harmful to health. It is a crystalline ionic solid with a very bright, red-orange color. The salt is popular in the laboratory because it is not deliquescent, in contrast to the more industrially relevant salt sodium dichromate.Gerd Anger, Jost Halstenberg, Klaus Hochgeschwender, Christoph Scherhag, Ulrich Korallus, Herbert Knopf, Peter Schmidt, Manfred Ohlinger, "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.

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Potassium permanganate

Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Propionic acid

Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A Pseudoacid in Organic Chemistry is a cyclic oxocarboxylic acid.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Resonance (chemistry)

In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.

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Rosenmund reduction

The Rosenmund reduction is a hydrogenation process in which an acyl chloride is selectively reduced to an aldehyde.

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Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Schmidt reaction

The Schmidt reaction is an organic reaction in which an azide reacts with a carbonyl group to give an amine or amide, with expulsion of nitrogen.

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Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.

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Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

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Sodium chlorite

Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2) is a chemical compound used in the manufacturing of paper and as a disinfectant.

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Stearic acid

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid.

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In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.

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Tartaric acid

Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.

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Terephthalic acid

Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.

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Tetrahedral carbonyl addition compound

A tetrahedral intermediate is a reaction intermediate in which the bond arrangement around an initially double-bonded carbon atom has been transformed from trigonal to tetrahedral.

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Thiocarboxylic acid

Thiocarboxylic acids are organosulfur compounds related to carboxylic acids by replacement of one of the oxygen atoms with a sulfur atom.

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In chemistry thioesters are compounds with the functional group R–S–CO–R'.

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Thionyl chloride

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.

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Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Tricarboxylic acid

A tricarboxylic acid is an organic carboxylic acid whose chemical structure contains three carboxyl functional groups (-COOH).

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Trichloroacetic acid

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA; TCAA; also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms.

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Tridecylic acid

Tridecylic acid, or tridecanoic acid, is a 13-carbon saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)11COOH.

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Trifluoroacetic acid

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula CF3CO2H.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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Trivial name

In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance.

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3-Chloropropanoic acid (also 3-chloropropionic acid) or UMB66 is a drug used in scientific research.

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Undecylic acid

Undecylic acid (systematically named undecanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3(CH2)9COOH.

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Valerian (herb)

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.

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Valeric acid

Valeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight-chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula.

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Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Von Richter reaction

The Von-Richter reaction, also named Von-Richter rearrangement, is a name reaction in the organic chemistry.

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Walter Reppe

Walter Julius Reppe (29 July 1892 in Göringen – 26 July 1969 in Heidelberg) was a German chemist.

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Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.

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2-Furoic acid

2-Furoic acid is a heterocyclic carboxylic acid, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring and a carboxylic acid group.

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-oic acid, Alcoholic acid, Alkanoic acid, Alkanoic acids, CO2H, COOH, Carbaxylic acid, Carboxy, Carboxy group, Carboxyl, Carboxyl Group, Carboxyl functional group, Carboxyl group, Carboxylic, Carboxylic Acid, Carboxylic Acids, Carboxylic acids, Carboxylic functional group, Carboxylic group, Carboxylic moiety, CooH, Cooh, Percarboxylic, R-COOH, RCO2H, RCOOH.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxylic_acid

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