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Carcinogen

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. [1]

179 relations: Acrylamide, Aflatoxin, Alcoholic drink, Aldehyde, Alkene, Alkylating antineoplastic agent, Alkylation, Alpha particle, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Arsenic, Asbestos, Asbestosis, Asian Dust, Aspergillus flavus, Bacteria, Barbecue, Benzene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Beryllium, Beta particle, Bile acid, Biology, Biotransformation, Bladder cancer, Bone seeker, Bone tumor, Breast cancer, Cadmium, Cancer, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Carcinogenesis, Cell (biology), Cereal, Charring, Chlormethine, Chromium, Circadian rhythm, Clonorchis sinensis, Co-carcinogen, Coking, Colorectal cancer, Cumulative incidence, Dangerous Preparations Directive, Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC), Detergent, Diesel exhaust, Dimethyl sulfate, Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, DNA, ..., Electromagnetic radiation and health, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electrophile, Embalming, Enzyme, Epoxide, Ethylene oxide, Europe, Exhaust gas, Food and Drug Administration, Food irradiation, Food Standards Agency, Formaldehyde, France, Francis Peyton Rous, French fries, Fuel oil, Fumigation, Fungus, Gamma ray, Gasoline, Gastrointestinal cancer, Genome, Genotoxicity, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, Grilling, Helicobacter pylori, Helminths, Hemangiosarcoma, Hepatitis B, History of cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Human papillomavirus infection, Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute, Infection, Infrared, Internal combustion engine, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of radium, Kepone, Lead, Leukemia, Light, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens, List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens, List of IARC Group 3 carcinogens, Liver cancer, Lung, Lung cancer, Lyon, Melanoma, Melarsoprol, Metabolism, Microorganism, Microwave, Microwave oven, Mitosis, Mutagen, N-Nitroso-N-methylurea, N-Nitrosonornicotine, National Toxicology Program, Neutron radiation, Nickel, Nitrite, Nitrosamine, Nose, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear transmutation, Nucleophile, Nut (fruit), Opisthorchis viverrini, Organ (anatomy), Passive smoking, Peanut butter, Peritoneal mesothelioma, Phosphor, Plastic, Pleural cavity, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyvinyl chloride, Potato chip, Precursor (chemistry), Programmed cell death, Prostate cancer, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pyrolysis, Radiation, Radio wave, Radioactive decay, Radiocontrast agent, Radionuclide, Radium dials, Radon, Refrigerant, Ripening, Rous sarcoma virus, Safe handling of carcinogens, Safe Work Australia, Semiconductor, Skin, Smelting, Solder, Solubility, Solvent, Sterilization (microbiology), Stomach cancer, Sunlight, Superfund, Suspension (chemistry), Teratology, Thorotrast, Threshold limit value, Tobacco, Toxication, Toxicity, Ultraviolet, United Nations, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Vinyl chloride, Warburg hypothesis, World Health Organization, X-ray, 1,2-Dibromoethane. Expand index (129 more) »

Acrylamide

Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.

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Aflatoxin

Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Aldehyde

An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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Alkene

In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alkylating antineoplastic agent

An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent used in cancer treatment that attaches an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA.

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Alkylation

Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.

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Asbestosis

Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos.

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Asian Dust

Asian Dust (also yellow dust, yellow sand, yellow wind or China dust storms) is a meteorological phenomenon which affects much of East Asia year round but especially during the spring months.

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Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Barbecue

Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ or barbie) is a cooking method, a style of food, and a name for a meal or gathering at which this style of food is cooked and served.

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Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Benzo(a)pyrene

Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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Bile acid

Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biotransformation

Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.

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Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.

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Bone seeker

A bone seeker is an element, often a radioisotope, that tends to accumulate in the bones of humans and other animals when it is introduced into the body.

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Bone tumor

A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Cadmium

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cereal

A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Charring

Charring is a chemical process of incomplete combustion of certain solids when subjected to high heat.

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Chlormethine

No description.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Clonorchis sinensis

Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is a human liver fluke belonging to the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Co-carcinogen

A co-carcinogen is a chemical that promotes the effects of a carcinogen in the production of cancer.

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Coking

Coking is the deposition of carbon-rich solids.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Cumulative incidence

Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time.

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Dangerous Preparations Directive

The Dangerous Preparations Directive is a European Union directive in the field of occupational safety and health and consumer protection.

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Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)

The Dangerous Substances Directive (as amended) was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008), starting in 2016.

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Detergent

A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.

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Diesel exhaust

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates.

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Dimethyl sulfate

Dimethyl sulfate is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2.

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Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Electromagnetic radiation and health

Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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Electrophile

In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Embalming

Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epoxide

An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.

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Ethylene oxide

Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Exhaust gas

Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Food irradiation

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.

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Food Standards Agency

The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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Formaldehyde

No description.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Peyton Rous

Francis Peyton Rous (October 5, 1879 – February 16, 1970) was an American Nobel Prize-winning virologist.

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French fries

French fries (North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English), finger chips (Indian English), or French-fried potatoes are ''batonnet'' or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes.

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Fuel oil

Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.

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Fumigation

Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Gastrointestinal cancer

Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genotoxicity

In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.

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Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world.

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Grilling

Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.

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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.

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Helminths

Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Hemangiosarcoma

Hemangiosarcoma is a rapidly growing, highly invasive variety of cancer that occurs almost exclusively in dogs, and only rarely in cats, horses, mice, or humans.

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.

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History of cancer

The history of cancer describes the development of the field of oncology and its role in the history of medicine.

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Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.

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Human papillomavirus infection

Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).

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Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute

Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute (The Benzene Case),, was a case heard before the United States Supreme Court. This case represented a challenge to the OSHA practice of regulating carcinogens by setting the exposure limit "at the lowest technologically feasible level that will not impair the viability of the industries regulated." OSHA selected that standard because it believed that (1) it could not determine a safe exposure level and that (2) the authorizing statute did not require it to quantify such a level. A plurality on the Court, led by Justice Stevens, wrote that the authorizing statute did indeed require OSHA to demonstrate a significant risk of harm (albeit not with mathematical certainty) in order to justify setting a particular exposure level. Perhaps more importantly, the Court noted in dicta that if the government's interpretation of the authorizing statute had been correct, it might violate the Nondelegation doctrine. This line of reasoning may represent the "high-water mark" of recent attempts to revive the doctrine.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Ionization

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Isotopes of radium

Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Kepone

Kepone, also known as chlordecone, is an organochlorine compound and a colourless solid.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Leukemia

Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.

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List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens

The agents in this list have been classified in Group 2A (probable carcinogens) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

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List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B: The agent (mixture) is "possibly carcinogenic to humans".

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List of IARC Group 3 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals.

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Liver cancer

Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.

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Lung

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lyon

Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Melanoma

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Melarsoprol

Melarsoprol is a medication used for the treatment of sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis).

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Microwave

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Microwave oven

A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.

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Mitosis

In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Mutagen

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) is a highly reliable carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen.

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N-Nitrosonornicotine

N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine produced during the curing and processing of tobacco.

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National Toxicology Program

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is an inter-agency program run by the United States Department of Health and Human Services to coordinate, evaluate, and report on toxicology within public agencies.

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Neutron radiation

Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.

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Nickel

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nitrite

The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nitrosamine

Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(–R2)–N.

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Nose

A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.

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Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.

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Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

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Nucleophile

Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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Nut (fruit)

A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

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Opisthorchis viverrini

Opisthorchis viverrini, common name Southeast Asian liver fluke, is a food-borne trematode parasite from the family Opisthorchiidae that infects the bile duct.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Passive smoking

Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.

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Peanut butter

Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground dry roasted peanuts.

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Peritoneal mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma is the name given to the cancer that attacks the lining of the abdomen.

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Phosphor

A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Plastic

Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Pleural cavity

The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.

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Plutonium-238

Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.

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Plutonium-239

Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Potato chip

Potato chips or crisps are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Pure and Applied Chemistry

Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

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Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

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Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radiocontrast agent

Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radium dials

Radium dials are watch, clock and other instrument dials painted with radioluminescent paint containing radium-226.

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Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Refrigerant

A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Ripening

Ripening is a process in fruits that causes them to become more palatable.

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Rous sarcoma virus

Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is a retrovirus and is the first oncovirus to have been described: it causes sarcoma in chickens.

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Safe handling of carcinogens

The safe handling of carcinogens is the handling of cancer causing substances in a safe and responsible manner.

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Safe Work Australia

Safe Work Australia is an Australian Government statutory agency established in 2009 under the Safe Work Australia Act 2008.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Skin

Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Smelting

Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Solder

Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.

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Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Sterilization (microbiology)

Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.

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Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

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Sunlight

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Superfund

Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.

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Suspension (chemistry)

In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.

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Teratology

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Thorotrast

Thorotrast is a suspension containing particles of the radioactive compound thorium dioxide, ThO2, that was used as a radiocontrast agent in medical radiography in the 1930s and 1940s.

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Threshold limit value

The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is believed to be a level to which a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse effects.

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Tobacco

Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Toxication

Toxication or toxification is the conversion of a chemical compound into a more toxic form in living organisms or in substrates such as soil or water.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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Vinyl chloride

Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.

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Warburg hypothesis

The Warburg hypothesis, sometimes known as the Warburg theory of cancer, postulates that the driver of tumorigenesis is an insufficient cellular respiration caused by insult to mitochondria.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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1,2-Dibromoethane

1,2-Dibromoethane, also known as ethylene dibromide (EDB), is the organobromine compound with the chemical formula (CH2Br)2.

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Cancerogen, Cancerogenic, Carcinogen classification, Carcinogene, Carcinogenic, Carcinogenicity, Carcinogenity, Carcinogens, Carncinogenic, Chemical carcinogen, Human carcinogen, Known human carcinogen, Possible carcinogen, Possible human carcinogen, Probable carcinogen, Procarcinogen, Procarcinogens.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinogen

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