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Cardiovascular disease

Index Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. [1]

151 relations: Age adjustment, Air pollution, AL amyloidosis, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Angina, Ankle–brachial pressure index, Anti-diabetic medication, Antibiotic, Antioxidant, Aortic aneurysm, Arsenic, Asbestos, Aspirin, Atherosclerosis, Benzo(a)pyrene, Biomarker (medicine), Blood cell, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, C-reactive protein, Calcification, Carbohydrate, Carbon disulfide, Carbon monoxide, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac stress test, Cardiology, Cardiomegaly, Cardiomyopathy, Carditis, Carotid artery, Cerebrovascular disease, Cholesterol, Choosing Wisely, Clinical Science (journal), Clonal hematopoiesis, Cochrane (organisation), Coeliac disease, Congenital heart defect, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery disease, Cutting fluid, DASH diet, Death, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diet (nutrition), Dietary fiber, ..., Dynamite, Echocardiography, Electrocardiography, Endocarditis, Endocardium, Endothelium, Eosinophil, Eosinophilic myocarditis, Estrogen, Exercise, Exhaust gas, Fibrate, Fibrinogen, Fibrosis, Gluten-free diet, Group A streptococcal infection, Healthy diet, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart valve, High-density lipoprotein, Homocysteine, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Hypertension, Hypertensive heart disease, Hypoglycemia, Indian Heart Association, Inflammation, Influenza, Influenza vaccine, Kidney disease, Lead, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Leukemia, Linoleic acid, List of causes of death by rate, Long QT syndrome, Low sodium diet, Low-fat diet, Lymphocyte, Magnesium, Medical research, MedicineNet, Mediterranean diet, Menopause, Metabolic syndrome, Micrograph, Monocyte, Movat's stain, Mutation, Myocardial infarction, Myocardial perfusion imaging, Myocarditis, Niacin, Obesity, Omega-3 fatty acid, Particulates, Periodontal disease, Peripheral artery disease, Phenoxy herbicide, Polyunsaturated fat, Psychological stress, Pulmonary heart disease, Relative risk reduction, Renal artery stenosis, Rheumatic fever, Richard Doll, Richard Peto, Saturated fat, Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Statin, Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Stroke, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, The BMJ, The Lancet, Thrombosis, Tobacco, Tobacco smoke, Tobacco smoking, Torcetrapib, Torsades de pointes, Trans fat, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Valvular heart disease, Vascular disease, Vasoactivity, Venous thrombosis, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Welding, White blood cell, World Health Organization, World Heart Federation, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Expand index (101 more) »

Age adjustment

In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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AL amyloidosis

Amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, primary systemic amyloidosis (PSA) or just primary amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis in the US.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Ankle–brachial pressure index

The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of the blood pressure at the ankle to the blood pressure in the upper arm (brachium).

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Anti-diabetic medication

Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Aortic aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.

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Biomarker (medicine)

In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac stress test

A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged.

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Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Carditis is the inflammation of the heart or its surroundings.

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Carotid artery

Carotid artery may refer to.

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Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Clinical Science (journal)

Clinical Science is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers all areas of clinical investigation, with a focus on translational science and medicine.

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Clonal hematopoiesis

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, or CHIP, is a common aging-related phenomenon in which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or other early blood cell progenitors contribute to the formation of a genetically distinct subpopulation of blood cells.

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Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Congenital heart defect

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cutting fluid

Cutting fluid is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking processes, such as machining and stamping.

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DASH diet

The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a dietary pattern promoted by the U.S.-based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services) to prevent and control hypertension.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.

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The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.

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Eosinophilic myocarditis

Eosinophilic myocarditis is inflammation in the heart muscle that is caused by the infiltration and destructive activity of a type of white blood cell, the eosinophil.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Exhaust gas

Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.

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In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids.

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Fibrinogen (factor I) is a glycoprotein that in vertebrates circulates in the blood.

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Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Group A streptococcal infection

A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS).

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Healthy diet

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heart valve

A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.

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High-density lipoprotein

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

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Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.

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Hyperphosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypertensive heart disease

Hypertensive heart disease includes a number of complications of high blood pressure that affect the heart.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Indian Heart Association

The Indian Heart Association (IHA) and Indian Stroke Association (ISA), is an NGO and non-profit dedicated to raising cardiovascular and stroke health awareness among the South Asian population.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Influenza vaccine

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Linoleic acid

Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.

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List of causes of death by rate

The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Low sodium diet

A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.

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Low-fat diet

A low-fat diet is one that restricts fat and often saturated fat and cholesterol as well.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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MedicineNet is a medical website that provides detailed information about diseases, conditions, medications and general health.

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Mediterranean diet

The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.

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Movat's stain

Movat's stain is a pentachrome stain originally developed by Henry Zoltan Movat (1923–1995), a Romanian-Canadian Pathologist in Toronto in 1955 to highlight the various constituents of connective tissue, especially cardiovascular tissue, by five colors in a single stained slide.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Myocardial perfusion imaging

Myocardial perfusion scan (also referred to as MPI or MPS) is a nuclear medicine procedure that illustrates the function of the heart muscle (myocardium).

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Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

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Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.

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Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.

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Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

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Phenoxy herbicide

Phenoxy herbicides (or "phenoxies") are a family of chemicals related to the growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA).

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Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Pulmonary heart disease

Pulmonary heart disease, also known as cor pulmonale, is the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance (such as from pulmonic stenosis) or high blood pressure in the lungs.

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Relative risk reduction

In epidemiology, the relative risk reduction is a measure calculated by dividing the absolute risk reduction by the control event rate.

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Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia.

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.

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Richard Doll

Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (28 October 1912 – 24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became an epidemiologist in the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science.

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Richard Peto

Sir Richard Peto (born 14 May 1943) is Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology at the University of Oxford, England.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, the Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Streptococcal pharyngitis

Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).

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Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services

The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU – Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering in Swedish) previously the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment is an independent Swedish governmental agency tasked with assessing and evaluating methods in use in healthcare och social services.

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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which there is a sudden temporary weakening of the muscular portion of the heart.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Tobacco smoke

Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Torcetrapib (CP-529,414, Pfizer) was a drug being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and prevent cardiovascular disease.

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Torsades de pointes

Torsades de pointes or torsade depointes (TdP or simply torsade(s)) (translated as "twisting of the points"), is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden cardiac death.

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Trans fat

Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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Vascular disease

Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body.

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A vasoactive substance is an endogenous agent or pharmaceutical drug that has the effect of either increasing or decreasing blood pressure and/or heart rate through its vasoactivity, that is, vascular activity (effect on blood vessels).

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Venous thrombosis

A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Heart Federation

The World Heart Federation (WHF) is a nongovernmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.

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2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a polychlorinated dibenzo''-p-''dioxin (sometimes shortened, though inaccurately, to simply "dioxin") with the chemical formula.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiovascular_disease

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