206 relations: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Adrien-Marie Legendre, Afterlife, Albanifriedhof, Albert Einstein, Alexander von Humboldt, Algebra, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Ancient Greece, Angle, Apocrypha, Arithmetic progression, Ascension of Jesus, Astronomy, August Ferdinand Möbius, Berlin, Bernhard Riemann, Brady Haran, Braunschweig, Braunschweig University of Technology, Bremen, Bronshtein and Semendyayev, Bust (sculpture), Cardinal point (optics), Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize, Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Ceres (dwarf planet), Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Child prodigy, Christian Albrecht Jensen, Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters, Christian Ludwig Gerling, Christoph Gudermann, Class number formula, Class number problem, Compass-and-straightedge construction, Computus, Confirmation, Congruence relation, Conic section, Constructible polygon, Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm, Copley Medal, Curvature, Curve, Daniel Kehlmann, Deism, Descartes' rule of signs, Detlev Buck, ..., Differential geometry, Discrete Fourier transform, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Distance, Dwarf planet, Electrical telegraph, Electrostatics, Embedding, Enigma machine, Eric Temple Bell, Ernst Kummer, Eugen Dühring, Euler's identity, Eureka (word), Exponentiation, Faith, Farkas Bolyai, Fast Fourier transform, Ferdinand Minding, Fermat number, Fermat polygonal number theorem, Fermat's Last Theorem, Finite field, Franz Xaver von Zach, Friedrich Bessel, Fundamental theorem of algebra, G. Waldo Dunnington, Gauss (unit), Gauss' method, Gauss's diary, Gauss's law, Gauss's lemma (number theory), Gauss–Markov theorem, Gaussian curvature, Gaussian elimination, Gaussian gravitational constant, Gaussian integer, Gaussian optics, Göttingen, Göttingen Observatory, Geodesy, Geophysics, German Confederation, Giuseppe Piazzi, Google, Google Doodle, Gotha Observatory, Gotthold Eisenstein, Gout, Gustav Kirchhoff, Heinrich Ewald, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, Heliotrope (instrument), Henry John Stephen Smith, Heptadecagon, Integer, Isaac Asimov, Isaac Newton, James Cooley, János Bolyai, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Johann Benedict Listing, Johann Christian Martin Bartels, Johann Franz Encke, Johann Friedrich Pfaff, Johann Peter Süssmilch, John Tukey, Jordan curve theorem, Joseph Fourier, Julius Weisbach, Kepler conjecture, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Kingdom of Hanover, Kirchhoff's circuit laws, L. C. Schnürlein, Lalande Prize, Latin, Least squares, Leonhard Euler, Life table, List of German inventors and discoverers, List of things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, Lower Saxony, Lutheranism, Magnetic field, Magnetism, Magnetosphere, Marian Rejewski, Masterpiece, Mathematical analysis, Mathematics, Mathematics of Computation, Matrix (mathematics), Measuring the World, Mechanics, Missouri, MIT Press, Modular arithmetic, Moritz Cantor, Moses, Napoleon, New Testament, Non-Euclidean geometry, Normal distribution, Number theory, Observational error, Observatory, Optics, Oxford University Press, Paraxial approximation, Paul Gerhardt, Perfectionism (psychology), Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Philology, Physics, Pierre Wantzel, Polygon, Polynomial, Prime number, Prime number theorem, Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Protestantism, Quadratic form, Quadratic Gauss sum, Quadratic reciprocity, Quartic reciprocity, Richard Dedekind, Romanticism in science, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Rudolf Wagner, Sophie Germain, Springer Science+Business Media, St. Louis, Statistics, Stonemasonry, Surface (topology), Surveying, Theorema Egregium, Thesis, Toleration, Topology, Triangular number, University of Göttingen, University of Helmstedt, Verlag Harri Deutsch, Walhalla memorial, Władysław Kozaczuk, Weil conjectures, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, William Whewell, Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen, Yale University Press, Zdzisław Krygowski, Zero of a function. Expand index (156 more) »

## Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Uniwersytet im., Polish abbreviation UAM) is one of the major Polish universities, located in the city of Poznań, Greater Poland, in the west of the country.

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## Adrien-Marie Legendre

Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.

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## Afterlife

Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.

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## Albanifriedhof

Albanifriedhof is a cemetery in Göttingen, Germany just outside the city wall to the southeast.

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## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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## Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.

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## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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## American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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## Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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## Apocrypha

Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.

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## Arithmetic progression

In mathematics, an arithmetic progression (AP) or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant.

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## Ascension of Jesus

The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.

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## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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## August Ferdinand Möbius

August Ferdinand Möbius (17 November 1790 – 26 September 1868) was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer.

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## Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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## Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.

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## Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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## Braunschweig

Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.

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## Braunschweig University of Technology

The TU Braunschweig ("University of Brunswick – Institute of Technology") is the oldest (comparable to an institute of technology in the American system) in Germany.

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## Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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## Bronshtein and Semendyayev

Bronshtein and Semendyayev (often just Bronshtein or Bronstein) is the informal name of a comprehensive handbook of fundamental working knowledge of mathematics and table of formulas originally compiled by the Russian mathematician Ilya Nikolaevich Bronshtein and engineer Konstantin Adolfovic Semendyayev.

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## Bust (sculpture)

A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders.

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## Cardinal point (optics)

In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system.

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## Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize

The Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize for Applications of Mathematics is a mathematics award, granted jointly by the International Mathematical Union and the German Mathematical Society for "outstanding mathematical contributions that have found significant applications outside of mathematics".

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## Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt

Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt (1807–February 15, 1851) was a German astronomer, mathematician, and physicist of Jewish descent who was a professor of astronomy at the University of Göttingen.

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## Centimetre–gram–second system of units

The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.

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## Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

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## Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg und Fürst von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) (9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806), was ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and a military leader.

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## Child prodigy

In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.

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## Christian Albrecht Jensen

Christian Albrecht Jensen (26 June 1792 – 13 July 1870) was a Danish portrait painter who was active during the Golden Age of Danish Painting in the first half of the 19th century.

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## Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters

Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters (September 19, 1813 – July 18, 1890) was a German–American astronomer, and a pioneer in the study of asteroids.

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## Christian Ludwig Gerling

Christian Ludwig Gerling (10 July 1788 – 15 January 1864) studied under Carl Friedrich Gauss, obtaining his doctorate in 1812 for a thesis entitled: Methodi proiectionis orthographicae usum ad calculos parallacticos facilitandos explicavit simulque eclipsin solarem die, at the University of Göttingen.

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## Christoph Gudermann

Christoph Gudermann (March 25, 1798 – September 25, 1852) was a German mathematician noted for introducing the Gudermannian function and the concept of uniform convergence, and for being the teacher of Karl Weierstrass, who was greatly influenced by Gudermann's course on elliptic functions in 1839–1840, the first such course to be taught in any institute.

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## Class number formula

In number theory, the class number formula relates many important invariants of a number field to a special value of its Dedekind zeta function.

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## Class number problem

In mathematics, the Gauss class number problem (for imaginary quadratic fields), as usually understood, is to provide for each n ≥ 1 a complete list of imaginary quadratic fields \mathbb(\sqrt) (for negative integers d) having class number n. It is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss.

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## Compass-and-straightedge construction

Compass-and-straightedge construction, also known as ruler-and-compass construction or classical construction, is the construction of lengths, angles, and other geometric figures using only an idealized ruler and compass.

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## Computus

Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.

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## Confirmation

In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.

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## Congruence relation

In abstract algebra, a congruence relation (or simply congruence) is an equivalence relation on an algebraic structure (such as a group, ring, or vector space) that is compatible with the structure.

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## Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.

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## Constructible polygon

In mathematics, a constructible polygon is a regular polygon that can be constructed with compass and straightedge.

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## Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm

The Cooley–Tukey algorithm, named after J. W. Cooley and John Tukey, is the most common fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm.

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## Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.

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## Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

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## Curve

In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

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## Daniel Kehlmann

Daniel Kehlmann (born 13 January 1975) is a German-language author of both Austrian and German nationality.

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## Deism

Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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## Descartes' rule of signs

In mathematics, Descartes' rule of signs, first described by René Descartes in his work La Géométrie, is a technique for determining an upper bound on the number of positive or negative real roots of a polynomial.

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## Detlev Buck

Detlev Buck (born December 1, 1962 in Bad Segeberg) is a German film director, actor, producer and screenwriter.

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## Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

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## Discrete Fourier transform

In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally-spaced samples of a function into a same-length sequence of equally-spaced samples of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), which is a complex-valued function of frequency.

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## Disquisitiones Arithmeticae

The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24.

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## Distance

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

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## Dwarf planet

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.

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## Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.

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## Electrostatics

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

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## Embedding

In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical structure contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup.

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## Enigma machine

The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.

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## Eric Temple Bell

Eric Temple Bell (February 7, 1883 – December 21, 1960) was a Scottish-born mathematician and science fiction writer who lived in the United States for most of his life.

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## Ernst Kummer

Ernst Eduard Kummer (29 January 1810 – 14 May 1893) was a German mathematician.

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## Eugen Dühring

Eugen Karl Dühring (12 January 1833, Berlin – 21 September 1921, Nowawes in modern-day Potsdam-Babelsberg) was a German philosopher, positivist, economist, and socialist who was a strong critic of Marxism.

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## Euler's identity

In mathematics, Euler's identity (also known as Euler's equation) is the equality where Euler's identity is named after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler.

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## Eureka (word)

Eureka (Εύρηκα) is an interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention.

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## Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

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## Faith

In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.

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## Farkas Bolyai

Farkas Bolyai (9 February 1775 – 20 November 1856; also known as Wolfgang Bolyai in Germany) was a Hungarian mathematician, mainly known for his work in geometry.

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## Fast Fourier transform

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.

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## Ferdinand Minding

Ferdinand Minding (Фердинанд Готлибович Миндинг; &ndash) was a German-Russian mathematician known for his contributions to differential geometry.

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## Fermat number

In mathematics a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form where n is a nonnegative integer.

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## Fermat polygonal number theorem

In additive number theory, the Fermat polygonal number theorem states that every positive integer is a sum of at most -gonal numbers.

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## Fermat's Last Theorem

In number theory, Fermat's Last Theorem (sometimes called Fermat's conjecture, especially in older texts) states that no three positive integers,, and satisfy the equation for any integer value of greater than 2.

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## Finite field

In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements.

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## Franz Xaver von Zach

Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (4 June 1754 – 2 September 1832) was a Hungarian astronomer born at Pest, Hungary (now Budapest in Hungary).

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## Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

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## Fundamental theorem of algebra

The fundamental theorem of algebra states that every non-constant single-variable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one complex root.

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## G. Waldo Dunnington

Guy Waldo Dunnington (January 15, 1906, Bowling Green, Missouri – April 10, 1974, Natchitoches, Louisiana) was a writer, historian and professor of German known for his writings on the famous German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss.

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## Gauss (unit)

The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).

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## Gauss' method

In orbital mechanics (subfield of celestial mechanics), Gauss's method is used for preliminary orbit determination from at least three observations (more observations increases the accuracy of the determined orbit) of the orbiting body of interest at three different times.

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## Gauss's diary

Gauss's diary was a record of the mathematical discoveries of C. F. Gauss from 1796 to 1814.

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## Gauss's law

In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.

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## Gauss's lemma (number theory)

Gauss's lemma in number theory gives a condition for an integer to be a quadratic residue.

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## Gauss–Markov theorem

In statistics, the Gauss–Markov theorem, named after Carl Friedrich Gauss and Andrey Markov, states that in a linear regression model in which the errors have expectation zero and are uncorrelated and have equal variances, the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) of the coefficients is given by the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator, provided it exists.

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## Gaussian curvature

In differential geometry, the Gaussian curvature or Gauss curvature Κ of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures, κ1 and κ2, at the given point: For example, a sphere of radius r has Gaussian curvature 1/r2 everywhere, and a flat plane and a cylinder have Gaussian curvature 0 everywhere.

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## Gaussian elimination

In linear algebra, Gaussian elimination (also known as row reduction) is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations.

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## Gaussian gravitational constant

The Gaussian gravitational constant (symbol) is a parameter used in the orbital mechanics of the solar system.

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## Gaussian integer

In number theory, a Gaussian integer is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both integers.

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## Gaussian optics

Gaussian optics is a technique in geometrical optics that describes the behaviour of light rays in optical systems by using the paraxial approximation, in which only rays which make small angles with the optical axis of the system are considered.

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## Göttingen

Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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## Göttingen Observatory

Göttingen Observatory (Universitätssternwarte Göttingen (Göttingen University Observatory) or königliche Sternwarte Göttingen (Royal Observatory Göttingen)) is a German astronomical observatory located in Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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## Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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## Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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## German Confederation

The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.

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## Giuseppe Piazzi

Giuseppe Piazzi (16 July 1746 – 22 July 1826) was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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## Google Doodle

A Google Doodle is a special, temporary alteration of the logo on Google's homepages that commemorates holidays, events, achievements, and people.

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## Gotha Observatory

Gotha Observatory (Seeberg Observatory, Sternwarte Gotha or Seeberg-Sternwarte) was a German astronomical observatory located on Seeberg hill near Gotha, Thuringia, Germany.

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## Gotthold Eisenstein

Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein (16 April 1823 – 11 October 1852) was a German mathematician.

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## Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.

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## Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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## Heinrich Ewald

Georg Heinrich August Ewald (16 November 1803 – 4 May 1875) was a German orientalist, Protestant theologian, and Biblical exegete.

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## Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers

Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (October 11, 1758 – March 2, 1840) was a German physician and astronomer.

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## Heliotrope (instrument)

The heliotrope is an instrument that uses a mirror to reflect sunlight over great distances to mark the positions of participants in a land survey.

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## Henry John Stephen Smith

Henry John Stephen Smith (2 November 1826 – 9 February 1883) was a mathematician remembered for his work in elementary divisors, quadratic forms, and Smith–Minkowski–Siegel mass formula in number theory.

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## Heptadecagon

In geometry, a heptadecagon or 17-gon is a seventeen-sided polygon.

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## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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## Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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## James Cooley

James William Cooley (born 1926, died June 29, 2016) was an American mathematician.

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## János Bolyai

János Bolyai (15 December 1802 – 27 January 1860) or Johann Bolyai, was a Hungarian mathematician, one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry — a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines.

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## Jürgen Schmidhuber

Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.

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## Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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## Johann Benedict Listing

Johann Benedict Listing (25 July 1808 – 24 December 1882) was a German mathematician.

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## Johann Christian Martin Bartels

Johann Christian Martin Bartels (12 August 1769 –) was a German mathematician.

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## Johann Franz Encke

Johann Franz Encke (23 September 1791 – 26 August 1865) was a German astronomer.

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## Johann Friedrich Pfaff

Johann Friedrich Pfaff (sometimes spelled Friederich; 22 December 1765 – 21 April 1825) was a German mathematician.

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## Johann Peter Süssmilch

Johann Peter Süßmilch or Süssmilch (September 3, 1707 in Zehlendorf – March 22, 1767 in Berlin) was a German Protestant pastor, statistician and demographer.

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## John Tukey

John Wilder Tukey (June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.

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## Jordan curve theorem

In topology, a Jordan curve, sometimes called a plane simple closed curve, is a non-self-intersecting continuous loop in the plane.

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## Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

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## Julius Weisbach

Julius Ludwig Weisbach (born 10 August 1806 in Mittelschmiedeberg (now Mildenau Municipality), Erzgebirge, died 24 February 1871, Freiberg) was a German mathematician and engineer.

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## Kepler conjecture

The Kepler conjecture, named after the 17th-century mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler, is a mathematical theorem about sphere packing in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

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## Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

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## Kingdom of Hanover

The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.

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## Kirchhoff's circuit laws

Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

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## L. C. Schnürlein

L.

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## Lalande Prize

The Lalande Prize (French: Prix Lalande) was an award for scientific advances in astronomy, given from 1802 until 1970 by the French Academy of Sciences.

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## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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## Least squares

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.

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## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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## Life table

In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before his or her next birthday ("probability of death").

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## List of German inventors and discoverers

---- This is a list of German inventors and discoverers.

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## List of things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) is the eponym of all of the topics listed below.

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## Lower Saxony

Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.

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## Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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## Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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## Magnetosphere

A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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## Marian Rejewski

Marian Adam Rejewski (16 August 1905 – 13 February 1980) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who reconstructed the Nazi German military Enigma cipher machine sight-unseen in 1932.

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## Masterpiece

Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## Mathematics of Computation

Mathematics of Computation is a bimonthly mathematics journal focused on computational mathematics.

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## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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## Measuring the World

Measuring the World (German: Die Vermessung der Welt) is a novel by German author Daniel Kehlmann, 2005 published by Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek.

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## Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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## Missouri

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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## MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

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## Moritz Cantor

Moritz Benedikt Cantor (23 August 1829 – 10 April 1920) was a German historian of mathematics.

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## Moses

Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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## Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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## New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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## Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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## Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

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## Number theory

Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

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## Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

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## Observatory

An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.

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## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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## Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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## Paraxial approximation

In geometric optics, the paraxial approximation is a small-angle approximation used in Gaussian optics and ray tracing of light through an optical system (such as a lens).

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## Paul Gerhardt

Paul Gerhardt (12 March 1607 – 27 May 1676) was a German theologian, Lutheran minister and hymnodist.

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## Perfectionism (psychology)

Perfectionism, in psychology, is a personality trait characterized by a person's striving for flawlessness and setting high performance standards, accompanied by critical self-evaluations and concerns regarding others' evaluations.

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## Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet

Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (13 February 1805 – 5 May 1859) was a German mathematician who made deep contributions to number theory (including creating the field of analytic number theory), and to the theory of Fourier series and other topics in mathematical analysis; he is credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function.

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## Philology

Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Pierre Wantzel

Pierre Laurent Wantzel (5 June 1814 in Paris – 21 May 1848 in Paris) was a French mathematician who proved that several ancient geometric problems were impossible to solve using only compass and straightedge.

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## Polygon

In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.

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## Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

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## Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

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## Prime number theorem

In number theory, the prime number theorem (PNT) describes the asymptotic distribution of the prime numbers among the positive integers.

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## Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.

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## Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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## Quadratic form

In mathematics, a quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of degree two in a number of variables.

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## Quadratic Gauss sum

In number theory, quadratic Gauss sums are certain finite sums of roots of unity.

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## Quadratic reciprocity

In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers.

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## Quartic reciprocity

Quartic or biquadratic reciprocity is a collection of theorems in elementary and algebraic number theory that state conditions under which the congruence x4 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable; the word "reciprocity" comes from the form of some of these theorems, in that they relate the solvability of the congruence x4 ≡ p (mod q) to that of x4 ≡ q (mod p).

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## Richard Dedekind

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (6 October 1831 – 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), axiomatic foundation for the natural numbers, algebraic number theory and the definition of the real numbers.

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## Romanticism in science

Romanticism (or the Age of Reflection, 1800–40) was an intellectual movement that originated in Western Europe as a counter-movement to the late-18th-century Enlightenment.

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## Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.

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## Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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## Rudolf Wagner

Rudolf Friedrich Johann Heinrich Wagner (30 July 1805 – 13 May 1864) was a German anatomist and physiologist and the co-discoverer of the germinal vesicle.

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## Sophie Germain

Marie-Sophie Germain (1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## St. Louis

St.

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## Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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## Stonemasonry

The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.

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## Surface (topology)

In topology and differential geometry, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold, and, as such, may be an "abstract surface" not embedded in any Euclidean space.

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## Surveying

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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## Theorema Egregium

Gauss's Theorema Egregium (Latin for "Remarkable Theorem") is a major result of differential geometry proved by Carl Friedrich Gauss that concerns the curvature of surfaces.

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## Thesis

A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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## Toleration

Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.

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## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

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## Triangular number

A triangular number or triangle number counts objects arranged in an equilateral triangle, as in the diagram on the right.

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## University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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## University of Helmstedt

The University of Helmstedt (Universität Helmstedt; official Latin name: Academia Julia, "Julius University"), was a university in Helmstedt in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel that existed from 1576 until 1810.

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## Verlag Harri Deutsch

The Verlag Harri Deutsch (VHD, HD) with headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, as well as in Zürich and Thun, Switzerland, was a German publishing house founded in 1961 and closed in 2013.

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## Walhalla memorial

The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue";Official Guide booklet, 2002, p. 3 thus the celebrities honored are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honored.

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## Władysław Kozaczuk

Władysław Kozaczuk (23 December 1923 – 26 September 2003) was a Polish Army colonel and a military and intelligence historian.

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## Weil conjectures

In mathematics, the Weil conjectures were some highly influential proposals by on the generating functions (known as local zeta-functions) derived from counting the number of points on algebraic varieties over finite fields.

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## Wilhelm Eduard Weber

Wilhelm Eduard Weber (24 October 1804 – 23 June 1891) was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.

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## William Whewell

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

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## Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen

Wolfgang Sartorius Freiherr von Waltershausen (December 17, 1809March 16, 1876) was a German geologist.

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## Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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## Zdzisław Krygowski

Zdzisław Jan Ewangelii Antoni Krygowski (Lwów, 1872 — 1955, Poznań) was a Polish mathematician, rector of the Lwów Polytechnic (1917–18), and professor at Poznań University (1919–38, 1946–55).

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## Zero of a function

In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).

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## Redirects here:

C. F. Gauss, C. F. Gauß, C.F. Gauss, CF Gauss, Carl F. Gauss, Carl Frederich Gauss, Carl Freidrich Gauss, Carl Friederich Gauss, Carl Friedrich Gauß, Carl Gauss, Carl Gauß, Carl friedrich gauss, Carolus Fridericus Gauss, Friedrich gauss, Gauss, Guass, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß, Johann Friedrich Karl Gauss, Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, Karl Friedrich Gauss, Karl Friedrich Gauß, Karl Gauss, Princeps mathematicorum, Religious views of Carl Friedrich Gauss.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Friedrich_Gauss