676 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Aalst, Belgium, ABC-CLIO, Adloyada, Advent, Afro-Ecuadorian, Alabama, Algarve, Allegory, Allgäu, Alsace, Ambato, Ecuador, Ambrosian Rite, Andes, Anglicanism, Angola, Angra do Heroísmo, Anthropology, Anti-Judaism in early Christianity, Antigua, Appenzell, Archetype, Argentina, Arrocha, Aruba, Ash Wednesday, Augsburg, Austria, Axé (music), Azogues, Azores, Azuero Peninsula, Águilas, Badajoz, Baden, Baja California, Baklahorani, Ball de diables, Banda Eva, Banjo, Bantu peoples, Baptism, Barbadian cuisine, Barbados, Barbuda, Barranquilla, Barranquilla's Carnival, Barry Jean Ancelet, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Battle of Puebla, ..., Battle of the Oranges, Bavaria, Beauty pageant, Beija-Flor, Belgium, Belize, Benguela, Berliner (doughnut), Bielsa, Billo Frómeta, Biloxi, Mississippi, Binche, Black tie, Blacks and Whites' Carnival, Blini, Block party, Blood orange, Bluefields, Bob Sinclar, Bogotá, Bohemia, Bolivia, Bomba (Ecuador), Bonaire, Bonfire, Bosnia and 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's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.
Aalst (Alost, Brabantian: Oilsjt) is a city and municipality on the Dender River, northwest from Brussels.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Adloyada (Hebrew: עדלאידע or עדלידע, lit. "Until one no longer knows") is a humorous procession held in Israel on the Jewish holiday of Purim (or in Shushan Purim the second day of Purim, commanded to be celebrated in "walled cities", nowadays only in Jerusalem).
Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas as well as the return of Jesus at the second coming.
Afro-Ecuadorians are an ethnic group in Ecuador who are descendants of formerly enslaved Africans brought by the Spanish during their conquest of Ecuador from the Incas.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
The Allgäu is a region in Swabia in southern Germany.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Ambato (full form, San Juan de Ambato) is a city located in the central Andean valley of Ecuador.
The Ambrosian Rite, also called the Milanese Rite, is a Catholic liturgical Western rite.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Angra do Heroísmo, generally known as Angra, is a municipality and city on the island of Terceira in the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity is a description of anti-Judaic sentiment in the first three centuries of Christianity; the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd centuries.
Antigua, also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies.
Appenzell is an historic canton in the northeast of Switzerland, and entirely surrounded by the canton of St. Gallen.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Arrocha is a music/dance style that originated in the interior of Bahia, one of Brazil's states, most notably in the city of Candeias.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Ash Wednesday is a Christian holy day of prayer, fasting and repentance.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Axé is a popular music genre originated in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil in the 1980s, fusing different Afro-Caribbean genres, such as marcha, reggae, and calypso.
Azogues is the capital of Azogues Canton and of Cañar Province in Ecuador.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Azuero Peninsula (Península de Azuero) is a large peninsula in southern Panama.
Águilas is a municipality and seaport of southeastern Spain, in the province of Murcia.
Badajoz (formerly written Badajos in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
Baklahorani (alternatively, Bakla Horani; Μπακλαχοράνι) or Tataula carnival (Αποκριές στα Ταταύλα) is a carnival celebrated annually in Istanbul, Turkey, by members of the local Greek-Orthodox community on Shrove Monday, the last Monday before Lent.
The ball de diables (Catalan for "Devils' dance") is a dance tradition originating from Catalonia, though it is also observed in the Valencian Community and the Balearic Islands.
Banda Eva is a Brazilian music group from Salvador da Bahia.
The banjo is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Bajan cuisine is a mixture of African, Indian, Irish, Creole and British influences.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Barbuda is a small island located in the eastern Caribbean forming part of the sovereign Commonwealth nation of Antigua and Barbuda.
Barranquilla is a city and municipality located in northern Colombia.
Barranquilla's Carnival (Spanish: Carnaval de Barranquilla) is one of Colombia's most important folkloric celebrations, and one of the biggest carnivals in the world.
Barry Jean Ancelet is a Cajun folklorist and expert in Cajun music and Cajun French.
Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana and its second-largest city.
The Battle of Puebla (Batalla de Puebla; Bataille de Puebla) took place on 5 May 1862, near Puebla City during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
The Battle of the Oranges is a festival in the Northern Italian city of Ivrea, which includes a tradition of throwing of oranges between organized groups.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to also incorporate personality traits, intelligence, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria.
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Beija-Flor is a Samba school headquartered in the municipality of Nilópolis, Baixada Fluminense, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benguela (São Felipe de Benguela, formerly spelled Benguella) is a city in western Angola, south of Luanda, and capital of Benguela Province.
A Berliner Pfannkuchen (referred to as Berliner for short) is a traditional German pastry similar to a doughnut with no central hole, made from sweet yeast dough fried in fat or oil, with a marmalade or jam filling and usually icing, powdered sugar or conventional sugar on top.
Bielsa is a municipality located in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain.
Billo Frómeta (born November 15, 1915 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - Caracas May 5, 1988) was a Dominican orchestra conductor, arranger and composer who lived and worked most of his life in Venezuela, where he is remembered.
Biloxi is a city in Harrison County, Mississippi, United States.
Binche (Bince) is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Black tie, occasionally known in the English-speaking world by its French name cravate noire, is a dress code for evening events and social functions derived from British and American costume conventions of the 19th century.
Blacks and Whites' Carnival (Spanish: Carnaval de Negros y Blancos), is the largest carnival celebration in south Colombia, its geographical indication belongs to the city of Pasto.
A blini (sometimes spelled bliny) (Russian: блины pl., diminutive: блинчики, blinchiki) or, sometimes, blin (more accurate as a single form of the noun), is a Russian pancake traditionally made from wheat or (more rarely) buckwheat flour and served with sour cream, quark, butter, caviar and other garnishes.
A block party or street party is a crowded party in which many members of a single community congregate, either to observe an event of some importance or simply for mutual enjoyment.
The blood orange is a variety of orange (''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'') with crimson, almost blood-colored flesh.
Bluefields is the capital of the South Caribbean Autonomous Region (RACS) in Nicaragua.
Christophe Le Friant (born 10 May 1969), better known by his stage name Bob Sinclar, is a French record producer, house music DJ, remixer and the owner of the record label Yellow Productions.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bomba or Bomba del Chota is an Afro-Ecuadorian music, dance and rum al form from the Chota Valley area of Ecuador in the province of Imbabura and Carchi.
Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.
A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Boukman Eksperyans (Boukman Experience) is a mizik rasin band from the city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Grammy nominated for their debut album Vodou Adjae.
Bouyon (pronunciation: boo-yon) is a genre of Dominican music that originated in Dominica by a group called WCK with names such as Derek "Rah" Peters on vocals, Cornell Phillips keys and vocals among others.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bridgetown (UN/LOCODE: BB BGI) is the capital and largest city of Barbados.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
The Busójárás (Hungarian, meaning "Busó-walking"; in Croatian: Pohod bušara) is an annual celebration of the Šokci living in the town of Mohács, Hungary, held at the end of the Carnival season ("Farsang"), ending the day before Ash Wednesday.
The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.
Saint Caesarius of Arles (Caesarius Arelatensis; 468/470 27 August 542 AD), sometimes called "of Chalon" (Cabillonensis or Cabellinensis) from his birthplace Chalon-sur-Saône, was the foremost ecclesiastic of his generation in Merovingian Gaul.
Cajamarca is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region as well as an important cultural and commercial center in the northern Andes.
The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Calypso Monarch (originally Calypso King) contest is one of the two major annual calypso competitions held in Trinidad as part of the annual carnival celebrations.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Canas de Senhorim is a civil parish in the municipality (concelho) of Nelas, in the central sub-region of Dão-Lafões in Portugal.
Candombe is an Uruguayan music and dance that comes from African slaves.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
Cap-Haïtien (Kap Ayisyen; Cape Haitian) often referred to as Le Cap or Au Cap, is a commune of about 190,000 people on the north coast of Haiti and capital of the department of Nord.
The Caporales is a traditional Andean dance originated in La Paz, Bolivia.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Careto tradition is a pre-historical Celtic religious ritual still practised in some regions of Portugal, namely in the villages of Podence (Macedo de Cavaleiros, Bragança District) and Lazarim (Lamego, Viseu District).
The Peeks Toronto Caribbean Carnival, formerly and still commonly called Caribana, is a festival of Caribbean culture and traditions held each summer in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings.
The Carnaval de Ponce (English: Ponce Carnival), officially Carnaval Ponceño, is an annual celebration held in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
The carnival in Bern, Switzerland (Berner Fasnacht) is an annual pre-Lenten festival in the Swabian-Alemannic tradition.
A variety of customs and traditions are associated with Carnival celebrations in the German-speaking countries of Germany, Switzerland and Austria.
Carnival (Carnaval; also called "vastenavond" – eve of the fasting or "vastelaovend") is a festival held throughout the Netherlands, mainly in the Southern regions, with an emphasis on role-reversal and suspension of social norms.
The Carnival of Aalst (Dutch: Carnaval Aalst, local dialect: Carnaval Oilsjt) or Aalst Carnival is a yearly three-day event in the Belgian city of Aalst.
The Carnival of Basel (Basler Fasnacht) is the biggest carnival in Switzerland and takes place annually between February and March in Basel.
The carnival of Binche is an event that takes place each year in the Belgian town of Binche during the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday preceding Ash Wednesday.
Bogotá's Carnival or Carnival of Bogotá (Spanish: Carnaval de Bogotá) is celebrated in Bogotá every year on August 5 and August 6 for the city's anniversary of its Hispanic foundation.
The Carnival of Limoux (Carnaval de Limoux) is an annual festival held in Limoux, Languedoc-Roussillon, France.
The Carnival of Venice (Carnevale di Venezia) is an annual festival held in Venice, Italy.
The Carnival of Viareggio (Carnevale di Viareggio) is a carnival event annually held in the Tuscan city of Viareggio, in Italy.
The Carnival Parade of Maaseik is the oldest carnival parade of Belgium.
The Carnival Road March is the musical composition played most often at the "judging points" along the parade route during Carnival.
Carny, also spelled carnie, is an informal term used in North America for a traveling carnival employee, and the language they use, particularly when the employee plays a game ("joint"), food stand ("grab" or "popper"), or ride at a carnival.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
In ecclesiology, a catechumen (via Latin catechumenus from Greek κατηχούμενος katēkhoumenos, "one being instructed", from κατά kata, "down" and ἦχος ēkhos, "sound") is a person receiving instruction from a catechist in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (October 21, 1925 – July 16, 2003) was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Central Java (Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia.
Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City.
Cerknica (ZirknitzLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 120.) is a town in the Karst region of southwestern Slovenia, with a population of 4,018 (2016 census).
Cerkno (Circhina, Kirchheim) is a small town in the Littoral region of Slovenia.
Chamamé is a folk music genre from the Argentine Northeast, Mesopotamia ("Entre Rios") and the south of Brazil.
Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
Chiclete com Banana (Portuguese for "chewing gum with banana") is an Axé music band, currently consisting of Bell Marques, Wadinho Marques, Rey, Waltinho Cruz, Deny and Lelo.
Chirigota is a genre of Spanish choral folksong originating in the Province of Cádiz.
The upper valley of the Mira River, called the Chota River in its upstream portion, in northern Ecuador, and the small villages in it are usually referred to as 'El Chota', and it runs east-west between the two ranges of the Andes.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christmastide (also Christmas Time or the Christmas season) is a season of the liturgical year in most Christian churches.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
In Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Jamaica, and Suriname, Chutney soca music is a crossover style of music incorporating Soca elements and Hindi-English, Hinglish, Bhojpuri lyrics, Chutney music, with Indian instruments such as the dholak and dhantal.
A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.
Cirque du Soleil ("Circus of the Sun" or "Sun Circus") is a Canadian entertainment company.
Cláudia Cristina Leite Inácio Pedreira (born 10 July 1980) is a Brazilian singer, songwriter, entrepreneur and television personality.
Clean Monday (Καθαρά Δευτέρα), also known as Pure Monday, Ash Monday, Monday of Lent or Green Monday, is the first day of Great Lent throughout Eastern Christianity and is a moveable feast, falling on the 7th Monday before Pascha.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The coca is a pastry typically made and consumed in eastern Spain.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Cologne Carnival (Kölner Karneval) is a carnival that takes place every year in Cologne, Germany.
Columbina (in Italian Colombina, meaning "little dove"; in French and English Colombine) is a stock character in the Commedia dell'Arte.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A comparsa is a group of singers, musicians and dancers that take part in carnivals and other festivities in Spain and Latin America.
Compas (konpa), or kompa, is a dance music and modern méringue in Haiti with African roots.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.
Confetti are small pieces or streamers of paper, mylar, or metallic material which are usually thrown at celebrations, especially parades and weddings.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Contrabass (from contrabbasso) refers to a musical instrument of very low pitch—generally one octave below bass register instruments.
Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a previously non-Christian person converts to Christianity.
The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.
Correfocs; literally in English "fire-runs") are among the most striking features present in Catalan festivals. In the correfoc, a group of individuals will dress as devils and light fireworks - fixed on devil's pitchforks or strung above the route. Dancing to the sound of a rhythmic drum group, they set off their fireworks among crowds of spectators. The spectators that participate dress to protect themselves against small burns and attempt to get as close as possible to the devils, running with the fire. Other spectators will watch from "safe" distances, rapidly retreating as necessary. The correfoc can come in many forms. Some are simple parades using fireworks and effigies of the devil. In Sitges, it is common for a crowd to line a street, while participants run through a tunnel of fireworks. Correfocs are run during the Festival of ''La Mercè'' in Barcelona and Festival of ''Santa Tecla'' in Tarragona and the Festival of ''Saint Narcissus'' in Girona. Another typical Catalan folkloric expression of this sort takes place in L'Arboç. The highlight of the village's feast is the Carretillada. In the evening of the feast day, the town square is made to look like Hell. For nearly half an hour, "devils" burn their carretilles (carts), jumping around ceaselessly, while a large "sceptre of Lucifer" and the "pitchfork of the Diablessa (she-devil)" shoot fire-jets and other pyrotechnics. Every year, the carretillada is a bit different, because the 'colla' (group) does not give up novelties that are added each year to add to the spectacle.
Corrientes (Guaraní: Taragüí, literally: "Currents") is the capital city of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, about from Buenos Aires and from Posadas, on National Route 12.
A countertenor (also contra tenor) is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is equivalent to that of the female contralto or mezzo-soprano voice types, generally extending from around G3 to D5 or E5, although a sopranist (a specific kind of countertenor) may match the soprano's range of around C4 to C6.
The Courir de Mardi Gras is a traditional Mardi Gras event held in many Cajun communities of south Louisiana on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday.
Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight.
A crêpe or crepe (or,, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pastry.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
Cres (Cherso, Kersch, Crepsa, Greek: Χέρσος, Chersos) is an Adriatic island in Croatia.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Cross-dressing is the act of wearing items of clothing and other accoutrements commonly associated with the opposite sex within a particular society.
Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
The Culture of Popular Laughter is a historical-anthropological theory devised by the literary critic Mikhail Bakhtin, first published in the book Rabelais and His World, based on observations of popular culture in the Renaissance.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Daniela Mercury (born Daniela Mercuri de Almeida on July 28, 1965) is a Portuguese Brazilian singer, songwriter, dancer, producer, actress and television host.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
Pierre David Guetta (born 7 November 1967) is a French DJ, songwriter, record producer and remixer who has sold over nine million albums and thirty million singles worldwide.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is frequently imagined as a personified force, also known as the Grim Reaper.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Diekirch (Dikrech; from Diet-Kirch, i.e. "people's church") is a commune with town status in north-eastern Luxembourg, capital city of the canton Diekirch and, until its abolition in 2015, the district of Diekirch.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
A disguise can be anything which conceals or changes a person's physical appearance, including a wig, glasses, makeup, costume or other items.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
A dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae (this family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists).
A doughnut or donut (both: or; see etymology section) is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food.
Dried and salted cod, sometimes referred to simply as salt cod, is cod which has been preserved by drying after salting.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Cowes is a town and civil parish to the north of the Isle of Wight, on the east bank of the River Medina next to its neighbour on the west bank, Cowes.
East Java (Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia.
East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur – NTT) is the southernmost province of Indonesia.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Parkway is a major boulevard that runs through a portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist.
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The "Burial of the Sardine" (Entierro de la sardina) is a Spanish ceremony celebrating the end of carnival and other festivities.
Entre Ríos (Between Rivers) is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region.
Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Esch-sur-Alzette (Esch-Uelzecht, Esch-an-der-Alzette or Esch-an-der-Alzig, Esch-sur-Alzette) is a commune with town status in south-western Luxembourg.
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Estação Primeira de Mangueira, known colloquially as Mangueira, is one of the most traditional and best supported samba schools in Rio de Janeiro.
Estarreja is a municipality in Portugal.
Eternal life traditionally refers to continued life after death, as outlined in Christian eschatology.
Eupen (German and French, previously known as Néau in French, and Dutch) is a city and municipality in the Belgian province of Liège, from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the "High Fens" nature reserve (Ardennes). The town is also the capital of the Euroregion Meuse-Rhine. First mentioned in 1213 as belonging to the Duchy of Limburg, possession of Eupen passed to Brabant, Burgundy, the Holy Roman Empire and France before being given in 1815 to Prussia, which joined the German Empire in 1870. In 1919, after the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles transferred Eupen and the nearby municipality of Malmedy from Germany to Belgium. German remains the official language in Eupen, and the city serves as the capital for Belgium's German-speaking Community. The city has a small university, the Autonome Hochschule in der deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, offering bachelor's degrees in Education and Nursing. In 2010, Eupen's association football team, K.A.S. Eupen, became the first club from the German-speaking Community to play in the Belgian Pro League. On 1 January 2006 Eupen had a total population of 18,248 (8,892 males and 9,356 females). The total area is which gives a population density of 175.90 inhabitants per km2. Eupen is considered in Belgium to be a Roman Catholic region with strongly conservative views.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
A fair (archaic: faire or fayre), also known as funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities.
Fastelavn is the name for Carnival in the historically Lutheran nations of Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Estonia, Latvia and the Faroe Islands which is either the Sunday or Monday before Ash Wednesday.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fat ThursdayFetter Donnerstag, Schmotziger Donnerstag; or in areas where carnival is celebrated, Weiberfastnacht; Τσικνοπέμπτη (Tsiknopempti); tłusty czwartek; torkos csütörtök is a traditional Christian feast marking the last Thursday before Lent and is associated with the celebration of Carnival.
Fátima is a civil parish in the municipality of Ourém, in the Portuguese Santarém District, Beira Litoral Province.
The Feast of Fools (festum fatuorum, festum stultorum) is the name given to a specific feast day celebrated by the clergy in Europe, initially in Northern France, but later more widely.
The Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC) was founded in 1980 and has been registered in the Court of Luxembourg.
Fertility rites are religious rituals that reenact, either actually or symbolically, sexual acts and/or reproductive processes: 'sexual intoxication is a typical component of the...rites of the various functional gods who control reproduction, whether of man, beast, cattle, or grains of seed'.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
A float is a decorated platform, either built on a vehicle like a truck or towed behind one, which is a component of many festive parades, such as those of Mardi Gras in New Orleans, the Carnival of Viareggio, the Maltese Carnival, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the Key West Fantasy Fest parade, the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, the 500 Festival Parade in Indianapolis, the United States Presidential Inaugural Parade, and the Tournament of Roses Parade.
Floriana (Il-Furjana or Il-Floriana), also known by its title Borgo Vilhena, is a fortified town in the South Eastern Region area of Malta, just outside the capital city Valletta.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
Frevo is a dance and musical style originating from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, traditionally associated with Brazilian Carnival.
Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology.
Fritule is a festive Croatian pastry made particularly for Christmas.
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean.
The Galo da Madrugada (in Portuguese: Rooster/Cock of Early Hours) is a carnival parade that happens every carnival Saturday, to the left of the São José district in downtown Recife, the state capital of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Galveston is a coastal resort city on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Gaslamp Quarter is a district of San Diego, California.
Gatineau (locally), officially Ville de Gatineau, is a city in western Quebec, Canada.
Gelderland (also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giampaolo di Cocco (born September 6, 1947 in Florence) is an Italian artist, architect and writer.
The Gilles are the oldest and principal participants in the Carnival of Binche in Belgium.
Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Gran Canaria (whose original name Canaria was due to the Canarii inhabitants, was later given the epithet of "great". It is the third island in size of the Canary Islands, an African archipelago which is part of Spain, with a population of (in 2015) that constitutes approximately 40% of the population of the archipelago. Located in the Atlantic Ocean about off the northwestern coast of Africa and about from Europe. With an area of km2 (sq. mi) and an altitude of at the Pico de las Nieves, Gran Canaria is the third largest island of the archipelago in both area and altitude. Gran Canaria was populated by the Canarii, who may have arrived as early as 500 BC. The Canarii called the island Tamarán or Land of the Brave. After over a century of European incursions and attempts at conquest, the island was conquered on April 29, 1483, after a campaign that lasted five years, by the Crown of Castile, with the support of Queen Isabella I, a conquest which turned out to be an important step towards the expansion of the unified Spain. The capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was founded on June 24, 1478, under the name "Real de Las Palmas", by Juan Rejón, head of the invading Castilian army. In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the Port of Las Palmas (and spent some time on the island) on his first trip to the Americas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is, jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the capital of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands.
Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greeks in Turkey (Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Gökçeada and Bozcaada).
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
The Grenadines are a chain of small island that lie on a line between the larger islands of Saint Vincent and Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.
The grotesque body is a concept, or literary trope, put forward by Russian literary critic Mikhail Bakhtin in his study of François Rabelais' work.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Gualeguaychú is a city in the, on the left bank of the Gualeguaychú River (a tributary of the Uruguay River).
Guaranda is a city in central Ecuador.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1804 in the port city of Gonaïves by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, marking the end of 13-year long Haitian Revolution.
Halle (Hal) is a city and municipality of Belgium, in the district (arrondissement) Halle-Vilvoorde of the province Flemish Brabant.
Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of All Hallows' Evening), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.
Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
Harlequin (Arlecchino, Arlequin, Old French Harlequin) is the best-known of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'arte.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Heist-aan-Zee, or Heist, is a town in Knokke-Heist, West Flanders, Belgium.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The history of Speyer begins with the establishment of a Roman camp in 10 BCE, making it one of Germany's oldest cities.
Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Houma is the largest city in and the parish seat of Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, United States and the largest principal city of the Houma–Bayou Cane–Thibodaux Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Huejotzingo (is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the pre-Hispanic period, when it was a dominion, with its capital a short distance from where the modern settlement is today. Modern Huejotzingo is located where a Franciscan monastery was founded in 1525, and in 1529, the monks moved the indigenous population of Huejotzingo to live around the monastery. Today, Huejotzingo is known for the production of alcoholic apple cider and fruit preserves, as well as its annual carnival. This carnival is distinct as it centers on the re-enactment of several historical and legendary events related to the area. The largest of these is related to the Battle of Puebla, with about 2,000 residents representing French and Mexican forces that engage in mock battles over four days.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Imbabura is a province located in the Andes of northern Ecuador.
The samba school Imperatriz Leopoldinense was created on March 6, 1956 in the suburb of Ramos, in Rio de Janeiro.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum (Small index of superstitions and paganism) is a Latin collection of capitularies identifying and condemning superstitious and pagan beliefs found in the north of GaulDierkens 24.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
The Peru's internal War on Terror, beginning in 1980, is an ongoing armed conflict between the government of Peru and some terrorist organizations such as the insurgent People's Guerilla Army (Ejército Guerrillero Popular), armed wing of the Communist Party of Peru (known as Shining Path or "PCP-SL") and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement which was also involved in the conflict from 1982 to 1997.
Isidore the Farm Labourer, also known as Isidore the Farmer (San Isidro Labrador) (c. 1070 – May 15, 1130), was a Spanish farmworker known for his piety toward the poor and animals.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The history of the Italian peninsula during the medieval period can be roughly defined as the time between the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance.
Ituren is a Basque town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain.
Ivete Maria Dias de Sangalo Cady (born May 27, 1972) is a Brazilian singer, songwriter, and occasional actress and television show host.
Ivrea (Eporedia) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy.
J'ouvert, or Jour Ouvert, is a large street party created in Trinidad held during Carnival though now celebrated throughout many Caribbean cultures, and subsequently in areas where Caribbean peoples have immigrated.
Jacmel, (Jakmèl; Yáquimo) is a commune in southern Haiti founded by the Spanish in 1504 and repopulated by the French in 1698.
Jaggery is a traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in Asia, Africa and some countries in the Americas.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jember Regency is a regency of East Java province, Indonesia.
Jeroen Dewulf (1972 in Nieuwpoort, Belgium) is a Belgian scholar specializing in slavery and African-American culture, Dutch culture, the Dutch language, German Studies and Latin American Studies.
A jester, court jester, or fool, was historically an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras who was a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests.
Jewish deicide is a historic belief among some in Christianity that Jewish people as a whole were responsible for the death of Jesus.
In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter (also known as jewry, juiverie, Judengasse, Jewynstreet, or proto-ghetto) is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews.
Johan Severin Svendsen (30 September 184014 June 1911) was a Norwegian composer, conductor and violinist.
John IV (João IV de Portugal,; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1640 to his death.
José Gervasio Artigas Arnal (June 19, 1764 – September 23, 1850) was a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".
Juan Pablo Duarte (January 26, 1813 – July 15, 1876) is one of the founding fathers of the Dominican Republic.
Junkanoo is a street parade with music, dance, and costumes of Akan origin in many islands across the Bahamas every Boxing Day (December 26) and New Year's Day (January 1), the same as "Kakamotobi" or the Fancy Dress Festival.
Kaiserslautern is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland (State) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) at the edge of the Palatinate Forest (Pfälzerwald).
Karaoke, is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.
Kelmis (La Calamine) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège.
King Momo or King Momos or King Momus, (Rei Momo in Portuguese or Rey Momo in Spanish) is considered the king of Carnivals in numerous Latin American festivities, mainly in Brazil and Colombia.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Kostroma (Кострома́) is an East Slavic fertility goddess.
Kourou is a commune in French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
Kozani (Κοζάνη) is a city in northern Greece, capital of Kozani regional unit and of West Macedonia region.
A krewe (pronounced "crew") is an organization that puts on a parade or ball for the Carnival season.
Kulig (sleigh rides) is an old Polish winter tradition dating back to the days of the szlachta (nobility).
Kupang (Kota Kupang,; Dutch spelling: Koepang) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara, and has an estimated population in 2011 of 349,344.
Kurentovanje is one of Slovenia's most popular and ethnologically significant carnival events.
Kurtuluş, (Turkish for Liberation, Salvation, formerly known as Tatavla meaning "horse stable in Ταταύλα) is a cosmopolitan neighborhood of Şişli whose population consists of Turks, Greeks (now almost completely emigrated), Armenians (who still live there in numbers), Kurds (who are relatively recent economic migrants), and Jews (who still live there in numbers).
The Kvarner Gulf (or, Sinus Flanaticus or Liburnicus sinus), sometimes also Kvarner Bay, is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian Littoral mainland.
La Ceiba is a port city on the northern coast of Honduras in Central America.
La Vega, or Concepción de La Vega is the third largest city and municipality of the Dominican Republic.
Labor Day in the United States is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September.
The Labor Day Parade (or West Indian Carnival) is an annual celebration held on American Labor Day (the first Monday in September) in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, in New York City.
Laetare Sunday is the fourth Sunday in the season of Lent, in the Western Christian liturgical calendar.
Lafayette is a city in and the parish seat of Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, located along the Vermilion River in the southwestern part of the state.
Lake Charles (French: Lac Charles) is the fifth-largest incorporated city in the U.S. state of Louisiana, located on Lake Charles, Prien Lake, and the Calcasieu River.
Lamego (Lamecum) is a city and municipality in the Viseu District, in the Norte Region of the Douro in northern Portugal.
Las Palmas, officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean.
Las Tablas is the capital of the Panamanian province of Los Santos, with a population of 8,945 as of 2010.
Latacunga is a plateau town of Ecuador, capital of the Cotopaxi Province, south of Quito, near the confluence of the Alaquez and Cutuchi rivers to form the Patate, the headstream of the Pastaza.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Laza is a municipality in province of Ourense in the Galicia region of north-west Spain.
Lazarim is a town in Portugal.
The Leeds Carnival, also called the Leeds West Indian Carnival or the Chapeltown Carnival, is one of the longest running West Indian carnivals in Europe, having been going since 1967.
Leiria (ɸlāryo) is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
A Lenten calendar or Lent calendar is a special calendar used by Western Christians to count the days of Lent in anticipation of Easter.
A leotard is a unisex skin-tight one-piece garment that covers the torso but leaves the legs exposed.
Les Cayes, often referred to as Aux Cayes (Okay), is a commune and seaport in the Les Cayes Arrondissement, in the Sud department of Haiti, with a population of 71,236.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
Limassol (Λεμεσός; Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: (Nederlands-)Limburg; Limbourg) is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
Limoux (Limós) is a commune and subprefecture in the Aude department, a part of the ancient Languedoc province and the present-day Occitanie region in southern France.
Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that apply color, texture, and protection to the lips.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Caribbean Carnival is the term used in the English speaking world for a series of events Throughout almost the whole year that take place in many of the Caribbean islands annually and worldwide.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.
Ljubuški is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A loincloth is a one-piece male garment, sometimes kept in place by knots, safety pins, velcro straps, buttons, snaps, buckles, zippers or hook-and-eye closures and worn as outer clothing or in the external environment.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Loulé is a city and a municipality in Faro District in Portugal.
Loures is a city and a municipality in the central Portuguese Grande Lisboa Subregion.
Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine opposite Mannheim.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
Maaseik (Limburgs: Mezeik) is a town and municipality in the Belgian province of Limburg.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
A machete is a broad blade used either as an implement like an axe, or in combat like a short sword.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
The Magdalena River (Río Magdalena,; Less commonly Rio Grande de la Magdalena) is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Magpies are birds of the Corvidae (crow) family.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
A malasada (malassada, from "mal-assada".
Malmedy (German obsolete Malmünd) is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mamou is a town in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Managua is the capital and largest city of Nicaragua, and the center of eponymous department.
A mannequin (also called a manikin, dummy, lay figure or dress form) is an often articulated doll used by artists, tailors, dressmakers, windowdressers and others especially to display or fit clothing.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Manzanilla Beach is a beach in Trinidad and Tobago.
Maracas Bay is a beach on the island of Trinidad.
Mardi Gras, or Fat Tuesday, refers to events of the Carnival celebration, beginning on or after the Christian feasts of the Epiphany (Three Kings Day) and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday (known as Shrove Tuesday).
Mardi Gras is the annual Carnival celebration in Mobile, Alabama.
The holiday of Mardi Gras is celebrated in Southern Louisiana, including the city of New Orleans.
Margareth Menezes (born October 13, 1962) is a Brazilian singer from Salvador, Bahia.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
A mask is an object normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance, or entertainment.
Maslenitsa (Мaсленица, Масниця, Масленіца; also known as Butter Week, Crepe week, or Cheesefare Week) is an Eastern Slavic religious and folk holiday, celebrated during the last week before Great Lent, that is, the eighth week before Eastern Orthodox Pascha (Easter).
A masquerade ball (or bal masqué) is an event in which the participants attend in costume wearing a mask.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
Mazatenango is a municipality in the Suchitepéquez department of Guatemala.
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa.
A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas.
A medieval pageant is a form of procession traditionally associated with both secular and religious rituals, often with a narrative structure.
Merengue is a type of music and dance originating in the Dominican Republic, which has become a very popular genre throughout Latin America, and also in several major cities in the United States which have Hispanic communities.
Meringue is a type of dessert, often associated with French, Swiss, and Italian cuisine, traditionally made from whipped egg whites and sugar, and occasionally an acidic ingredient such as lemon, vinegar or cream of tartar.
La Mesopotamia or Región Mesopotámica is the humid and verdant area of north-east Argentina, comprising the provinces of Misiones, Entre Ríos and Corrientes.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Michel Joseph Martelly (born 12 February 1961) was the President of Haiti from May 2011 until February 2016.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Mindelo (Cape Verdean Creole: Mindel’) is a port city in the northern part of the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel is a samba school of the city of Rio de Janeiro, being located on Rua Coronel Tamarindo, in the neighborhood of Padre Miguel.
Mohács (Croatian and Bunjevac: Mohač; Mohatsch; Мохач; Mohaç) is a town in Baranya county, Hungary on the right bank of the Danube.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Morelos, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Morelos (Estado Libre y Soberano de Morelos), is one of the 32 states, which comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Municipality of Dobrepolje (Občina Dobrepolje) is a municipality in Slovenia.
Murga is a form of popular musical theatre performed in Montevideo, Uruguay, Argentina and Badajoz, Spain during the Carnival season.
The Nadur Carnival is unique among the many manifestations of Carnival.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nariño is a department of Colombia named after independence leader Antonio Nariño.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
The Navigium Isidis or Isidis Navigium (trans. the vessel of Isis) was an annual ancient Roman religious festival in honor of the goddess Isis, held on March 5.
Nazaré is a town and a municipality in subregion Oeste and Leiria District, in historical Estremadura province of Portugal.
Nelas is a municipality located in the Centro Region of continental Portugal.
In Germanic paganism, Nerthus is a goddess associated with fertility.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
The Nice Carnival is one of the world's major carnival events, alongside the Brazilian Carnival and Venetian Carnival.
North Brabant (Noord-Brabant), also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event that has taken place in London since 1966, Notting Hill Carnival '13, London Notting Hill Enterprises Trust.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Olinda, is an historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Ocean coast, in Greater Recife (capital of Pernambuco State). It has a population of 389,494 people, covers, and has a population of 9 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is noted as one of the best-preserved colonial cities in Brazil. Olinda features a number of major tourist attractions, such as a historic downtown area (World Heritage Site), churches, and the Carnival of Olinda, a popular street party, very similar to traditional Portuguese carnivals, with the addition of African influenced dances. Unlike in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, in Olinda, admission to Carnival is free. All the festivities are celebrated on the streets, and there are no bleachers or roping. There are hundreds of small musical groups (sometimes featuring a single performer) in many genres.
Olten is a town in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland and capital of the district of the same name.
In cuisine, an omelette or omelet is a dish made from beaten eggs fried with butter or oil in a frying pan (without stirring as in scrambled egg).
Orlando is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County.
Oruro (Hispanicized spelling) or Uru Uru is a city in Bolivia with a population of 264,683 (2012 calculation), about halfway between La Paz and Sucre in the Altiplano, approximately above sea level.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
Ovar is a city and a municipality in Aveiro District, Baixo Vouga Subregion in Portugal.
Panaji also known as Panjim, Pangim) is the capital of the Indian state of Goa and the headquarters of North Goa district. It lies on the banks of the Mandovi River estuary in the Ilhas de Goa sub-district (taluka). With a population of 114,759 in the metropolitan area, Panjim is Goa's largest Urban agglomeration, ahead of Margão and Vasco da Gama. Panjim has terraced hills, concrete buildings with balconies and red-tiled roofs, churches, and a riverside promenade. There are avenues lined with gulmohar, acacia and other trees. The Baroque Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church is located overlooking the main square known as Praça da Igreja. Panjim has been selected as one of hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. This city of stepped streets and a seven kilometre long promenade was built on a planned grid system after the Portuguese relocated the capital form Velha Goa in the 17th century. It was elevated from a town to a city on March 22, 1843 making it the oldest civic institution in Asia (175 years).
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá) is the capital and largest city of Panama.
Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.
A parade (also called march or marchpast) is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats or sometimes large balloons.
A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
Pasto, officially San Juan de Pasto, is the capital of the department of Nariño, in southern Colombia.
Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.
The Patras Carnival, Patrino karnavali is the largest event of its kind in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe.
Pétange (Péiteng, Petingen) is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg.
Pączki (singular: pączek; pùrcle; kreple) are filled doughnuts that are typical for Polish cuisine.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle, approximately from the border with Alabama, and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U.S. state of Florida.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Fra' Piero del Ponte (26 August 1462 – 17 November 1535) was the 45th Grand Master of the Order of Saint John between 1534 and 1535.
Pierrot is a stock character of pantomime and commedia dell'arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne; the name is a diminutive of Pierre (Peter), via the suffix -ot. His character in contemporary popular culture—in poetry, fiction, and the visual arts, as well as works for the stage, screen, and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine, who usually breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin.
Pig bladder (also pig's bladder) is the urinary bladder of a domestic pig, similar to the human urinary bladder.
Plan is a municipality located in the Sobrarbe comarca, province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
Plumeria is a genus of flowering plants in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae.
Podence is a former civil parish in the municipality (concelho) of Macedo de Cavaleiros, Portugal.
Podence e Santa Combinha is a civil parish in the municipality of Macedo de Cavaleiros, northern Portugal.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Ponce is both a city and a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico.
Popayán is the capital of the Colombian department of Cauca.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Pope Gregory XVI (Gregorius; 18 September 1765 – 1 June 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari EC, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1831 to his death in 1846.
Pope Paul II (Paulus II; 23 February 1417 – 26 July 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Portela is one of the most traditional samba schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro, and champion of the 2017 Carnival parade.
Porto Seguro is a city located in the far south of Bahia, Brazil.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prospect Park is a 526-acre (213 hectare)"Prospect Park" NYC Parks https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/prospect-park retrieved June 18, 2017 public park in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, and the second largest public park in Brooklyn.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Castellón or Castelló is a province in the northern part of the Valencian Community, Spain.
Park Jae-sang (born December 31, 1977), known professionally as Psy, stylized PSY, is a South Korean singer, rapper, songwriter, and record producer.
Ptuj (Pettau; Poetovium/Poetovio) is a town in northeastern Slovenia that is the seat of the Municipality of Ptuj.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
A pyre (πυρά; pyrá, from πῦρ, pyr, "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution.
The Quebec Winter Carnival (Carnaval de Québec), commonly known in both English and French as Carnaval, is a pre-Lenten festival held in Quebec City.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rapso is a form of Trinidadian music that grew out of the social unrest of the 1970s.
Rara is a form of festival music that originated in Haiti, that is used for street processions, typically during Easter Week.
Rasin is a musical style that began in Haiti in the 1970s when musicians began combining elements of traditional Haitian Vodou ceremonial and folkloric music with rock and roll.
Reggaeton (also known as reggaetón and reguetón) is a music genre which originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s.
Remich (Réimech) is a commune with town status in south-eastern Luxembourg with a population of 3,645 inhabitants.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
Rethymno (Ρέθυμνο,, also Rethimno, Rethymnon, Réthymnon, and Rhíthymnos) is a city of approximately 40,000 people in Greece, the capital of Rethymno regional unit on the island of Crete, a former Latin Catholic bishopric as Retimo(–Ario) and former Latin titular see.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Ribeira Brava (colloquially known in Cape Verdean Creole as Stanxa) is a town on the island of São Nicolau, Cape Verde.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
The Rijeka Carnival (Riječki karneval) is held each year before Lent (between late January and early March) in Rijeka, Croatia.
The Carnival in Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese: Carnaval do Rio de Janeiro) is a festival held every year before Lent and considered the biggest carnival in the world with two million people per day on the streets.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Roast beef is a dish of beef which is roasted in an oven.
The Archdiocese of Milan (Arcidiocesi di Milano; Archidioecesis Mediolanensis) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza, Lecco and Varese.
Roseau (Dominican Creole: Wozo) is the capital and largest city of Dominica, with a population of 14,725 (as of 2011).
The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (RAI) is a long-established anthropological organisation, with a global membership.
Saba is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality (officially “public body”) of the Netherlands.
Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Thomas (Santo Tomás; Sint-Thomas; Sankt Thomas) is one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea and, together with Saint John, Water Island and Saint Croix, form a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), an unincorporated territory of the United States.
Saint Vincent is a volcanic island in the Caribbean.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.
Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.
Samba-reggae is a music genre from Bahia, Brazil.
A samba school (Escola de samba) is a dancing club or.
Sambadrome (Sambódromo in Portuguese language) is the name given to an exhibition place for the Samba schools parades during Carnaval in Brazil.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
San Juan de Plan (in Chistabin: San Chuan de Plan) is a municipality located northeast of Plan in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain, in the foothills of the Pyrenees.
San Pedro de Macorís is a municipality (municipio) in the Dominican Republic and the capital of the San Pedro de Macorís province in the south-eastern region of the country; it is among the 10 largest cities of the Dominican Republic.
San Pedro is a town on the southern part of the island of Ambergris Caye in the Belize District of the nation of Belize, in Central America.
In the New Testament, the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin (a Jewish judicial body) following his arrest in Jerusalem and prior to his dispensation by Pontius Pilate.
Santa Cruz de la Sierra ('Holy Cross of the Mountain Range'), commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department.
Santa Cruz de Tenerife (commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz is a global city (with Sufficiency status) and capital (jointly with Las Palmas) of the Canary Islands, the capital of Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and of the island of Tenerife. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its administrative limits. The urban zone of Santa Cruz extends beyond the city limits with a population of 507,306 and 538,000 within urban area. It is the second largest city in the Canary Islands and the main city on the island of Tenerife, with nearly half the island population living in or around it. Santa Cruz is located in northeast quadrant of Tenerife, about off the northwestern coast of Africa within the Atlantic Ocean. The distance to the nearest point of mainland Spain is about. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands, until 1927 when a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. on wikisource at the official website of the Canary Islands Government The port is of great importance and is the communications hub between Europe, Africa and Americas, with cruise ships arriving from many nations. The city is the focus for domestic and inter-island communications in the Canary Islands. The city is home to the Parliament of the Canary Islands, the Canarian Ministry of the Presidency (shared on a four-year cycle with Las Palmas), one half of the Ministries and Boards of the Canarian Government, (the other half being located in Gran Canaria), the Tenerife Provincial Courts and two courts of the Superior Court of Justice of the Canary Islands. There are several faculties of the La Laguna University in Santa Cruz, including the Fine Arts School and the Naval Sciences Faculty. Its harbour is one of Spain's busiest; it comprises three sectors. It is important for commercial and passenger traffic, as well as for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean. The city also has one of the world's largest carnivals. The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site, and is the most important of Spain and the second largest in the world. The main landmarks of the city include the Auditorio de Tenerife (Auditorium of Tenerife), the Santa Cruz Towers (Torres de Santa Cruz) and the Iglesia de la Concepción. Santa Cruz de Tenerife hosts the first headquarters of the Center UNESCO in the Canary Islands. In recent years the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife has seen the construction of a significant number of modern structures and the city's skyline is the sixth in height across the country, only behind Madrid, Benidorm, Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao. In 2012, the British newspaper The Guardian included Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the list of the five best places in the world to live. The 82% of the municipal territory of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is considered a natural area, this is due in large part to the presence of the Anaga Rural Park. This fact makes Santa Cruz the third largest municipality in Spain with the highest percentage of natural territory, after Cuenca (87%) and Cáceres (83%).
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.
Saturnalia was an ancient Roman festival in honour of the god Saturn, held on 17 December of the Julian calendar and later expanded with festivities through to 23 December.
São Miguel Island (named for the Archangel Michael or, literally, Portuguese for Saint Michael), is also referred to locally as "The Green Island", is the largest and most populous island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
São Nicolau (Portuguese meaning Saint Nicholas) is one of the Barlavento (Windward) islands of Cape Verde.
São Vicente (Portuguese for "Saint Vincent"), also Son Visent or Son Sent in Cape Verdean Creole, is one of the Barlavento islands of Cape Verde off the west African coast.
Schifflange (Schëffleng, Schifflingen) is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Sesimbra is a municipality of Portugal, in the Setúbal District, lying at the foothills of the Serra da Arrábida, a mountain range between Setúbal and Sesimbra.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Sexual desire is a motivational state and an interest in “sexual objects or activities, or as a wish, or drive to seek out sexual objects or to engage in sexual activities”.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
The shak-shak (or chak-chak) is a kind of Antillean musical instrument, similar to maracas or shakers.
Shreveport is the third-largest city in the state of Louisiana and the 122nd-largest city in the United States.
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.
Shrove Tuesday (also known in Commonwealth countries and Ireland as Pancake Tuesday or Pancake day) is the day in February or March immediately preceding Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent), which is celebrated in some countries by consuming pancakes.
Shrovetide, also known as the Pre-Lenten Season, is the Christian period of preparation before the beginning of the liturgical season of Lent.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Sint Eustatius, also known affectionately to the locals as Statia,Tuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York: Ballantine Books, 1988.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
The marriage of Shiva and Parvati is celebrated as Sitalsasthi, a major festival of Utkal Brahmins since ages.
Sitges is a town about 35 kilometres southwest of Barcelona, in Catalonia, renowned worldwide for its Film Festival and Carnival.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
Slavic carnivals are known under different names in various Slavic countries: Bulgarian:Сирни заговезни, Прошка (Sirni zagovezni, Proska), Russian: Масленица, Мясопуст (Maslenitsa, Miasopust), Polish: Mięsopust, Zapusty, Czech: Masopust, Šibřinky, Ostatky, Slovak:Fašiangy, Slovene: Mesopȗst, Pust, Pustni teden, Serbian: Покладе, Poklade, Croatian: Pust, Poklade, Mesopust.
Slivnica is a peak in the Dinaric Alps in Slovenia, southeast of Cerknica on the edge of the plain defined by Lake Cerknica.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Solo Batik Carnival or SBC (Indonesian Karnaval Batik Solo) is an annual carnival held in Solo City (Surakarta City), Indonesia.
Solsona is a municipality and capital of the ''comarca'' of the Solsonès in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
Sponge cake is a cake based on flour (usually wheat flour), sugar, butter and eggs, and is sometimes leavened with baking powder.
St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen (St Gall; Saint-Gall; San Gallo; Son Gagl) is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen.
Saint Martin's day, also known as the Feast of Saint Martin, Martinstag or Martinmas, as well as Old Halloween and Old Hallowmas Eve, is the feast day of Saint Martin of Tours (Martin le Miséricordieux) and is celebrated on November 11 each year.
Stavelot (Stablo, Ståvleu) is a Walloon municipality in the Belgian province of Liège.
Steelpans (also known as steel drums or pans, and sometimes, collectively with other musicians, as a steel band or orchestra) is a musical instrument originating from Trinidad and Tobago.
Strumica (Струмица) is the largest city in English and Macedonian (PDF) in eastern Republic of Macedonia, near the Novo Selo-Petrich border crossing with Bulgaria.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Suchitepéquez is one of the 22 departments of Guatemala.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Surakarta (ꦯꦸꦫꦏꦂꦠ, often called Solo or less common spelling Sala) is a city in Central Java.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
The Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht, Fasnacht (in Switzerland) or Fasnat/Faschnat (in Vorarlberg), is the pre-Lenten carnival in Alemannic folklore in Switzerland, southern Germany, Alsace and Vorarlberg.
A switch is a flexible rod which is typically used for corporal punishment, similar to birching.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.
Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
Tchindas is a 2015 Spanish-Cape Verdean documentary film directed by Pablo García Pérez de Lara and Marc.
The temptation of Christ is detailed in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Navhind Times is an English language newspaper in Goa.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Thibodaux is a city in and the parish seat of Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, United States, along the banks of Bayou Lafourche in the northwestern part of the parish.
Tinku, a Bolivian Aymara tradition, began as a form of ritualistic combat.
Tlaxcala (Spanish;; from Tlaxcallān), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tlaxcala (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala), is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
A top hat, beaver hat, high hat, silk hat, cylinder hat, chimney pot hat or stove pipe hat, sometimes also known by the nickname "topper", is a tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, worn by men from the latter part of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Torres Vedras is a municipality in the Portuguese district of Lisbon, approximately north of the capital Lisbon in the Oeste subregion of the Centro region.
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.
Treasure hunting is the physical search for treasure.
The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Triodion (Τριῴδιον, Triōdion; Slavonic: Постнаѧ Трїωдь, Postnaya Triod; Triodul, Albanian: Triod/Triodi), also called the Lenten Triodion (Τριῴδιον κατανυκτικόν, Triodion katanyktikon), is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Tsiknopempti (Τσικνοπέμπτη), literally Smelly Thursday, or even Charred, Smoky, or Barbeque Thursday "because of the smell of the grilled meat in the air", is part of the traditional celebrations for Carnival (in Greek: Αποκριά) season in Greece and Cyprus.
Tsipouro (τσίπουρο) is a pomace brandy from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete (where Cretans call it tsikoudia).
Twente (Twenthe, Twente, Tweants dialect: Tweante) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands.
Tyrnavos (Τύρναβος) is a municipality in the Larissa regional unit, of the Thessaly region of Greece.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba União da Ilha do Governador (Recreation Guild Samba School Union of Governor's Island) was founded on March 7, 1953 by the friends Maurício Gazelle, and Quincas Orphylo, who were in Cacuia, the main site of the carnival parade of the Ilha do Governador, watching the presentation of small schools of samba and blocks of various districts of the island.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
The term Upper Hesse (Provinz Oberhessen) originally referred to the southern possessions of the Landgraviate of Hesse, which were initially geographically separated from the more northerly Lower Hesse by the.
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.
Vandalism is an "action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property".
A vedette is the main female artist of a show derived from cabaret and its genres (revue, vaudeville, music hall or burlesque).
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Verín is a small city in the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain located in the southeast of the province of Ourense.
Vevčani (Вевчани) is a village in the Republic of Macedonia.
Viareggio is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Victoria is the capital city of Seychelles and is situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé island, the archipelago's main island.
Vilanova i la Geltrú (Villanueva y Geltrú) is a city in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain and the capital of the Garraf comarca.
Vinaròs is a city located in eastern Spain and the capital of the Baix Maestrat.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A water balloon or water bomb is a latex rubber balloon filled with water.
A West Indian is a native or inhabitant of the West Indies (the Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago).
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
Western Macedonia (Δυτική Μακεδονία, Dytiki Makedonía) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia.
William James Adams Jr. (born March 15, 1975), known professionally as will.i.am (pronounced "will I am"), is an American musician, rapper, singer, songwriter, and actor.
Winterlude (Bal de Neige) is an annual winter festival held in Ottawa, Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec (collectively known as the National Capital Region).
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Xanthi (Ξάνθη, Xánthi) is a city in Thrace, northeastern Greece.
Xató is a typical Catalan dish.
Xinzo de Limia (elevation 620 metres; population of the concello 10,161 hab; population of the town 7056hab. (INE 2009)), is a town in the province of Ourense, Autonomous Community of Galicia, Spain.
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.
Zubieta is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain.
Zvončari (the bellmen) is the characteristic folk custom maintained in the region around Rijeka, Croatia.
The 2016 Africa Movie Academy Awards ceremony was held on Saturday 11 June 2016 at the Obi Wali International Conference Center in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
Carnaval, Carnaval de la Laetare, Carnavale, Carnestoltes, Carnival in Africa, Carnival in Andalusia, Carnival in Argentina, Carnival in Aruba, Carnival in Asia, Carnival in Belgium, Carnival in Bolivia, Carnival in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Carnival in Canada, Carnival in Catalonia, Carnival in Croatia, Carnival in Cyprus, Carnival in Dominica, Carnival in Ecuador, Carnival in England, Carnival in Europe, Carnival in France, Carnival in Germany, Carnival in Greece, Carnival in Guatemala, Carnival in Honduras, Carnival in Hungary, Carnival in India, Carnival in Indonesia, Carnival in Israel, Carnival in Lazarim, Carnival in Luxembourg, Carnival in Macedonia, Carnival in Nicaragua, Carnival in Panama, Carnival in Peru, Carnival in Poland, Carnival in Puerto Rico, Carnival in Recife, Pernambuco, Carnival in Seychelles, Carnival in Slovenia, Carnival in Spain, Carnival in Switzerland, Carnival in Uruguay, Carnival in Venezuela, Carnival in Zimbabwe, Carnival in the Americas, Carnival in the Azores, Carnival in the Canary Islands, Carnival in the Cape Verde Islands, Carnival in the Czech Republic, Carnival of the Canary Islands, Carnival parade, Carnival party, Carnivalk, Carnivals, Fasiangy, Miami carnival, Spring carnival, Street carnival.