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Carolingian Empire

Index Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. [1]

136 relations: Aachen, Aachen Cathedral, Admonitio generalis, Andernach, Andorf, Aquitaine, Arnulf of Carinthia, Baltic Sea, Ban (medieval), Battle of Fontenoy (841), Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Battle of Tours, Bavaria, Berengar I of Italy, Bernard of Italy, Boso of Provence, Bretons, Burgundy, Byzantine Empire, Capital city, Capitulary, Capitulary for the Jews, Carloman II, Carloman of Bavaria, Carolingian architecture, Carolingian art, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Renaissance, Catholic Church, Central government, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, Charles of Provence, Charles the Bald, Charles the Fat, Charles the Younger, Cologne, Comes, Count palatine, County, Denmark, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Brittany, Duchy of Carinthia, East Francia, Easter, Edward Gibbon, Elbe, Emirate of Córdoba, Europe, ..., Fall of the Western Roman Empire, France, Francia, Franks, Germanic peoples, Germany, Gerold, Heavy cavalry, Holy Roman Emperor, Italy, Itinerant court, King's College London, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of the Lombards, Lance, Latin, Lex Ripuaria, List of Carolingian monasteries, List of Frankish kings, Lombards, Lombardy, Lothair I, Lothair II, Lotharingia, Louis II of Italy, Louis III of France, Louis the Blind, Louis the German, Louis the Pious, Louis the Stammerer, Louis the Younger, Lower Burgundy, Lyon, Mainz, Marchfield, Merovingian dynasty, Metz, Middle Ages, Middle Francia, Missus dominicus, Mont Cenis, Mounted infantry, Neidingen, Neustria, Oaths of Strasbourg, Odo of France, Palace of Aachen, Pannonian Avars, Paris, Pepin I of Aquitaine, Pepin II of Aquitaine, Pepin of Italy, Pepin the Short, Poitiers, Pope Leo III, Pope Zachary, Provence, Provins, Pyrenees, Ranulf II of Aquitaine, Regensburg, Rennes, Rhône, Rhine, Roman Empire, Rome, Rouen, Rudolph I of Burgundy, Salic law, Saracen, Siege, Slavs, Speyer, Stirrup, Tithe, Tours, Treaty of Meerssen, Treaty of Verdun, Trier, Upper Burgundy, Vassal, Vikings, West Francia, Western Europe, Worms, Germany. Expand index (86 more) »

Aachen

Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.

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Aachen Cathedral

Aachen Cathedral (German: Aachener Dom), traditionally called in English the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, western Germany, and the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen.

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Admonitio generalis

The Admonitio generalis is a collection of legislation known as a capitulary issued by Charlemagne in 789, which covers educational and ecclesiastical reform within the Frankish kingdom.

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Andernach

Andernach is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, of currently about 30,000 inhabitants.

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Andorf

Andorf is a municipality in the district of Schärding in Upper Austria, Austria.

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Aquitaine

Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.

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Arnulf of Carinthia

Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Ban (medieval)

In the Middle Ages, the ban (Latin bannus or bannum, German Bann) or banality (French banalité) was originally the power to command men in war and evolved into the general authority to order and to punish.

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Battle of Fontenoy (841)

The three year Carolingian Civil War culminated in the decisive Battle of Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, also called the battle of Fontenoy, fought at Fontenoy, near Auxerre, on the 25 June 841.

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Battle of the Teutoburg Forest

The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald, Hermannsschlacht, or Varusschlacht, Disfatta di Varo), described as the Varian Disaster (Clades Variana) by Roman historians, took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus.

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Battle of Tours

The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Berengar I of Italy

Berengar I (Berengarius, Perngarius; Berengario; 845 – 7 April 924) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death.

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Bernard of Italy

Bernard (797, Vermandois, Picardy – 17 April 818, Milan, Lombardy) was the King of the Lombards from 810 to 818.

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Boso of Provence

Boso (c. 841 – January 11, 887) was a Frankish nobleman of the Bosonid family who was related to the Carolingian dynasty and who rose to become King of Lower Burgundy and Provence.

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Bretons

The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.

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Burgundy

Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Capitulary

A capitulary (medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, especially that of Charlemagne; the first emperor of the Romans in the west since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century.

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Capitulary for the Jews

The Capitulary for the Jews (Latin original Capitula de Judaeis) is a piece of legislation (specifically a capitulary) attributed to Charlemagne and dated to 814.

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Carloman II

Carloman II (866 – 6 December 884) was the King of West Francia from 879 until his death.

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Carloman of Bavaria

Carloman (Karlmann, Karlomannus; c. 830 – 22 March 880) was a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty.

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Carolingian architecture

Carolingian architecture is the style of north European Pre-Romanesque architecture belonging to the period of the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries, when the Carolingian dynasty dominated west European politics.

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Carolingian art

Carolingian art comes from the Frankish Empire in the period of roughly 120 years from about 780 to 900—during the reign of Charlemagne and his immediate heirs—popularly known as the Carolingian Renaissance.

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Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

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Carolingian Renaissance

The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central government

A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles Martel

Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.

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Charles of Provence

Charles of Provence (845 – 25 January 863) was the Carolingian King of Provence from 855 until his early death in 863.

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Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).

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Charles the Fat

Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888.

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Charles the Younger

Charles the Younger or Charles of Ingelheim (c. 772 – 4 December 811) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty, the second son of Charlemagne and the first by his second wife, Hildegard of Swabia and brother of Louis the Pious and Pepin Carloman.

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Cologne

Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Comes

"Comes", plural "comites", is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "comitatus", especially the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or formal to justify specific denomination, e. g. a "cohors amicorum".

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Count palatine

Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.

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County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Duchy of Benevento

The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.

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Duchy of Brittany

The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.

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Duchy of Carinthia

The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.

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East Francia

East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Easter

Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.

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Elbe

The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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Emirate of Córdoba

The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francia

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gerold

Gerold may refer to.

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Heavy cavalry

Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Itinerant court

The modern capital city has, historically, not always existed.

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King's College London

King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

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Kingdom of Navarre

The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

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Kingdom of the Lombards

The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.

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Lance

The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lex Ripuaria

The Lex Ripuaria or Ribuaria is a 7th-century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks.

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List of Carolingian monasteries

This is a partial list of monasteries of the Carolingian Empire, in Western Europe around the year 800.

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List of Frankish kings

The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).

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Lombards

The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Lombardy

Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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Lothair I

Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

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Lothair II

Lothair II (835 –) was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death.

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Lotharingia

Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).

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Louis II of Italy

Louis II, sometimes called the Younger (825 – 12 August 875), was the King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I until 855, after which he ruled alone.

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Louis III of France

Louis III (863/65 – 5 August 882) was the king of West Francia from 879 until his death in 882.

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Louis the Blind

Louis the Blind (880 – 5 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905.

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Louis the German

Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.

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Louis the Pious

Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.

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Louis the Stammerer

Louis the Stammerer (Louis le Bègue; 1 November 846 – 10 April 879) was the King of Aquitaine and later the King of West Francia.

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Louis the Younger

Louis the Younger (830/835 – 20 January 882), sometimes Louis III, was the second eldest of the three sons of Louis II the German and Emma.

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Lower Burgundy

Lower Burgundy was a historical kingdom in what is now southeastern France, so-called because it was lower down the Rhone Valley than Upper Burgundy.

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Lyon

Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Mainz

Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Marchfield

Marchfield is a village in Saint Philip Parish in Barbados.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Metz

Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle Francia

Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.

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Missus dominicus

A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "envoy of the lord " or palace inspector, also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or Holy Roman Emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions too remote for frequent personal visits.

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Mont Cenis

Mont Cenis (Moncenisio) is a massif (el. 3,612 m / 11,850 ft) and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie (France), which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps.

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Mounted infantry

Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching.

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Neidingen

Neidingen is a German village with approximately 100 inhabitants and part of the municipality of Beuron, in Baden-Württemberg.

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Neustria

Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.

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Oaths of Strasbourg

The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.

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Odo of France

Odo (or Eudes) (c. 859/860 – 1 January 898) was the elected King of Francia from 888 to 898 as the first king from the Robertian dynasty.

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Palace of Aachen

The Palace of Aachen was a group of buildings with residential, political and religious purposes chosen by Charlemagne to be the centre of power of the Carolingian Empire.

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Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pepin I of Aquitaine

Pepin I or Pepin I of Aquitaine (797 – 13 December 838) was King of Aquitaine and Duke of Maine.

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Pepin II of Aquitaine

Pepin II, called the Younger (823 – after 864 in Senlis), was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father, Pepin I. Pepin II was eldest son of Pepin I and Ingeltrude, daughter of Theodobert, count of Madrie.

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Pepin of Italy

Pepin or Pippin (or Pepin Carloman, Pepinno, April 773 – 8 July 810), born Carloman, was the son of Charlemagne and King of the Lombards (781–810) under the authority of his father.

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Pepin the Short

Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.

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Poitiers

Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.

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Pope Leo III

Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.

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Pope Zachary

Pope Zachary (Zacharias; 679 – 15 March 752) reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752.

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Provence

Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

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Provins

Provins is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.

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Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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Ranulf II of Aquitaine

Ranulf II (also spelled Rannoux, Rannulf, Ramnulf, and Ranulph) (850 – 5 August 890) was Count of Poitou from 866 and Duke of Aquitaine from 887.

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Regensburg

Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.

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Rennes

Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.

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Rhône

The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.

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Rhine

--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rouen

Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Rudolph I of Burgundy

Rudolph I (859 – October 25, 912) was King of Upper Burgundy from his election in 888 until his death.

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Salic law

The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.

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Saracen

Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.

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Siege

A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Slavs

Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Speyer

Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.

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Stirrup

A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather.

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Tithe

A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.

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Tours

Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.

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Treaty of Meerssen

The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.

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Treaty of Verdun

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.

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Trier

Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.

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Upper Burgundy

The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia.

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Vassal

A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vikings

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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West Francia

In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Worms, Germany

Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.

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Redirects here:

Carolingi, Carolingian Civil War, Carolingian Emperor, Carolingian Empire of Francia, Carolingian empire, Carolingian era, Carolingian government, Collapse of Charlemagne's empire, Government of the Carolingian Empire, Kingdom of Charlemagne, List of Lands of the Carolingian Empire, List of modern countries within the Frankish Empire, The Carolingian Empire.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Empire

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