142 relations: Abscisic acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Alder, Aliphatic compound, Alpha-Carotene, Anaerobic respiration, Animal, Anthocyanin, Antibiotic, Antioxidant, Aphid, Apocarotenoid, Apricot, Aspen, Astaxanthin, Autumn leaf color, Banana, Beta-Carotene, Bile acid, Biology Letters, Birch, Bixin, Black tea, Breast cancer, Canthaxanthin, Carotene, Carrot, Cell division, Cell signaling, Chlorophyll, Cis–trans isomerism, Citranaxanthin, Clinical research, Competitive inhibition, Conjugated system, Crocetin, Crocin, Cryptoxanthin, Cyclic compound, Damascenone, Damascone, Deciduous, Dehydrogenation, Derivative (chemistry), Diadinoxanthin, Domestic canary, Double bond, DXP reductoisomerase, DXP synthase, Echinenone, ..., Epidemiology, Fatty acid, Ferredoxin, Flamingo, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavodoxin, Fosmidomycin, Fraxinus, Fruit, Fucoxanthin, Gac, Gamma-Carotene, Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, Germination, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Grape, Head and neck cancer, Herbicide, Hickory, Hydrocarbon, Ionone, Isomerization, Isoprene, Lipophilicity, Liriodendron tulipifera, List of phytochemicals in food, Lobster, Lung cancer, Lutein, Lycopene, Lycopene beta-cyclase, Lycopene epsilon-cyclase, Macula of retina, Maize, Maple, Meso-zeaxanthin, Mutatochrome, Narcissus (plant), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Organic compound, Paprika oleoresin, Parkinson's disease, Perfume, Peridinin, Photoprotection, Photosynthesis, Photosystem, Phytochemistry, Phytoene, Phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming), Phytoene synthase, Phytofluene, Pigment, Podarcis muralis, Polyene, Populus sect. Aigeiros, Prolycopene isomerase, Prostate cancer, Prunus serotina, Puffin, Pyruvic acid, Ranunculus, Reactive oxygen species, Retinol, Rhodopin, Rhodoxanthin, Rose, Rutabaga, Salmon, Sassafras, Saturated and unsaturated compounds, Seed dormancy, Spider mite, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphyloxanthin, Sycamore, Terpene, Tetraterpene, Tobacco, Torulene, Toxin, Unsaturated hydrocarbon, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Wiley-Blackwell, Xanthophyll, Yolk, Zeaxanthin, 3'-Hydroxyechinenone, 4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, 4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
α-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Apocarotenoids are organic compounds which occur widely in living organisms.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section ''Populus'', of the Populus genus.
Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid.
Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, black, orange, pink, magenta, blue and brown.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Bixin is an apocarotenoid found in annatto, a natural food coloring obtained from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana).
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Canthaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature.
The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi).
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.
Citranaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment used as a food additive under the E number E161i as a food coloring.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
Crocetin is a natural apocarotenoid dicarboxylic acid that is found in the crocus flower and Gardenia jasminoides (fruits).
Crocin is a carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia.
Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Damascenones are a series of closely related chemical compounds that are components of a variety of essential oils.
Damascones are a series of closely related chemical compounds that are components of a variety of essential oils.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from an organic molecule.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Diadinoxanthin is a pigment found in phytoplankton.
The domestic canary, often simply known as the canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica), is a domesticated form of the wild canary, a small songbird in the finch family originating from the Macaronesian Islands (The Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands).
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
DXP reductoisomerase (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase or DXR) is an enzyme that interconverts 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP).
DXP synthase is an enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway.
Echinenone is a xanthophyll, with formula C40H54O.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions.
Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flavodoxins are electron-transfer proteins.
Fosmidomycin is an antibiotic that was originally isolated from culture broths of bacteria of the genus Streptomyces.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll, with formula C42H58O6.
Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) is found throughout the Southeast Asian region from South China to Northeastern Australia.
γ-Carotene is a carotenoid, and is a biosynthetic intermediate for cyclized carotenoid synthesis in plants.
Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of diterpenes and diterpenoids.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus Carya (κάρυον, káryon, meaning "nut").
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
The ionones are a series of closely related chemical substances that are part of a group of compounds known as rose ketones, which also includes damascones and damascenones.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Liriodendron tulipifera—known as the tulip tree, American tulip tree, tulipwood, tuliptree, tulip poplar, whitewood, fiddletree, and yellow-poplar—is the North American representative of the two-species genus Liriodendron (the other member is Liriodendron chinense), and the tallest eastern hardwood.
While there is ample evidence to indicate the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, no specific food has been acknowledged by scientists and government regulatory authorities as providing a health benefit.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lutein (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.
Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, gac, and papayas, but it is not in strawberries or cherries.
Lycopene beta-cyclase (CrtL, CrtL-b, CrtY) is an enzyme with systematic name carotenoid beta-end group lyase (decyclizing).
Lycopene epsilon-cyclase (CrtL-e, LCYe) is an enzyme with systematic name carotenoid psi-end group lyase (decyclizing).
The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Meso-zeaxanthin (3R,3´S-zeaxanthin) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, as it contains oxygen and hydrocarbons, and is one of the three stereoisomers of zeaxanthin.
Mutatochrome (5,8-epoxy-β-carotene) is a carotenoid.
Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Paprika oleoresin (also known as paprika extract and oleoresin paprika) is an oil-soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens, and is primarily used as a colouring and/or flavouring in food products.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
Peridinin is a light-harvesting apocarotenoid, a pigment associated with chlorophyll and found in the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) light-harvesting complex in dinoflagellates, best studied in Amphidinium carterae.
Photoprotection is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage caused by sunlight.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Phytoene (FY-toe-een) is a 40-carbon intermediate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids.
Phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming) (CrtIa, 2-step phytoene desaturase (ambiguous), two-step phytoene desaturase (ambiguous)) is an enzyme with systematic name 15-cis-phytoene:acceptor oxidoreductase (zeta-carotene-forming).
Phytoene synthase (prephytoene-diphosphate synthase, 15-cis-phytoene synthase, PSase, geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase) is a transferase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids.
Phytofluene is a colorless carotenoid found naturally in tomatoes and other vegetables.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Podarcis muralis (common wall lizard) is a species of lizard with a large distribution in Europe and well-established introduced populations in North America, where it is also called the European wall lizard.
Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain at least three alternating double and single carbon–carbon bonds.
Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars.
Prolycopene isomerase (CRTISO, carotene cis-trans isomerase, ZEBRA2 (gene), carotene isomerase, carotenoid isomerase) is an enzyme with systematic name 7,9,7',9'-tetracis-lycopene cis-trans-isomerase.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild black cherry, rum cherry, or mountain black cherry, is a deciduous woody plant species belonging to the genus Prunus.
Puffins are any of three small species of alcids (auks) in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Ranunculus is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Rhodopin (1,2-dihydro-ψ,ψ-caroten-1-ol) is a carotenoid.
Rhodoxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment with a purple color that is found in small quantities in a variety of plants including Taxus baccata.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
The rutabaga (from Swedish dialectal word rotabagge), swede (from Swedish turnip, being introduced from Sweden), or neep (from its Latin name Brassica napobrassica) is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia.
In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has single bonds.
A dormant seed is one that is unable to germinate in a specified period of time under a combination of environmental factors that are normally suitable for the germination of the non-dormant seed.
Spider mites are members of the Acari (mite) family Tetranychidae, which includes about 1,200 species.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Staphyloxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that is produced by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and is responsible for the characteristic golden color that gives S. aureus its species name.
Sycamore is a name which has been applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
Tetraterpenes are terpenes consisting of eight isoprene units and have the molecular formula C40H64.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Torulene (3',4'-didehydro-β,γ-carotene) is a carotene (a hydrocarbon carotenoid) which is notable for being synthesized by red pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), imparting the natural red color to the aphids, which aids in their camouflage and escape from predation.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.
3'-Hydroxyechinenone is a keto-carotenoid pigment found in cyanobacteria and microalgae.
In enzymology, a 4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate (CDP-ME), whereas its two products are ADP and 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate (CDP-MEP).
In enzymology, a 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase (HMB-PP synthase, IspG) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The substrate of this enzyme is 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) and the product is (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate (HMB-PP).
4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (isopentenyl-diphosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, LytB, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate reductase, HMBPP reductase, IspH, LytB/IspH) is an enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway.