59 relations: Anti-competitive practices, Asian Racing Federation, Bid rigging, British Valve Association, Business cycle, Business oligarch, Central bank, Citric acid, Collusion, Commodity, Competition, Competition law, Competition regulator, Content cartel, Corporation, De Beers, Doctrine, Drug cartel, Economics, Electrode, Federation of Quebec Maple Syrup Producers, Game theory, Good Neighbour Policy (horse racing), Graphite, Incentive, Industrial organization, Industry, International Air Transport Association, International law, Jurisdiction, Law, Lysine, MIT Press, Monopoly, Monopsony, Negotiated cartelism, Oligopoly, OPEC, Organized crime, Phoebus cartel, Price, Price fixing, Regulatory agency, Robber baron (industrialist), Sovereignty, Standard Oil, State (polity), State cartel theory, State immunity, Supply management (Canada), ..., Tacit collusion, Term (time), Trade association, Trade union, Treaty, Trust (business), Vitamin, Wage, Zaibatsu. Expand index (9 more) » « Shrink index
Anti-competitive practices are business, government or religious practices that prevent or reduce competition in a market (see restraint of trade).
The Asian Racing Federation is an international federation of horse racing governing bodies in Asia, most of which are government granted monopolies.
Bid rigging is a form of fraud in which a commercial contract is promised to one party even though for the sake of appearance several other parties also present a bid.
The British radio and Valve manufacturers Association (BVA) was a cartel of valve manufacturers in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) that was designed to protect their interests from foreign competition.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
The term business oligarch is almost a synonym of the term business magnate, borrowed by the English-speaking and western media from post-Soviet parlance to label those businessmen who quickly acquired huge wealth in post-Soviet states (mostly Russia and Ukraine) during the privatization in Russia and in other post-Soviet states in the 1990s.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal–but always secretive–to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
A competition regulator is a government agency, typically a statutory authority, sometimes called an economic regulator, which regulates and enforces competition laws, and may sometimes also enforce consumer protection laws.
The phrase content cartel has been used by their opponents to describe the Recording Industry Association of America and the Motion Picture Association of America.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
The De Beers Group of Companies is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
The Federation of Quebec Maple Syrup Producers (Fédération des producteurs acéricoles du Québec, FPAQ) is a government-sanctioned private organization created to dictate maple syrup productions in Quebec.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
The Good Neighbour Policy is an agreement amongst horse racing jurisdictions that they shall not provide betting on horse racing to residents of other signatory jurisdictions without the permission of that signatory jurisdiction, nor solicit, market nor advertise betting without prior authorisation from that other signatory jurisdiction.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
In economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (mónos) "single" + ὀψωνία (opsōnía) "purchase") is a market structure in which only one buyer interacts with many would-be sellers of a particular product.
Negotiated cartelism (sometimes called a bilateral monopoly by economists) is a labor arrangement that holds labor prices above the market clearing level through union leverage over employers.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The Phoebus cartel existed to control the manufacture and sale of incandescent light bulbs.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
"Robber baron" is a derogatory metaphor of social criticism originally applied to certain late 19th-century American businessmen who used unscrupulous methods to get rich.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Standard Oil Co.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
State cartel theory is a new concept in the field of international relations theory (IR) and belongs to the group of institutionalist approaches.
The doctrine and rules of state immunity concern the protection which a state is given from being sued in the courts of other states.
Supply management (SM) is a system used in Canada, encompassing "five types of products: dairy, chicken and turkey products, table eggs, and broiler hatching eggs" which "coordinates production and demand while controlling imports as a means of setting stable prices for both farmers and consumers." Supply management supporters say SM offers dairy, poultry and egg farmers "stability and wealth" for "primary producers, processors, retailers and input and service providers like equipment manufacturers and financial institutions." The policy has been described by detractors as regressive, unduly protectionist and costly with money transferred from consumers to producers through higher prices on milk, poultry and eggs which some label as a subsidy.
Tacit collusion occurs where firms undergo actions that are likely to minimize a response from another firm, e.g. avoiding the opportunity to price cut an opposition.
A term is a period of duration, time or occurrence, in relation to an event.
A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
A trust or corporate trust is a large grouping of business interests with significant market power, which may be embodied as a corporation or as a group of corporations that cooperate with one another in various ways.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.
is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.