321 relations: Absheron Peninsula, Aktau, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Aliabad-e Katul, Alosa, Amu Darya, Ancient history, Aquatic sill, Asia, Asiatic cheetah, Asiatic lion, Asp (fish), Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh, Astara, Azerbaijan, Astara, Iran, Astrakhan, Atil, Atrek, Atyrau, Auk, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Azokh Cave, Babolsar, Baku, Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, Balaenoptera, Baleen whale, Baltic Sea, Bandar Torkaman, Bandar-e Anzali, Bandar-e Gaz County, Bastard sturgeon, Bay, Beaked whale, Behshahr, Beluga (sturgeon), Biodiversity, Biome, Black Sea, Blicca bjoerkna, Bloomberg Businessweek, Blowout (well drilling), Blue whale, Body of water, Bolsheviks, Border, Bottlenose dolphin, Boyuk Zira, BP, ..., Bulla Island, Burbot, Caspian Depression, Caspian gull, Caspian lamprey, Caspian seal, Caspian tern, Caspian tiger, Caspian turtle, Caspians, Caucasian Albania, Caucasus Mountains, Caviar, Central Asia, Central Asian northern desert, Ceyhan, Chalus, Iran, Chechen' Island, Classical antiquity, Clupeidae, Clupeonella, Common bleak, Common bream, Common carp, Common dace, Common roach, Common rudd, Common tortoise, Crucian carp, Cyprinidae, Dagestan, Dagestanskiye Ogni, Darband Cave, Demarcation line, Depression (geology), Derbent, Dick Cheney, Diplomatic cable, Dmanisi, Dolphin, Don River (Russia), Drainage basin, Duckbill pugolovka, Earth, Ecosystem, Endemism, Endorheic basin, Environment (biophysical), Environmentalism, Epoch of Extreme Inundations, Eurasia Canal, Europe, European perch, Evaporation, Evaporite, Fedor Ivanovich Soimonov, Fenderesk District, Ferry, Fish, Fishing, Fossil fuel, Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, Fresh water, Freshwater seal, Garabogaz, Garabogazköl, Gates of Alexander, Gazelle, Genus, Georgia (country), Gilan Province, Gobio volgensis, Gobustan District, Gobustan National Park, Goby, Golden loaches, Golestan Province, Gomishan, Gonbad-e Kavus, Gorgan, Graham Hancock, Great Lakes, Greater Caucasus, Ground effect vehicle, Halite, Hazar, Turkmenistan, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Hydrocarbon, Hyrcania, Hyrcanogobius bergi, Important Bird Area, International waters, Intertidal zone, Introduced species, Invasive species, Iran, Iranrud, Izberbash, Juybar, Kama River, Kaspiysk, Kazakh language, Kazakhstan, Kentriodontidae, Khachmaz (city), Khazaran, Khazars, Khudat, Khwarezm, Kordkuy, Kuma River (Russia), Kuma–Manych Canal, Kuma–Manych Depression, Kura (Caspian Sea), Lagoon cockle, Lahijan, Lake, Lake Albert (Africa), Lake Baikal, Lake Urmia, Landlocked country, Langarud, Lankaran, Last glacial period, Leucaspius delineatus, Liana, List of lakes by area, List of largest fish, Littoral zone, Lower Paleolithic, Lukoil, Mahmudabad, Mazandaran, Makhachkala, Manych Ship Canal, Masallı, Mazandaran Province, Median, Mesogobius, Middle Ages, Misgurnus fossilis, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Monopoly, Mountain range, Nabran, Namak Lake, Natural gas, Neanderthal, Neft Daşları, Neftçala, Neka, Nelumbo, Neogobius, North Atlantic oscillation, North Sea, Northern Dvina Canal, Northern pike, Northern river reversal, Nowshahr, Nur, Iran, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Ogurja Ada, Oil field, Overfishing, Palearctic realm, Paratethys, Peaceful nuclear explosion, Pechora River, Pechora–Kama Canal, Persian Gulf, Persian leopard, Persian sturgeon, Peter the Great, Petroglyph, Petroleum, Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan, Pinniped, Pirallahi Island, Plate tectonics, Ponticola, Ponticola bathybius, Porpoise, Portage, Prussian carp, Qazvin, Quaternary, Ramsar, Mazandaran, Rasht, Reptile, Riparian forest, Roe, Rudbar, Rudsar, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian sturgeon, Russian tortoise, Rutilus, Salinity, Salmo, Samur River, Sar Kalateh-ye Kharab Shahr, Sari, Iran, Sea, Sea level, Sea of Azov, Seawater, Shabran District, Shah Deniz gas field, Siazan District, Sichel, Sink (geography), Smithsonian Institution, South Caucasus Pipeline, Southern Gas Corridor, Soviet Union, Squalius cephalus, Starry sturgeon, Stenodus leucichthys, Steppe, Sterlet, Strabo, Sturgeon, Subspecies, Sulak River, Sumqayit, Syr Darya, Tadpole goby, Taxonomy (biology), Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan, Tectonic uplift, Tehran Province, Tench, Tengiz Field, Terek River, Terra (satellite), Tertiary, Tethys Ocean, Thick-billed murre, Tonekabon, Train ferry, Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline, Trans-Caspian Oil Transport System, Transcaucasia, Treaty, Turkestan, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Turkmen language, Turkmenistan, Tyuleniy Archipelago (Kazakhstan), United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Ural River, Uzboy, Volga Delta, Volga River, Volga–Baltic Waterway, Volga–Don Canal, Vulf, Water pollution, Waterway, Wels catfish, White Sea–Baltic Canal, WikiLeaks, Wildlife of Azerbaijan, Wildlife of Iran, Wildlife of Kazakhstan, Wildlife of Russia, Xacitarxan, Zander, Zebra mussel. Expand index (271 more) » « Shrink index
The Absheron Peninsula (Abşeron yarımadası) is a peninsula in Azerbaijan.
Aktau (Ақтау, Aqtaý) is a city in Kazakhstan, located on the east bank of the Caspian Sea.
Aldrovanda vesiculosa, commonly known as the waterwheel plant, is the sole extant species in the flowering plant genus Aldrovanda of the family Droseraceae.
Aliabad-e Katul (علی آباد كتول, also Romanized as ‘Alīābād-e Katūl, Aliabad-e Katool, and Aliâbâd Katool; also known simply as Aliabad (علی آباد, also Romanized as ‘Alīābād) is a city and capital of Aliabad County, in Golestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census its population was 46,183, in 11,676 families. The city is sited on a hillside of the Alborz Mountains between Gorgan and Azad Shahr. The Kaboud-val waterfall is near the city. Nearby are the villages of Kholin Darreh, Chinou, Alestan, and Mayan.
Alosa is a genus of fish, the river herrings, in the family Clupeidae.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
An aquatic sill (or an oceanic sill) is a sea floor (or lake floor) barrier of relatively shallow depth restricting water movement between oceanic basins.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as Iranian cheetah, is a Critically Endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.
The asp (Leuciscus aspius) is a European freshwater fish of the Cyprinid family.
Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh (آستانه اشرفيه, also Romanized as Āstāneh-ye Ashrafīyeh; also known as Astane and Āstāneh) is a city and capital of Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh County, Gilan Province, Iran.
Astara, also known as Azerbaijani Astara (Azərbaycan Astarası), is a city in and the capital of the Astara Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Astara (آستارا, also Romanized as Āstārā) is a city and capital of Astara County, Gilan Province, Iran.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Atil (İtil; cf. A-de Shui), literally meaning "Big River", was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century.
The Atrek (اترک, Etrek derýasy), also known as the Attruck, Atrak, and Etrek, is a fast-moving river which begins in the mountains of north-eastern Iran, and flows westward draining into the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan.
Atyrau (Атырау,, اتىراۋ,; Атырау), known as Guryev (Гурьев) until 1991, is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Region.
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Azokh Cave (Ազոխի քարանձավ, Azıx mağarası) is a six-cave complex known as a habitation site of prehistoric humans.
Babolsar (بابلسر, also Romanized as Bābolsar and Bābul Sar; also known as Mashhadsar (Persian: مَشهَدسَر), also Romanized as Mashhad-i-Sar and Meshed-i-Sar) is a city and capital of Babolsar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Balaenoptera, from the Latin balaena (whale) and Ancient Greek pteron (fin), is a genus of Balaenopteridae, the rorquals, and contains eight extant species.
Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Bandar Torkaman (بندرتركمن; also Romanized as Bandar-e Torkaman, Bandar-e Torkeman, and Bandar-e Torkman; formerly, Bandar Shah (بَندَرِ شاه), also Romanized as Bandar-e Shāh and Bandar Shāh) is a city and capital of Torkaman County, Golestan Province, Iran.
Bandar-e Anzali (بندرانزلی, also Romanized as Bandar-e Anzalī; before the Iranian Revolution, was renamed from Bandar-e Anzali to Bandar-e Pahlavi by Reza Pahlavi) is a city & capital in Gilan Province, Iran.
Bandar-e-Gaz County (شهرستان بندر گز) is a county in Golestan Province in Iran.
The bastard sturgeon, fringebarbel sturgeon, ship sturgeon, spiny sturgeon, or thorn sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris) is a species of fish in the Acipenseridae family.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
Beaked whales are the members of the family Ziphiidae, which consists of 23 species.
Behshahr (بهشهر; formerly Ashraf and Ashraf ol Belād) is a city in Mazandaran, Iran & the capital of Behshahr County.
The beluga or European sturgeon (Huso huso) is a species of anadromous fish in the sturgeon family (Acipenseridae) of order Acipenseriformes.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blicca bjoerkna, alternatively called the white bream or the silver bream, is a European species of freshwater fish in the Cyprinidae family.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.
The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Boyuk Zira (Böyük Zirə), also known as Nargin, is an island in the Caspian Sea.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
Bulla Island, also Xara Zira, Khara Zira or Khere Zire, (Xǝrǝ Zirǝ Adası) is an island south of the Bay of Baku, Caspian Sea.
The burbot (Lota lota) is the only gadiform (cod-like) freshwater fish.
The Caspian Depression (p, Caspian Lowland) or Pricaspian/Peri-Caspian Depression/Lowland is a low-lying flatland region encompassing the northern part of the Caspian Sea, the largest enclosed body of water on Earth.
The Caspian gull (taxon Larus cachinnans) is a large gull and a member of the herring and lesser black-backed gull complex.
The Caspian lamprey, Caspiomyzon wagneri, is a species of lamprey native to the Caspian Sea, and a member of the Petromyzontidae family.
The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is one of the smallest members of the earless seal family and unique in that it is found exclusively in the brackish Caspian Sea.
The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution.
The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.
The Caspian turtle or striped-neck terrapin (Mauremys caspica) is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae (.
The Caspians (Κάσπιοι Kaspioi, Aramaic: kspy, კასპიელები kaspielebiʿ, կասպք kaspkʿ, کاسپیان Kāspiān) were a people of antiquity who dwelled along the southern and southwestern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the region known as Caspiane.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
Caviar (less often, caviare) is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured roe of the Acipenseridae family.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Asian northern desert is an ecoregion in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome, located in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Ceyhan is a city and a district in the Adana Province, in southern Turkey, east of Adana.
Chalus (چالوس, also romanized as Chālūs, Chaloos, Chalousse and Chalous) is a city in Mazandaran Province in north of Iran.
Chechen Island (Остров Чечень; Ostrov Chechen') is a coastal island on the western shore of the Caspian Sea.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Clupeidae is a family of ray-finned fishes, comprising, for instance, the herrings, shads, sardines, ilish, and menhadens.
Clupeonella is a genus of fish in the Clupeidae family.
The common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) is a small freshwater coarse fish of the cyprinid family.
The common bream, freshwater bream, bream, bronze bream or carp bream (Abramis brama), is a European species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae.
The common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia.
The common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), the dace or the Eurasian dace, is a fresh- or brackish-water fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae.
The roach (Rutilus rutilus), also known as the common roach, is a fresh and brackish water fish of the Cyprinidae family, native to most of Europe and western Asia.
The common rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish, widely spread in Europe and middle Asia, around the basins of the North, Baltic, Black, Caspian and Aral seas.
The common Tortoise (Testudo graeca) or also known as Greek tortoise, or spur-thighed tortoise, is one of the 5 species of Mediterranean tortoise (genus Testudo and Agrionemys, family Testudinidae).
The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is a medium-sized member of the common carp family Cyprinidae.
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels).
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dagestanskiye Ogni (Дагеста́нские Огни́) is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the coast of the Caspian Sea, south of Makhachkala.
Darband Cave is a Lower Paleolithic site in the Gilan Province in northern Iran, located on the north side of a deep tributary canyon of the Siahrud River, a tributary of the Sefīd-Rūd River that flows into the Caspian Sea.
A political demarcation line is a geopolitical border, often agreed upon as part of an armistice or ceasefire.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
A diplomatic cable, also known as a diplomatic telegram or embassy cable, is a confidential text message exchanged between a diplomatic mission, like an embassy or a consulate, and the foreign ministry of its parent country.
Dmanisi (tr) is a town and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia approximately 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The duckbill pugolovka (Anatirostrum profundorum) is a species of gobiid fish endemic to the southern part of the Caspian Sea.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
The Epoch of Extreme Inundations (EEI) is a hypothetical epoch during which four landforms in the Pontic–Caspian steppe—marine lowlands (marine transgressions), river valleys (outburst floods), marine transgressions (thermocarst lakes) and slopes (solifluction flows)—were widely inundated.
The Eurasia Canal (Канал "Евразия", Kanal "Evraziya") is a proposed 700-kilometre-long (430 mi) canal connecting the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea along the Kuma-Manych Depression.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Perca fluviatilis, commonly known as the European perch, perch, redfin perch, big-scaled redfin, English perch, Eurasian perch, Eurasian river perch or common perch, is a predatory species of perch found in Europe and northern Asia.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Fedor Ivanovich Soimonov (Фёдор Иванович Соймо́нов; 1692 – 22 July 1780), Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, was a nautical surveyor of the Imperial Russian Navy, hydrographer and pioneering explorer of the Caspian Sea who charted the until then little known body of water.
Fenderesk (فندرسک) is a district (bakhsh) in Golestan Province in northern Iran.
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea is a regional convention signed by the official representatives of the five littoral Caspian states: Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan in Tehran (Iran) on 4 November 2003.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The freshwater seals are the species of seals which live exclusively in freshwater bodies.
Garabogaz is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province.
The Garabogazköl Aylagy, alternatively the Kara-Bogaz-Gol, (Кара-Богаз-Гол, black (or mighty) strait lake) is a shallow inundated depression in the northwestern corner of Turkmenistan.
The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Gobio volgensis is a species of gudgeon, a small freshwater in the family Cyprinidae.
Gobustan is an administrative district, or rayon, of Azerbaijan.
Gobustan State Reserve located west of the settlement of Gobustan, about 40 miles southwest of the centre of Baku was established in 1966 when the region was declared as a national historical landmark of Azerbaijan in an attempt to preserve the ancient carvings, mud volcanoes and gas-stones in the region.
Gobies are fishes of the family Gobiidae, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera.
Golden loaches (Sabanejewia) is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cobitidae family.
Golestān Province (استان گلستان, Ostān-e Golestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country south of the Caspian Sea.
Gomishan (گميشان, also Romanized as Gomīshān and Gumshān; formerly, Gomish Tepe (گميش تپه), also Romanized as Gomesh Tappeh, Gomīsh Tappeh, and Gumish Tepe; also formerly known as Gomish Tepe Jik (گُميش تَپِّه جيك), also Romanized as Gomīsh Tappeh Jīk; Kümüş depe) is a city and capital of Gomishan District, in Torkaman County, Golestan Province, Iran.
Gonbad-e Kāvus (also referred to as Gonbad-e Kāvus, Gonbad-i Kāvoos, Gonbadekavoos, Gonbad-e Kāvūs, Gonbad Qābūs, Gonbad Qavoos, Gunbad-i-Kāwās, Gunbad-i-Kāwūs, and Gunbad-i-Kāvūs) (گنبد کاووس, Kümmet Gowuz) is the Iranian city known historically as Gorgan/Hyrcania.
Gorgan (گرگان; formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran.
Graham Hancock (born 2 August 1950) is a British author and reporter.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
A ground-effect vehicle (GEV) is a vehicle that is designed to attain sustained flight over a level surface (usually over the sea) by making use of ground effect, the aerodynamic interaction between the wings and the surface.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Hazar (formerly known as Çeleken, also written Cheleken; Челекен; Persian: Chaharken چهارکن) is a city located on the Cheleken Peninsula of the Caspian Sea.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία Hyrkania, Old Persian: Varkâna,Lendering (1996) Middle Persian: Gurgān, Akkadian: Urqananu) is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.
Hyrcanogobius bergi, the Volga dwarf goby, is a species of goby endemic to the Caspian Sea where it occurs in fresh, brackish and marine waters along the coast.
An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations.
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranrud (Persian: ایرانرود) which means Iran's river in Persian language was a plan to build a canal from Caspian sea to Indian Ocean or Persian Gulf.
Izberbash (Изберба́ш, Юз бир ба́ш) is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the coast of the Caspian Sea southeast of Makhachkala, the capital of the republic.
Juybar (جويبار, also Romanized as Jūybār; also known as Bāghlū) is a city and capital of Juybar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
The Kama (река́ Ка́ма,; Чулман; Кам) is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; it is larger than the Volga before their junction.
Kaspiysk (Каспи́йск; Lak: Ккасппи; Dargin; Lezgian; Каспийск) is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, southeast of Makhachkala.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kentriodontidae is an extinct family of odontocete whales related to modern dolphins.
Khachmaz (Xaçmaz) is a town in the Khachmaz Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Khazaran was a city in the Khazar kingdom, located on the eastern bank of the lower Volga River.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Khudat (also, Xudat and Khudaf) is a town in the Caspian lowlands located in the northern section of Azerbaijan.
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
Kordkuy (كرد كوی; also Romanized as Kord Kūy, Kord Kū, and Kurd Kūi) is a city and capital of Kordkuy County, in Golestan Province, Iran.
The Kuma (Кума́) is an long river on the Black Sea-Caspian Steppe of southern Russia.
The Kuma–Manych Canal (Кумо–Манычский канал) is an irrigation canal in Russia's Stavropol Krai.
The Kuma–Manych Depression (Kumo–Manychskaya vpadina), is a geological depression in southwestern Russia that separates the Russian Plain to the north from Ciscaucasia to the south.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
The lagoon cockle (Cerastoderma glaucum) is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Cardiidae, the cockles.
Lahijan (Lāhijān, also known as, Lāhijān) is a city near the Caspian sea and the capital of Lahijan County, Gilan Province, Iran.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lake Albert, also Albert Nyanza and formerly Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, is a lake located in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Urmia (Daryāĉe Orumiye, Daryāche-ye Orumiye;, Urmiya gölü) is an endorheic salt lake in Iran.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Langarud (لنگرود, also Romanized as Langarūd, Langerūd, and Langarood; also known as Shahr-e Langarūd) is a city and capital of Langarud County, Gilan Province, Iran.
Lankaran (Lənkəran) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Leucaspius delineatus, known as the sunbleak, belica or moderlieschen is a species of freshwater fish in the Cyprinidae family.
A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest.
This is a list of terrestrial lakes with a surface area of more than approximately, ranked by area.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The PJSC Lukoil Oil Company (stylized as LUKOIL) is a Russian multinational energy corporation headquartered in Moscow, specializing in the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products.
Mahmudabad (محمودآباد, also Romanized as Maḥmūdâbâd) is a city and capital of Mahmudabad County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.
The Manych Ship Canal is a canal system between the basins of the Sea of Azov, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea.
Masallı (also, Masali, Masalı, Masally, and Massaly) is a city in and the capital of the Masally Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Mesogobius is one of the genera of benthophiline gobiid fishes native to the basins of the Black and Caspian Seas.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Misgurnus fossilis is a species of loach in the genus Misgurnus.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a payload scientific instrument built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Nabran is a popular resort and municipality in Khachmaz Rayon of Azerbaijan, close to the Russia-Azerbaijan border.
Namak Lake (Daryāče-ye Namak, i.e., salt lake) is a salt lake in Iran.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Neft Daşları (Neft Daşları, Нефтяные Камни, also known as the Oil Rocks) is an industrial settlement in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Neftçala (also known as Neftchala) is a city and the capital of the Neftchala Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Neka (نكا, also Romanized as Nekā’ and Nekā; also known as Nīkā; formerly, Nāranj Bāgh) is a city and capital of Neka County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers.
Neogobius is a genus of goby native to Black Sea and the Caspian Sea basins.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic low and the Azores high.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northern Dvina Canal (Северодвинский канал) is a 64 km long canal in Vologda Oblast in Russia.
The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (once called luce when fully grown; also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes).
The Northern river reversal or Siberian river reversal was an ambitious project to divert the flow of the Northern rivers in the Soviet Union, which "uselessly" drain into the Arctic Ocean, southwards towards the populated agricultural areas of Central Asia, which lack water.
Nowshahr (نوشهر; also Romanized as Now Shahr, Noushahr, Noshahr, and Nau Shahr; also known as Bandar-e Noshahr) is a city and capital of Nowshahr County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Nur (Nursar, formerly, Suldeh) is a city and capital of Nur County, located on the Caspian Sea in Mazandaran Province of northern Iran.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
Ogurja Ada (sometimes also spelt "Ogurga") is the largest island in Turkmenistan and the longest in the Caspian Sea.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
The Paratethys ocean, Paratethys sea or just Paratethys was a large shallow sea that stretched from the region north of the Alps over Central Europe to the Aral Sea in Central Asia.
Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes.
The Pechora River (Печо́ра; Komi: Печӧра; Nenets: Санэроˮ яха) is a river in northwest Russia which flows north into the Arctic Ocean on the west side of the Ural Mountains.
The Pechora–Kama Canal (Канал Печора-Кама), or sometimes the Kama–Pechora Canal, was a proposed canal intended to link up the basin of the Pechora River in the north of European Russia with the basin of the Kama, a tributary of the Volga.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana syn. P. p. ciscaucasica and P. p. saxicolor) is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the population is estimated at fewer than 871–1,290 mature individuals and considered declining.
The Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) is a species of fish in the family Acipenseridae.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Pirallahi Island or Pirallakhi Island (Azeri: Pirallahı adası, (Артём остров) is an island in the Caspian Sea. The island is part of Azerbaijan, and is located right off the northeastern shore of the Apsheron Peninsula, to the ENE of Baku. The island is long and has a maximum width of. Administratively, Pirallahi Island belongs to the Pirallahi district of Baku. Oil deposits on the northern part of Pirallahi are estimated at 1.2 million tons. Flights to other Caspian isles are available at the heliport on the southern tip of the island.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Ponticola is a genus of gobies native mostly to fresh waters of the Black Sea - Caspian Sea region in Eurasia.
Ponticola bathybius is a species of goby endemic to the Caspian Sea, where it occurs in depths down to.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Portage or portaging is the practice of carrying water craft or cargo over land, either around an obstacle in a river, or between two bodies of water.
The Prussian carp, silver Prussian carp or Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), is a member of the family Cyprinidae, which includes many other fish, such as the common carp, and the smaller minnows.
Qazvin (قزوین,, also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Ramsar (رامسر, also Romanized as Rāmsar and Rānsar; formerly, Sakht Sar) is the capital of Ramsar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Rasht (رشت; Rəsht; also Romanized as Resht and Rast, and often spelt Recht in French and older German manuscripts) is the capital city of Gilan Province, Iran.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
A riparian forest or riparian woodland is a forested or wooded area of land adjacent to a body of water such as a river, stream, pond, lake, marshland, estuary, canal, sink or reservoir.
Roe or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish and certain marine animals, such as shrimp, scallop and sea urchins.
Rudbar (Rudbār) (Tati:, rubâr) is a city and capital of Rudbar County, Gilan Province, Iran.
Rudsar (رودسر, also known as, Roodsar, Rūdsar and Rūd-i-Sar) is a city and capital of Rudsar County, Gilan Province, Iran.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), also known as the diamond sturgeon or Danube sturgeon, is a species of fish in the Acipenseridae family.
The Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii), also commonly known as Horsfield's tortoise, Afghan tortoise or the Central Asian tortoise, is a threatened species of tortoise.
Rutilus is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae found in Eurasia.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Salmo is a genus of fish in the salmon family Salmonidae that includes the European species of salmon and trout, among them the familiar Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and the brown trout Salmo trutta.
Samur (Самыр;; Самур; Samurçay) is a river in Russia's Dagestan Republic, partially flowing through Azerbaijan.
Sar Kalateh-ye Kharab Shahr (سركلاته خراب شهر, also Romanized as Sar Kalāteh-ye Kharāb Shahr; also known as Sar Kalāteh) is a village in Chaharkuh Rural District, in the Central District of Kordkuy County, Golestan Province, Iran.
Sari ((ساری); also Romanized as Sārī; also known as Shahr-i-Tajan and Shari-i-Tajan) is the provincial capital of Mazandaran and former capital of Iran (for a short period), located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of the Caspian Sea.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Shabran (Şabran) is a district of Azerbaijan.
Shah Deniz gas field is the largest natural gas field in Azerbaijan.
Siyazan or Siazan (Siyəzən) is an rayon in Azerbaijan, capital Siyəzən.The word Siyazan means "black female" in Tati.
Sichel is a surname of German origin.
A geographic sink is a depression within an endorheic basin where water collects with no visible outlet.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The South Caucasus Pipeline (also known as Baku–Tbilisi–Erzurum Pipeline, BTE pipeline, or Shah Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey.
The Southern Gas Corridor is an initiative of the European Commission for the natural gas supply from Caspian and Middle Eastern regions to Europe.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Squalius cephalus is a European species of freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae.
The starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) also known as stellate sturgeon or sevruga (Drakul,, and lit), is a species of sturgeon.
Stenodus leucichthys is a species of freshwater whitefish in the family Salmonidae.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) is a relatively small species of sturgeon from Eurasia native to large rivers that flow into the Black Sea, Azov Sea, and Caspian Sea, as well as rivers in Siberia as far east as Yenisei.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
The Sulak River (Сула́к., Сулак (Sulaq)/Къой-сув (Qoysu), Ġoysu) drains most of the mountainous interior of Dagestan northeast into the Caspian Sea.
Sumqayit (Sumqayıt sumgɑˈjɯt, also transliterated as Sumgait or Sumgayit) is the third-largest city in Azerbaijan, located near the Caspian Sea, about away from the capital, Baku.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
The tadpole-gobies (Benthophilus), also called pugolovkas (which means "tadpole" in Ukrainian), are a genus of Ponto-Caspian fishes in the family Gobiidae.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Türkmenbaşy (Turkmen Cyrillic: Түркменбашы, Turkmen Arabic; ترکمنباشی, also spelled Turkmenbashi, Түркменбаши), formerly known as Krasnovodsk (Красноводск) and Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The tench or doctor fish (Tinca tinca) is a fresh- and brackish-water fish of the cyprinid family found throughout Eurasia from Western Europe including the British Isles east into Asia as far as the Ob and Yenisei Rivers.
Tengiz field (Tengiz is Turkic for "sea") is an oil field located in northwestern Kazakhstan's low-lying wetlands along the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea.
The Terek River (Terk), a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flows through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea.
Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The thick-billed murre or Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia) is a bird in the auk family (Alcidae).
Shahsavar (تنكابن, also Romanized as Tonekābon; formerly known as Shahsavar (Persian: شَهسَوار), also Romanized as Shahsavār and Shahsawār) is a city and capital of Tonekabon County, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.
A train ferry is a ship (ferry) designed to carry railway vehicles.
The Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (Transxəzər boru xətti, Transhazar turbaly geçiriji) is a proposed subsea pipeline between Türkmenbaşy in Turkmenistan, and Baku in Azerbaijan.
The Trans-Caspian Oil Transport System is a proposed project to transport oil through the Caspian Sea from Kazakhstani Caspian oilfields to Baku in Azerbaijan for the further transportation to the Mediterranean or Black Sea coast.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Tyuleniy Archipelago, Түлен аралдары Tülen Araldary, Тюленьи острова is an island group in the north-eastern Caspian Sea located off the Mangyshlak Bay west of the Mangyshlak Peninsula and about NW of the Tupkaragan Peninsula, north of Bautino.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member States.
The Ural (Урал) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Яйыҡ, Yayıq,; Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق), known as Yaik (Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia.
The Uzboy (sometimes rendered Uzboj) was a distributary of the Amu Darya which flowed through the northwestern part of the Karakum Desert of Turkmenistan until the 17th century, when it abruptly dried up, eliminating the agricultural population that had thrived along its banks.
The Volga Delta is the largest river delta in Europe, and occurs where Europe's largest river system, the Volga River, drains into the Caspian Sea in Russia's Astrakhan Oblast, north-east of the republic of Kalmykia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System (Russian: Мариинская водная система), is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River.
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal (Волго-Донской судоходный канал имени В. И. Ленина, Volga-Donskoy soudokhodniy kanal imeni V. I. Lenina, abbreviated ВДСК, VDSK) is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points.
Vulf, or Volf, and also known as Dash Zira (Azeri: Daş Zirə) or Kichik Zira (Kiçik Zirə), is an island of Azerbaijan, in the Caspian Sea.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
The wels catfish (or; Silurus glanis), also called sheatfish, is a large species of catfish native to wide areas of central, southern, and eastern Europe, in the basins of the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas.
The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Беломо́рско–Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko–Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on 2 August 1933.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Wildlife of Azerbaijan consists of its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.
The wildlife of Iran has first been partly described by Hamdallah Mustawfi in the 14th century who only referred to animals.
The wildlife of Kazakhstan includes its flora and fauna,Geptner, V. G., Sludskij, A. A. (1972).
The wildlife of Russia inhabits terrain that extends across 12 time zones and from the tundra region in the far north to the Caucasus Mountains and prairies in the south, including temperate forests which cover 70% of the country's territory.
Hajji Tarkhan (Xacitarxan), also known as Hashtar Khan / Actarxan (ʌɕtʌrˈxan) or Astrakhan, was a medieval city at the right bank of Volga, situated approximately 12 km north of the modern city of Astrakhan.
The zander (Sander lucioperca) is a species of fish from freshwater and brackish habitats in western Eurasia.
The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a small freshwater mussel.
Apsheron Sill, Apsheron Threshold, Caspian Lake, Caspian Ocean, Caspian Sea Region, Caspian Sea basin, Caspian area, Caspian region, Caspian sea, Caspian seas, Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Daryā-e Xazar, Daryā-i Māzandarān, Daryā-i Xazar, Hazar deňizi, Hyrcanian Ocean, Hyrcanian Sea, Kaspiy teñizi, Kaspiyskoye more, Khvaliskoye, Mazandaran Sea, Mazandaran sea, Mazanderan Sea, Pollution of the Caspian Sea, Sea of Baku, Sea of Caspia, The Caspian Sea, Xəzər dənizi, Каспи́йское мо́ре, Каспий теңізі, دریای خزر, دریای کاسپین.