135 relations: Abia State, Affirmative action, Africa, Ahmadiyya, Ainu people, Al-Akhdam, Alula Pankhurst, Anambra State, Ancient Egypt, Baekjeong, Bali, Baloch people, Barbara Demick, Bon-gwan, Borana Oromo people, Brahmin, Burakumin, Burundi, Cagot, Cameroon, Casta, Caste-related violence in India, Central Africa, Cheonmin, China, Chinese people in Japan, Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, Dalit, Delta State, Demography of Japan, Dvija, Ebonyi State, Edo State, Egalitarianism, Emir, Endogamy, Enlightenment Party, Enugu State, Equality Act 2010, Equality and Human Rights Commission, Estates of the realm, Ethiopia, Eusociality, Family patrimony, Four occupations, Fula people, Gabo Reform, Ghana, Goryeo–Khitan War, Guinea, ..., Gurage people, Han Chinese, Harijan, Herbert Hope Risley, Hokkaido, Horn of Africa, Hukou system, Hutu, Imo State, Intersectionality, Isma'ilism, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jāti, John Minsheu, Joseon, Kamaiya, Khitan people, Kingdom of Kaffa, Knight, Konso people, Koreans in Japan, Kshatriya, Kublai Khan, Kuge, Liberia, Licchavi (kingdom), Lloyd Rudolph, Madhiban, Mandé peoples, Meena Dhanda, Minister (government), Mongols, Murid, Nepal, New World, Nigeria, Oromo language, Oxford English Dictionary, Pakistan, Pashtuns, Pir (Sufism), Priest, Propiska in the Soviet Union, Punjabis, Queen ant, Rahanweyn, Rwanda, Samurai, Sasanian Empire, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Semu, Senegal, Serfdom, Serfdom in Tibet controversy, Sheikh, Shudra, Sierra Leone, Sindhis, Social class, Social class in Tibet, Social equality, Social exclusion, Social stratification, Somalia, Somalis, Song dynasty, Statutory instrument, Susan Bayly, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, The Gambia, The New York Times, Trifunctional hypothesis, Tutsi, Twa, UNICEF, Untouchability, Vaishya, Varna (Hinduism), Wolof people, Yangban, Yazidis, Yemen, Yibir, Yuan dynasty. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
Abia is a state in the south eastern part of Nigeria.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
Al-Akhdam, Akhdam or Achdam ("the servants," singular Khadem, meaning "servant" in Arabic; also called Al-Muhamasheen, "the marginalized ones") is a minority social group in Yemen.
Alula Pankhurst is a social development consultant whose main focus has been on Ethiopia and Ethiopian studies.
Anambra is a state in southeastern Nigeria.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Baekjeong (Korean: 백정) were an "''untouchable''” minority group of Korea.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Barbara Demick is an American journalist.
Bon-gwan is the concept of clan in Korea, which is used to distinguish clans that happen to share a same family name (clan name).
The Borana Oromo people, also called the Boran, are a subethnic section of the Oromo people who live in southern Ethiopia (Oromia) and northern Kenya.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
is an outcaste group at the bottom of the Japanese social order that has historically been the victim of severe discrimination and ostracism.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
The Cagots were a persecuted and despised minority found in the west of France and northern Spain: the Navarrese Pyrenees, Basque provinces, Béarn, Aragón, Gascony and Brittany.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
Caste-related violence has occurred and occurs in India in various forms.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
Cheonmin, or "vulgar commoners," were the lowest caste of commoners in dynastical Korea.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese people in Japan consist of migrants from the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, and the previous imperial dynasties to Japan and their descendants.
The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea (HRNK), formerly known as the U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, is a Washington D.C.-based non-governmental research organization that "seeks to raise awareness about conditions in North Korea and to publish research that focuses the world’s attention on human rights abuses in that country." Founded in 2001 by a group of foreign policy and human rights specialists, HRNK has published twenty-three reports on issues relevant to North Korean human rights today.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
Delta or Delta State is an oil and agricultural producing state of Nigeria, situated in the region known as the South-South geo-political zone with a population of 4,112,445 (males: 2,069,309; females: 2,043,136).
The demographic features of the population of Japan include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects regarding the population.
Dvija (Sanskrit: द्विज) means "twice-born".
Ebonyi is a state in southeastern Nigeria.
Edo is a state in Nigeria.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
The Enlightenment Party of the Joseon (hangul: 개화당, hanja: 開化黨, romanization: Gaehwadang) was a Korean progressive party founded after the Imo Incident.
Enugu, usually referred to as Enugu State to distinguish it from the city of Enugu, is a state in southeastern Nigeria, created in 1991 from part of the old Anambra State.
The Equality Act 2010 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and has the same goals as the four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements.
The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales, established by the Equality Act 2006 with effect from 1 October 2007.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
Family patrimony is a type of civil law patrimony that is created by marriage or civil union (where recognized) which creates a bundle of entitlements and obligations that must be shared by the spouses or partners upon divorce, annulment, dissolution of marriage or dissolution of civil union, when there must be a division of property.
The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Goryeo–Khitan War was a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between Goryeo and the Khitan Liao dynasty near the present-day border between China and North Korea.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The Guraghe people are an Ethiopian Semitic-speaking ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia.
The Han Chinese,.
Harijan (Hindustani: हरिजन (Devanagari), ہریجن (Nastaleeq); translation: "person of Hari/Vishnu") was a term popularized by Indian political leader Mohandas Gandhi for referring communities traditionally considered so called Untouchable (formerly called "acchoot" अछूत in Hindi). The term achoot is now considered derogatory, and the term Harijan is no longer used.
Sir Herbert Hope Risley (4 January 1851 – 30 September 1911) was a British ethnographer and colonial administrator, a member of the Indian Civil Service who conducted extensive studies on the tribes and castes of the Bengal Presidency.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Hukou is a system of household registration in mainland China and Taiwan, although the system itself is more properly called "huji", and has origins in ancient China.
The Hutu, also known as the Abahutu, are a Bantu ethnic group native to African Great Lakes region of Africa, primarily area now under Burundi and Rwanda.
Imo is one of the 36 states of Nigeria and lies in the South East of Nigeria.
Intersectionality is an analytic framework which attempts to identify how interlocking systems of power impact those who are most marginalized in society.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jāti (in Devanagari: जाति, Bengali: জাতি, Telugu:జాతి, Kannada:ಜಾತಿ, Malayalam: ജാതി, Tamil:ஜாதி, literally "birth") is a group of clans, tribes, communities and sub-communities, and religions in India.
John Minsheu (or Minshew) (1560–1627) was an English linguist and lexicographer.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Kamaiya and Kamlari (also called Kamalari) were two traditional systems of bonded labour practised in the western Terai of Nepal.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The Kingdom of Kaffa (c. 1390–1897) was an early modern state located in what is now Ethiopia, with its first capital at Bonga.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The Konso, also known as the Xonsita, are a Lowland East Cushitic-speaking ethnic group primarily inhabiting south-central Ethiopia.
comprise ethnic Koreans who have permanent residency status in Japan, or who have become Japanese citizens, and whose immigration to Japan originated before 1945, or who are descendents of those immigrants.
Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
The was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750 CE.
Lloyd I. Rudolph (November 1, 1927 – January 16, 2016) was an American author, political thinker, educationist and the Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Chicago, known for his scholarship and writings on the India social and political milieu.
The Madhiban (Madhibaan), also known as Mitjan, or Gaboye,, UNHCR, IRB Canada (2014) are an artisanal caste among Somali people.
Mandé is a family of ethnic groups in Western Africa who speak any of the many related Mande languages of the region.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Murid (مُرِيد) is a Sufi term meaning "committed one" from the root meaning "willpower" or "self-esteem".
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pir or Peer (پیر, literally "old ", "elder") is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
A propiska (a) was both a residency permit and a migration-recording tool, used in the Russian Empire before 1917 and in the Soviet Union from the 1930s.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
A queen ant (formally known as a gyne) is an adult, reproducing female ant in an ant colony; generally she will be the mother of all the other ants in that colony.
The Rahaweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxaweyn, رحنوين) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The serfdom in Tibet controversy rests on Chinese claims of moral authority for governing Tibet, portraying Tibet as a "feudal serfdom" and a "hell on earth" prior to its invasion in 1950.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shudra is the fourth varna, or one of the four social categories found in the texts of Hinduism.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
There were three main social groups in Tibet prior to 1959, namely ordinary laypeople (mi ser in Tibetan), lay nobility (sger pa), and monks.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
In many countries, a statutory instrument is a form of delegated legislation.
Susan Bayly is a Professor of Historical Anthropology in the Cambridge University Division of Social Anthropology and a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge.
Susanne Hoeber Rudolph (April 3, 1930 – December 23, 2015) was an American author, political thinker and educationist.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society postulates a tripartite ideology ("idéologie tripartite") reflected in the existence of three classes or castes—priests, warriors, and commoners (farmers or tradesmen)—corresponding to the three functions of the sacral, the martial and the economic, respectively.
The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.
The Twa (Batwa, also Cwa IPA) are a group of African Pygmy (Central African foragers) peoples, tribes or castes who live interdependently with agricultural Bantu populations, providing the farming population with game in exchange for agricultural products.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
Untouchability is the practice of ostracising a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate.
Vaishya is one of the four varnas of the Hindu social order in Nepal and India.
Varṇa (वर्णः) is a Sanskrit word which means type, order, colour or class.
The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.
The Yangban (양반, 兩班), were part of the traditional ruling class or gentry of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yibir, also referred to as Yibbir, Yebir or Yahhar, are a caste within Somali people.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.