177 relations: Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Achhut Kannya, Adivasi, Affirmative action, Ahimsa, Ahir, Andhra Pradesh, Andre Beteille, Anglo-Indian, Annihilation of Caste, Arthur Llewellyn Basham, Arundhati Roy, Arvind Narayan Das, Arvind Sharma, Aryan, Ashok Kumar, Atharvaveda, B. R. Ambedkar, Bahujan Samaj Party, Bangladesh, Basava, Bengal, Bharata (emperor), Brahma, Brahman, Brahmin, British Raj, Buddhism, Burton Stein, Caste, Caste system in Sri Lanka, Caste systems in Africa, Caste-related violence in India, Census of India prior to independence, Chamar, Chandala, Christianity, Communal Award, Comparative religion, Constitution of India, Criminal Tribes Act, Dalit, Dasa, David Cannadine, David Lorenzen, Deccan Plateau, Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Devika Rani, Divide and rule, ..., Division of labour, Duncan B. Forrester, Economic and Political Weekly, Endogamy, Estates of the realm, Evangelism, Forward caste, G. S. Ghurye, George L. Hart, Gerald Berreman, Gurjar, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Herbert Hope Risley, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, Hypergamy, Indology, International Institute for Population Sciences, Irfan Habib, Islam, Jainism, Jamal Malik, Janata Dal, Jat people, Jāti, Jesus, Jinasena, Judaism, Jyotirao Phule, K. G. Balakrishnan, K. R. Narayanan, Kakatiya dynasty, Kallar (caste), Khairlanji massacre, Khushwant Singh, Kshatriya, Languages of India, Latin liturgical rites, London, Louis Dumont, M. N. Srinivas, Madras Presidency, Mahatma Gandhi, Mandal Commission, Manual scavenging, Manusmriti, Maurya Empire, Mayawati, Meira Kumar, Mughal Empire, Mukkulathor, Mulk Raj Anand, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Nair, Nambudiri, Nicholas Dirks, Nikāya, Nose, Other Backward Class, Outline of ancient India, Oxford English Dictionary, Padmanabh Jaini, Pakistan, Pali, Patrick Olivelle, Peter Jackson (historian), Politics of India, Poona Pact, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900, Purusha Sukta, Questia Online Library, Rajasthan, Ramsay MacDonald, Reservation in India, Reverse discrimination, Rigveda, Rishabhanatha, Ronald Inden, Sachar Committee, Saint Thomas Christians, Samajwadi Party, Sangam period, Sannyasa, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Scientific racism, Shastra, Shia Islam, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Shudra, Sikh, Sikh gurus, Sikhism, Sind Division, Social apartheid, Social class, Social class in the United Kingdom, Social class in the United States, Sociology, Sunni Islam, Supreme Court of India, Susan Bayly, Swami Vivekananda, Tamil Nadu, Tara Singh (activist), Tawaif, The God of Small Things, The Hindu, The New Cambridge History of India, The Telegraph (Calcutta), Thomas the Apostle, Tony Ballantyne (historian), University of California Press, Untouchable (novel), V. P. Singh, Vaishya, Varna (Hinduism), Vedic period, Vellalar, Votebank, World Bank, Zamindar, Ziauddin Barani, Zoroastrianism, 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Shaikh Abu al-Fazal ibn Mubarak (ابو الفضل) also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 12 August 1602) was the Grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a Persian translation of the Bible.
Achhut Kannya (italic) is a 1936 Indian Hindi-Urdu film.
Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahir or Aheer is an ethnic group, some members of which identify as being of the Indian Yadav community because they consider the two terms to be synonymous.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Andre Beteille, FBA (born 30 September 1934) is an Indian sociologist and writer.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
Annihilation of Caste is an undelivered speech written in 1936 by B. R. Ambedkar who fought against the country's practice of untouchability.
Arthur Llewellyn Basham (24 May 1914 – 27 January 1986) was a noted historian and Indologist and author of a number of books.
Suzanna Arundhati Roy (born 24 November 1961) is an Indian author best known for her novel The God of Small Things (1997), which won the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in 1997 and became the biggest-selling book by a non-expatriate Indian author.
Aravind Narayan Das (popularly known as Aravind N. Das) was a social scientist, journalist, activist and a documentary filmmaker from Bihar.
Arvind Sharma is the Birks Professor of Comparative Religion at McGill University.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Ashok Kumar (13 October 1911 – 10 December 2001), born Kumudlal Ganguly, and also fondly called Dadamoni, was an Indian film actor who attained iconic status in Indian cinema.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour.
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is the third largest national political party in India.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Basavanna (ಬಸವಣ್ಣ) was a 12th-century Hindu philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Niraakaara Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
In Hindu scriptures, Bharat (Sanskrit: भरत, Bharat i.e., "The cherished") is an emperor and the founder of the Bhārat dynasty and thus an ancestor of the Pandavas and the Kauravas in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata.
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Burton Stein (1926 – April 26, 1996) was an American historian, whose area of specialization was India.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
In Sri Lanka a caste-based social stratification system can be seen among its two major ethnic groups (the Sinhalese and the Tamils).
Caste systems in Africa are a form of social stratification found in numerous ethnic groups, found in over fifteen countries, particularly in the Sahel, West African and North African region.
Caste-related violence has occurred and occurs in India in various forms.
The Census of India prior to independence was conducted periodically from 1865 onward to 1947.
Chamar is one of the untouchable communities, or dalits, who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination.
Chandala is a Sanskrit word for someone who deals with disposal of corpses, and is a Hindu lower caste, traditionally considered to be untouchable.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Communal Award was made by the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald on 16 August 1932 granting separate electorates in India for the Forward Caste, scheduled Caste, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans and Depressed Classes (now known as the Scheduled Caste) etc.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The term Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) refers to various pieces of legislation enforced in India during British rule; the first enacted in 1871 as the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871 applied mostly in North India.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
Dasa is a Sanskrit language term found in ancient Hindu texts, such as the Rigveda and Arthashastra.
Sir David Cannadine (born 7 September 1950) is a British author and historian, who specialises in modern history and the history of business and philanthropy.
David N. Lorenzen is a scholar of religious studies, author, and professor of South Asian History at the Centre for Asian and African studies, El Colegio de México.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Devika Rani Chaudhuri, usually known as Devika Rani (30 March 1908 – 9 March 1994), was an actress in Indian films who was active during the 1930s and 1940s.
Divide and rule (or divide and conquer, from Latin dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Duncan Baillie Forrester (10 November 1933 – 29 November 2016) was a Scottish theologian and the founder of the Centre for Theology and Public Issues at New College, University of Edinburgh.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Forward caste (also known as Forward Class, Forward Community, and General Class) is a term used in India to denote groups of people who do not qualify for any of the affirmative action schemes operated by the government of India.
Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (12 December 1893 – 28 December 1983) was an Indian professor of sociology.
George Luzerne Hart, III (born c. 1945) is a professor of Tamil language at the University of California, Berkeley.
Gerald Duane Berreman (1930-2013) was an American anthropologist and ethnographer who was known for his theory on the caste system in India, as well as his contributions to the ethical practice of anthropology itself.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi (19 August 190719 May 1979) was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar.
Sir Herbert Hope Risley (4 January 1851 – 30 September 1911) was a British ethnographer and colonial administrator, a member of the Indian Civil Service who conducted extensive studies on the tribes and castes of the Bengal Presidency.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
Hypergamy (colloquially referred to as "marrying up") is a term used in social science for the act or practice of a woman marrying a man of higher caste or social status than themselves.
Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.
The International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) serves as a regional Institute for Training and Research in Population Studies for the ESCAP region.
Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jamal Malik (born 1956) is a Pakistani-born German professor of Islamic Studies and the chair of Religious Studies — Islamic Studies at the University of Erfurt, Germany.
Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jāti (in Devanagari: जाति, Bengali: জাতি, Telugu:జాతి, Kannada:ಜಾತಿ, Malayalam: ജാതി, Tamil:ஜாதி, literally "birth") is a group of clans, tribes, communities and sub-communities, and religions in India.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jinasena (8th century CE) was one of the several famous Digambara Acharya (head of a monastic order).
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Jotirao Govindrao Phule (11 April 1827 – 28 November 1890) was an Indian social activist, a thinker, anti-caste social reformer and a writer from Maharashtra.
Konakuppakatil Gopinathan Balakrishnan (K. G. Balakrishnan) (b. 12 May 1945) was the former Chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission of India.
Kocheril Raman Narayanan (4 February 1921 – 9 November 2005) was the tenth President of India.
The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
The Kallar (or Kallan, formerly spelled as Colleries) are one of the three related castes of southern India which constitute the Mukkulathor confederacy.
The Kherlanji massacre (or Khairlanji massacre) refers to the 2006 murders of Scheduled Caste citizens by members of the politically dominant Kunbi caste.
Khushwant Singh (born Khushal Singh, 15 August 1915 – 20 March 2014) was an Indian author, lawyer, diplomat, journalist and politician.
Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis Dumont (1911 – 19 November 1998) was a French anthropologist.
Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1916–1999) was an Indian sociologist.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
The Mandal Commission, or the Socially Backward Classes Commission (SEBC), was established in India on 1 January 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to "identify the socially or educationally backward classes" of India.
Manual scavenging is a caste-based occupation involving the removal of untreated human excreta from bucket toilets or pit latrines, that has been officially abolished by law in India as a dehumanizing practice.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mayawati Das (born 15 January 1956), commonly known as Mayawati or Kumari Mayawati (Miss Mayawati), is an Indian politician who spent four separate terms as chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.
Meira Kumar is an Indian politician and five-time Member of Parliament who was the United Progressive Alliance nominee for President of India in the 2017 election.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Mukkulathor people, who are also collectively known as Thevar, are native to the central and southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.
Mulk Raj Anand (12 December 1905 – 28 September 2004) was an Indian writer in English, notable for his depiction of the lives of the poorer castes in traditional Indian society.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Nair, also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes".
The Nambudiri, also transliterated Nambūdiri, Namboodiri, Namboothiri, and Nampūtiri, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to Kerala.
Nicholas B. Dirks is an American academic and the former Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley.
Nikāya is a Pāḷi word meaning "volume".
A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.
Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are socially or educationally or economically disadvantaged.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India is the Indian Subcontinent from prehistoric times to the start of Medieval India, which is typically dated (when the term is still used) to the end of the Gupta Empire.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Padmanabh Shrivarma Jaini is an Indian born scholar of Jainism and Buddhism, currently living in Berkeley, California, United States.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.
Peter Jackson is a scholar and historian, specializing in the Crusades, particularly the contacts between the Europeans and the Mongols as well as medieval Muslim India.
The politics of India takes place within the framework of its constitution.
The Poona Pact refers to an agreement between B. R. Ambedkar and M. K. Gandhi on the reservation of electoral seats for the depressed classes in the legislature of British India government.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900 was a piece of legislation introduced by the British Raj with the aim of limiting the transfer of land ownership in Punjab Province.
Purusha sukta is hymn 10.90 of the Rigveda, dedicated to the Purusha, the "Cosmic Being".
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
The system of reservation in India comprises a series of measures, such as reserving access to seats in the various legislatures, to government jobs, and to enrollment in higher educational institutions.
Reverse discrimination is discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha (also, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara (ford maker) in Jainism.
Ronald Inden is an American Indologist, and professor emeritus in the Departments of History and of South Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago and is a major scholar in South Asian and post-colonial studies.
The Rajinder Sachar Committee is a report on the contemporary status of Muslims in India which was commissioned in 2005 by the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh.
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians of India, Nasrani or Malankara Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila, Nasraya and in more ancient times Essani (Essene) are an ethnoreligious community of Malayali Syriac Christians from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Samajwadi Party (SP; translation: Socialist Party, founded 4 October 1992) is a political party in India headquartered in New Delhi and the largest recognised state party of the country.
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.
Sannyasa is the life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya (bachelor student), Grihastha (householder) and Vanaprastha (forest dweller, retired).
The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
Shastra (शास्त्र, IAST) is a Sanskrit word that means "precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise" in a general sense.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.
Shudra is the fourth varna, or one of the four social categories found in the texts of Hinduism.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
The Sind Division was the name an administrative division of the British Raj located in Sindh.
Social apartheid is de facto segregation on the basis of class or economic status, in which an underclass is forced to exist separated from the rest of the population.
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The social structure of the United Kingdom has historically been highly influenced by the concept of social class, with the concept still affecting British society today.
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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
Susan Bayly is a Professor of Historical Anthropology in the Cambridge University Division of Social Anthropology and a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
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Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, in Rawalpindi, Punjab – 22 November 1967, in Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century.
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Untouchable is a novel by Mulk Raj Anand published in 1935.
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Vellalars (also, Velalars, Vellalas) is a Tamil caste found mainly in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and in northeastern parts of Sri Lanka.
A votebank (also spelled vote-bank or vote bank) is a loyal bloc of voters from a single community, who consistently back a certain candidate or political formation in democratic elections.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests were a series of protests that took place in India in 2006 in opposition to the decision of the Union Government of India, led by the Indian National Congress-headed multiparty coalition United Progressive Alliance, to implement reservations for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in central and private institutes of higher education.
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