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A Coruña (is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country. The city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having also served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean. It provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region.
Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey (Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos) is a Benedictine monastery in the village of Santo Domingo de Silos in the southern part of Burgos Province in northern Spain.
Accipiter is a genus of birds of prey in the family Accipitridae.
Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez, GE, KOGF, OCIII (25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish lawyer and politician.
The Aesculapian snake (now Zamenis longissimus, previously Elaphe longissima), is a species of nonvenomous snake native to Europe, a member of the Colubrinae subfamily of the family Colubridae.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aguilar de Campoo is a town in the province of Palencia, autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Alagón is a 205 km long river in Spain, right tributary to the Tagus, as well as this river's longest tributary.
Alba de Tormes is a municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Alberche is a river in the provinces of Ávila, Madrid and Toledo, central Spain.
Alcazarén is a town and municipality in the Province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
Aldeadávila Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Douro River (also known as the Duero River) on the border between Spain and Portugal.
Aldeadávila de la Ribera is a village and municipality in the north-west of the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Alfonso IX (15 August 117123 or 24 September 1230) was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Alfonso VII (1 March 110521 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126.
Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
Almazán is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
Almeida de Sayago is a municipality located in the province of Zamora, Castile and León, Spain.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
The Anguillidae are a family of ray-finned fish that contains the freshwater eels.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".
Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz (26 July 1875 – 22 February 1939), was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.
The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is a Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Aranda de Duero is a town and municipality, capital of the Ribera del Duero comarca, in south of the province of Burgos, in Castile and León, Spain.
Arévalo is a municipality in Spain, it is situated in the province of Ávila and is part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Arlanza River rises in the Sierra de la Demanda, near Quintanar de la Sierra in an area known as Fuente Sanza.
Arlanzón is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
Arribes is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the southeast of the province of Zamora and the northeast of the province of Salamanca (Castile and León, Spain), along the border with Portugal on the banks of the River Duero.
Arribes del Duero Natural Park is a protected area in western Spain, covering 106.105 ha in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Astorga is a municipality and city of Spain located in the central area of the province of León, in the autonomous community of Castilla y León, southwest of the provincial capital.
The Astures or Asturs, also named Astyrs, were the Hispano-Celtic inhabitants of the northwest area of Hispania that now comprises almost the entire modern autonomous community of Principality of Asturias, the modern province of León, and the northern part of the modern province of Zamora (all in Spain), and east of Trás os Montes in Portugal.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca) is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca in Castile and León, northern Spain.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
The Autrigones were a pre-Roman tribe that settled in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, in what today is the western Basque Country (western regions of Biscay and Álava) and northern Burgos, Spain.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
The Águeda is a river tributary of the Douro River, that springs from the Serra das Mesas in Spain, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.
Ávila (Latin: Abula) is a Spanish town located in the autonomous community of Castile and León, and is the capital of the Province of Ávila.
Ólvega is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
The Órbigo River is a river in the provinces of León and Zamora, Spain.
Barbels are group of small carp-like freshwater fish, almost all of the genus Barbus.
The Basílica de San Isidoro de León is a church in León, Spain, located on the site of an ancient Roman temple.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
The Battle of Villalar was a battle in the Revolt of the Comuneros fought on April 23, 1521 near the town of Villalar in Valladolid province, Spain.
Béjar is a town and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
The beech marten (Martes foina), also known as the stone marten, house marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America.
Benavente is a town and municipality in the north of the province of Zamora, in the autonomous community Castile and León of Spain.
Bierzo is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the northwest of the province of León (Castile and León, Spain) and covers about 3,000 km².
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), or black-capped night heron, commonly shortened to just night heron in Eurasia, is a medium-sized heron found throughout a large part of the world, except in the coldest regions and Australasia (where it is replaced by the closely related rufous night heron, with which it has hybridized in the area of contact).
The municipality of Boñar is located in the province of León, Castile and León, Spain.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) (Official State Gazette) is the official gazette of the Government of Spain and is published every day except Sunday.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.
Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of the Old World.
Calabor is a village belonging to Pedralba de la Pradería, to the south of the shire of Sanabria in the province of Zamora, Spain.
Calidad Pascual (formerly Grupo Leche Pascual) is a Spanish dairy company based in Aranda de Duero, Spain.
The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
Campo Charro is one of the 11 comarcas in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
El Cantar de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid" (or El Poema de mio Cid), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
The Carrión is a river in northern Spain.
Carrión de los Condes is a municipality in the province of Palencia, part of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León, Spain.
The Cartularies of Valpuesta are two medieval Spanish cartularies which belonged to a monastery in the locality of Valpuesta in what is now the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
Castanea sativa, or sweet chestnut, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world.
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
Castile and León Day (Día de Castilla y León) is a holiday celebrated on April 23 in the autonomous community of Castile and León, a subdivision of Spain.
Castilian nationalism, or "Castilianism" (Castellanismo), is a political movement that advocates for the national recognition of Castile, and in some cases, its independence.
The Castilian Party (Partido Castellano or PCAS in Spanish) is a Spanish political party resulting from the union of several Castilian nationalist and regionalist political parties from Castile and León, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Castile-La Mancha.
Castilian-Leonese cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of the region of Castile and León in Spain.
The 2015 Castilian-Leonese regional election was held on Sunday, 24 May 2015, to elect the 9th Cortes of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León.
Castilla–La Mancha (or Castile–La Mancha) is an autonomous community of Spain.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Castromonte is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Saint Teresa of Jesus Catholic University,, commonly known as the Catholic University of Ávila (UCAV), is a private, Catholic university, located in Ávila, Castile and León, Spain.
The Côa River is a tributary of the Douro River, in central and northeastern Portugal.
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas ("Centre for Sociological Research") or CIS is a Spanish public research institute.
Cercedilla is a municipality of the autonomous community of Madrid in central Spain.
Cervera de Pisuerga is a municipality located in the province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain.
Cigales is a municipality in Province of Valladolid, Spain.
The cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) is a large raptorial bird that is distributed through much of Eurasia.
Citizens (Ciudadanos; Ciutadans; Hiritarrak; Cidadáns; shortened as Cs—C's until January 2017), officially Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (Ciudadanos – Partido de la Ciudadanía), is a centre-right and liberal political party in Spain.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Clunia (full name Colonia Clunia Sulpicia) was an ancient Roman city.
The coal tit (Periparus ater) is a passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae.
The coat of arms of Castile and León depicts the traditional arms of Castile (the yellow castle) quartered with the arms of León (the purple lion).
Coca is a municipality in the province of Segovia, central Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and Leon.
Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere.
Collado Villalba is a municipality of the Community of Madrid, in central Spain.
Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo is a large comarca in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León, Spain.
The common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) also known as the Eurasian kingfisher, and river kingfisher, is a small kingfisher with seven subspecies recognized within its wide distribution across Eurasia and North Africa.
The Eurasian minnow, minnow, or common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) is a small species of freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae.
The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa.
Tierra Comunera (Commoners' Land, TC) is a Castilian nationalist political party in the Spanish historical region of Castile.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
The Community of Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain.
A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
The Coniacian is an age or stage in the geologic timescale.
The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Coronella girondica is a harmless colubrid species found in southern Europe and northern Africa.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Cortes of Castile and León (Spanish: Cortes de Castilla y León) is the elected unicameral legislature of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León.
The Cortes of León from year 1188 was a parliamentary body in the medieval Kingdom of León.
Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple.
A crown is often an emblem of a sovereign state, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it (see The Crown).
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Cuéllar is a small Town and Municipality in the Province of Segovia, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, in Spain.
Cubillos del Sil is a village and municipality located in the region of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain).
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system (a type of agroforestry) and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal; in Portugal, it is known as a montado.
Democratic and Social Centre (Centro Democrático y Social, CDS) was a liberal political party in Spain, which was founded in 1982 by Adolfo Suárez, former Prime Minister of Spain.
The desman, a snouted and naked-tailed diving insectivore of the tribe Desmanini, belongs to one of two Eurasian species of the mole family, Talpidae.
Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantasy Drama in Two Parts), is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla.
The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
A dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae (this family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists).
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
Dryland farming and dry farming are agricultural techniques for non-irrigated cultivation of crops.
Dueñas is a municipality located in the province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain.
The Duratón River (Río Duratón) is a river in Spain.
The Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), also called the white scavenger vulture or pharaoh's chicken, is a small Old World vulture and the only member of the genus Neophron.
El Barco de Ávila is a municipality located in the province of Ávila, Castile and León, Spain.
El Bierzo (O Bierzo) is a comarca in the province of León, Spain.
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain.
El hombre y la Tierra (Spanish for Men and Earth) is a 1974 Spanish nature documentary television series produced by Televisión Española.
El Lazarillo de Tormes is a 1959 Spanish-Italian film directed by César Fernández Ardavín.
El Mundo (The World), formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno (The World of the Twenty-First Century) is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain.
Campo de Argañán is a subcomarca in the comarca of Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León.
The Roman colony of Emerita Augusta (present day Mérida) was founded in 25 BC by Augustus, to resettle emeriti soldiers discharged from the Roman army from two veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars: Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
Endesa, S.A. (originally an initialism for Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, S.A.) is the largest electric utility company in Spain.
Equo (also spelled Q, or eQuo) is a Spanish political party founded on 4 June 2011, when 35 different Spanish green parties agreed to merge into EQUO.
The Esla is a river in the provinces of León and Zamora in the northwest of Spain.
Estepa de San Juan is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
The Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops) is the most widespread species of the genus Upupa, native to Europe, Asia and the northern half of Africa.
The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian Subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia.
The Eurasian nuthatch or wood nuthatch (Sitta europaea) is a small passerine bird found throughout temperate Asia and in Europe, where its name is the nuthatch.
The Eurasian penduline tit or European penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus) is a passerine bird of the genus Remiz.
The Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.
The European green woodpecker (Picus viridis) is a member of the woodpecker family Picidae.
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
The European snow vole or snow vole (Chionomys nivalis, previously Arvicola nivalis and Microtus nivalis) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Extremaduran (autonym: estremeñu, represents a variable vowel -->) is a Romance linguistic variety, spoken by several hundred thousand people in Spain, in an area covering the north-western part of the autonomous community of Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.
Fagus sylvatica, the European beech or common beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae.
Félix Samuel Rodríguez de la Fuente (March 14, 1928 – March 14, 1980) contributed to the popularization of science, Spanish naturalist and broadcaster.
The Federal Democratic Republican Party (Partido Republicano Democrático Federal, PRDF) was a Spanish political party founded in 1868, during the Glorious revolution, that was active until 1912.
Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando III), 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint (el Santo), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231.
Ferdinand IV of Castile (6 December 1285 – 7 September 1312) called the Summoned (el Emplazado), was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.
Fermoselle is a small medieval village located in the province of Zamora, western Spain, and is part of the region of Castile and León in the south-west region of the province.
Fernán González (died 970) was the first autonomous count of Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernández de Burgos, who had been named count of Arlanza and the Duero around the year 900, and by tradition a descendant of semi-legendary judge Nuño Rasura.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The Republic of Spain (officially in Spanish República de España), commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
The flag of Castile and León is the official flag of the Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
The genus Fringilla is a small group of finches from the Old World, which are the only species in the subfamily Fringillinae.
Fuensaldaña is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
Fuentes de Oñoro is a village and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon.
Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The Galician Massif, Macizo Galaico, also known as Macizo Galaico-Leonés, is a system of mountain ranges in the northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gejuelo del Barro is a sparsely populated village and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon.
The General Council of Castile and Leon was the preautonomic entity of the Castile and Leon (Spain), that developed his activity from 1978 until 1983, the year that it went in force in the Statute of autonomy.
A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country).
Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe occupying most (about 85 percent) of the Iberian Peninsula and includes a small exclave inside France called Llívia as well as the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off northwest Africa, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of North Africa: Ceuta, Melilla, Islas Chafarinas, Peñón de Alhucemas, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera.
A geopark is a unified area that advances the protection and use of geological heritage in a sustainable way, and promotes the economic well-being of the people who live there.
Geria is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
Goat meat or goat's meat is the meat of the domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus).
The goldcrest (Regulus regulus) is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is a medium-sized woodpecker with pied black and white plumage and a red patch on the lower belly.
The grey heron (Ardea cinerea) is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa.
The greylag goose (Anser anser) is a species of large goose in the waterfowl family Anatidae and the type species of the genus Anser.
The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is a large Old World vulture in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
Guardo is a municipality in the province of Palencia, in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
Guijuelo is a municipality located in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León, Spain.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
Holy Week in Salamanca (Semana Santa de Salamanca) is the most important religious event of Salamanca, Spain.
The Holy Week in Valladolid is one of the main tourist attractions, and cultural and religious events of Valladolid and the surrounding province during Holy Week in Spain.
Holy Week in Zamora, Spain, is the annual commemoration of the Passion of Jesus Christ that takes place during the last week of Lent, the week immediately before Easter.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.
The Huebra is a river in Spain, that flows from Escurial de la Sierra (in Salamanca province) to the river Duero.
Iberdrola is a Spanish public multinational electric utility company based in Bilbao, Basque Country.
The Iberian ibex, Spanish ibex, Spanish wild goat, or Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) is a species of ibex with four subspecies.
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild cat species native to the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian rock lizard (Iberolacerta monticola or Lacerta monticola) is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae.
Iberian-gauge railways (ancho ibérico, trocha ibérica, bitola ibérica) is the name given to the railways using track gauge of, most extensively used by the railways of Spain and Portugal.
IE University is a private university, owned by Instituto de Empresa S.L. Its campuses are located in Segovia, Castile and León and Madrid, Community of Madrid (Spain).
Ilex aquifolium (holly, common holly, English holly, European holly, or occasionally Christmas holly), is a species of holly native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Imperator totius Hispaniae is a Latin title meaning "Emperor of all Spain".
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Initiative for the Development of Soria (IDES, Iniciativa por el Desarrollo de Soria) was a Sorian regionalist political party founded in 2002, mainly by ex-members of the provincial branch of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
ISO 3166-2:ES is the entry for Spain in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The river Jalón (Salo) is located in the northeast of Spain, and is one of the principal tributaries of the Ebro.
Jaramillo Quemado is a municipality located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz; 1542 – 14 December 1591) was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest, who was born at Fontiveros, Old Castile.
José Jiménez Lozano (born 13 May 1930) is a Spanish writer.
José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher, and essayist.
José Zorrilla y Moral (21 February 181723 January 1893) was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.
Juan del Enzina – the spelling he used – or Juan del Encina – modern Spanish spelling – (born July 12, 1468 – died late 1529 or early 1530)Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed.
Juan Vicente Herrera Campo (born 23 January 1956 in Burgos) is a Spanish politician, President of the Junta of Castile and León since 2001 and member of the conservative People's Party.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
The Junta of Castile and León (Junta de Castilla y León; JCyL) is the governing and administrative body of the Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León and serves as the executive branch and regulatory authority.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Comedy of Calisto and Melibea (Comedia de Calisto y Melibea.), known in Spain as La Celestina is a work entirely in dialogue published in 1499.
La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province in Spain, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.
La Robla is a municipality located in the province of León, Castile and León, Spain.
Laciana, Tsaciana in Leonese language, is a comarca in the province of León, Spain.
The ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris) is a species of non-venomous snake in the family Colubridae.
Laguna de Duero is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Las Edades del Hombre is a religious foundation that was created to promote the sacred art of Castilla y León (Spain).
Las Médulas is a historic gold-mining site near the town of Ponferrada in the comarca of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain).
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities (La vida de Lazarillo de Tormes y de sus fortunas y adversidades) is a Spanish novella, published anonymously because of its anticlerical content.
The region of León or Leonese region (Leonese: rexón de Llïón, región de León and rexón de Llión) is a historic territory defined by the 1833 Spanish administrative organisation.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
Ledesma is a town in the province of Salamanca (Spain).
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
The Leonese People's Union (Unión del Pueblo Leonés, UPL) is a regional political party in Castilla y León, Spain.
Lerma is a village in the province of Burgos, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Ávila, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of León, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Segovia in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Soria in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Valladolid in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
Zamora is a Spanish province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
This article lists some but by no means all of the oldest known church buildings in the world.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Los Ancares is a district in northern Spain, which is noted for its unspoilt landscapes and ecological importance.
Luis Delso Heras (born 1952) is a Spanish business management professional.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.
Matapozuelos is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
Mérida (Extremaduran: Méria) is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain.
Medina del Campo is a town located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León autonomous region, 45 km from Valladolid.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Merindad de Sotoscueva is a municipality located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Miguel de Cervantes European University (Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, UEMC) is a private university located in Valladolid, Castilla y León (Spain).
Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish Basque essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, professor of Greek and Classics, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.
Miguel Delibes Setién MML (17 October 1920 – 12 March 2010) was a Spanish novelist, journalist and newspaper editor associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
Miranda de Ebro is a city on the Ebro river in the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
S.A. Mirat, also known as Grupo Mirat (Mirat Group), or just as Mirat, is a Spanish company founded in 1812 in Salamanca, dedicated mainly to production of manures and fertilizers.
Moncayo is a 15 km long and about 7 km wide mountain massif giving name to the Tarazona y el Moncayo comarca, Aragon, Spain.
The Montes de León (Spanish for "mountains of León", named after the ancient Kingdom of León) is a mountain range in north-western Spain, in the provinces of León and Zamora.
Morales de Campos is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
A museum (plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
The National University of Distance Education, known in Spanish as Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), is a distance learning and research university founded in 1972 and is the only university run by the central government of Spain.
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture.
Gas Natural SDG, S.A., formerly Naturgy, is a Spanish natural gas and electrical energy utilities company, which operates primarily in Spain.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
In the early 20th century, Zacarías García Villada discovered the Nodicia de kesos on the backside of a tenth-century parchment recording a gift to the monastery of San Justo y Pastor, which was located in either Chozas de Abajo or Ardón del Esla in the Kingdom of León.
Numantia (Numancia in Spanish) was an ancient Celtiberian settlement, whose remains are located 7 km north of the city of Soria, on a hill known as Cerro de la Muela in the municipality of Garray.
Oña is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Ojo Guareña is a karst complex located in the Cantabrian Mountains of Castile and Leon, Spain, declared a natural monument by the government of Castile and Leon in 1996.
Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja) is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid and Palencia.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Palra d'El Rebollal (Spanish habla del Rebollar) is a dialect of Leonese or Extremaduran spoken in the share of El Rebollal, in Salamanca (Spain): Navasfrías (Navafrías), El Payo (Payu), Peñaparda (Peñaparda), Villasrubias (Villarrubias) and Robleda (Robrea).
Pampliega is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
A parador, in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries, is a kind of luxury hotel, usually located in a converted historic building such as a monastery or castle.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Páramo del Sil is a municipality of Spain, in the region of El Bierzo, province of León, autonomous region of Castilla y León.
The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
The Picos de Europa (literally: "Peaks of Europe", often abbreviated in English to the Picos) are a range of mountains 20 km inland from the northern coast of Spain, in the Autonomous Communities of Asturias, Cantabria and Castile and León; they are part of the Cantabrian Mountains.
Picos de Urbión, or "Urbion Peaks" is a mountain range in the Sistema Ibérico, Spain, limited by the Sierra de Neila and Sierra Cebollera of the same range.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Pisuerga is a river in northern Spain, the Duero's second largest tributary.
Podemos (translated in English as "We can") is a political party in Spain founded in March 2014 by political scientist Pablo Iglesias in the aftermath of the 15-M Movement protests against inequality and corruption.
In meteorology, the polar front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell around the 60° latitude in each hemisphere.
Ponferrada (from the Latin Pons Ferrata, Iron Bridge) is the capital city of El Bierzo in the Province of León, Spain.
The Pontifical University of Salamanca (in Spanish: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca) is a private Roman Catholic university based in Salamanca, Spain.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portugal–Spain border is the international boundary between Portugal and Spain.
Poza de la Sal is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain.
The President of the Junta of Castile and León, (Spanish: Presidente de la Junta de Castilla y León) is the executive head of government of the Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Ávila is a province of central-western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The province of Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The province of Cáceres is a province of western Spain, and makes up the northern half of the autonomous community of Extremadura.
Guadalajara (from Arabic وادي الحجارة wādi al-ħajāra, "streambed/valley of stones") is a province of central/north-central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Lugo is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Galicia.
Ourense is a province of northwestern Spain, in the southeastern part of the autonomous community of Galicia.
Palencia is a province of northern Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Salamanca is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León (Castilla y León).
Segovia is a province of central/northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Soria is a province of central Spain, in the eastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Toledo is a province of central Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Valladolid is a province of northwest Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Zamora is a province of western Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is a province of northern Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Aragon.
Quercus faginea, the Portuguese oak or Valencian oak, is a species of oak native to the western Mediterranean region in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region.
Quercus petraea, commonly known as the sessile oak, Cornish oak, or durmast oak, is a species of oak tree native to most of Europe and into Anatolia and Iran.
Quercus pyrenaica, commonly known as Pyrenean oak, is a tree native to southwestern Europe and northwestern Africa.
Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae.
Quercus suber, commonly called the cork oak, is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section ''Quercus'' sect. ''Cerris''.
Quiñonería is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
Quintana del Puente is a municipality located in the province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain.
Ramón Menéndez Pidal (13 March 1869 - 14 November 1968) was a Spanish philologist and historian.
This article includes several ranked indicators for Spain's autonomous communities, as well as for the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Red Eléctrica de España is a partly state-owned and public limited Spanish corporation which operates the national electricity grid in Spain, where it operates the national power transmission system.
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (Partido Regionalista del País Leonés) is a regional political party in Castilla y León, Spain. PREPAL strives to establish a separate autonomous community (País Leonés or Autonomous Community of País Leonés) for the provinces of Salamanca, Zamora and León, (parts of the old Kingdom of León), now in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León. PREPAL was founded in 1980 by Francisco Iglesias Carreño.
The Unidad Regionalista de Castilla y León or Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL) is a "regionalist, democratic, modern and innovative political party that, focusing on the principles of freedom, justice and solidarity, assumes the uncompromising defense of the legitimate interests of Castile and León." It grew out of the union of several parties from Salamanca, Palencia, Burgos, Zamora and Valladolid, such as the Democracia Regionalista (Regionalist Democracy) of Castile and León or the Unidad Palentina (Palentine Unit).
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Renfe Feve is a division of state-owned Spanish railway company Renfe Operadora.
Renfe Operadora is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the, the and the networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company Adif (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).
The Revolt of the Comuneros (Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521.
Ribera del Duero is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) located in the country's northern plateau and is one of eleven 'quality wine' regions within the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Ribera del Duero is a comarca or district located at the southern tip of the province of Burgos, part of the Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
A Royal Decree-Law is a legal rule having the force of a law in the Spanish legal system.
Rueda is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the Community of Castile and León.
Rueda is a village and municipality in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon, Spain.
Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
San Andrés del Rabanedo is a municipality located in the Province of León, Castile and León, Spain.
San Cebrián de Mudá is a municipality located in the province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain.
Sanabria (A Seabra in the Galician language, Senabria in Leonese language) is a comarca in the northwest of the province of Zamora, western Spain.
Sanabria Lake (Lago de Sanabria) is a lake located 8 km to the northwest of Puebla de Sanabria in the province of Zamora, Spain.
Santa María de Garoña Nuclear Power Plant is a mothballed nuclear power station at Santa María de Garoña, Burgos (Spain).
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
The Saucelle Dam is a gravity dam on the Douro River.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The short-toed treecreeper (Certhia brachydactyla) is a small passerine bird found in woodlands through much of the warmer regions of Europe and into north Africa.
The Sierra de Ávila is a mountain range in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Sierra de Béjar is a mountain range near the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Sierra de Francia is a mountain range located in Sierra de Francia Comarca at the southern end of Salamanca Province, Castile and León, Spain.
Sierra de Gata (Sierra e Gata) is one of the main mountain ranges in the Sistema Central, Spain.
The Sierra de Gredos is a mountain range in central Spain that spans the provinces of Ávila, Salamanca, Cáceres, Madrid, and Toledo.
The Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama Mountains) is a mountain range forming the main eastern section of the Sistema Central, the system of mountain ranges along the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Siete Partidas ("Seven-Part Code") or simply Partidas was a Castilian statutory code first compiled during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile (1252–1284), with the intent of establishing a uniform body of normative rules for the kingdom.
Simancas is a town and municipality of central Spain, located in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Central System, Spanish and Sistema Central, is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
The Iberian System (Sistema Ibérico), is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
Smooth snake (Coronella austriaca)Street D. 1979.
Sorbus is a genus of about 100–200 species of trees and shrubs in the rose family, Rosaceae.
Sorbus aria (syn. Aria nivea), the whitebeam or common whitebeam, is a European and Near-Eastern deciduous tree, the type species of the subgenus of the whitebeams.
Soria is a municipality and a Spanish city, located on the Douro river in the east of the autonomous community of Castile and León and capital of the province of Soria.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), also known as the Iberian imperial eagle, Spanish eagle, or Adalbert's eagle, is a threatened species of eagle native to the Iberian Peninsula.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
A Special Protection Area (SPA) is a designation under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
The family Talpidae includes the moles, shrew moles, desmans, and other intermediate forms of small insectivorous mammals of the order Eulipotyphla.
Tariego de Cerrato is a municipality located in the province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain.
The tawny owl or brown owl (Strix aluco) is a stocky, medium-sized owl commonly found in woodlands across much of Eurasia.
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
The Tâmega (Tamaca) or Támega is a river in Galicia, Spain and Portugal.
Televisión Española (acronym TVE, on lowercase letters: tve, in English "Spanish Television") is the national state-owned public-service television broadcaster in Spain.
Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada (28 March 15154 October 1582), was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun and author during the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer.
Los santos or The Holy Innocents is a Spanish drama film directed by Mario Camus, based on famous Miguel Delibes' novel of the same title.
Tiétar is a river of Spain.
Tierra de Campos ("Land of Fields") is a large historical and natural region or greater comarca that straddles the provinces of León, Zamora, Valladolid and Palencia, in Castile and León, Spain.
Tierra de Léon is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines located in the south of the province of León, in Castile and León, Spain, and covers an area of 3,317 km2 at an altitude of approximately 900 m above sea level.
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
Tordehumos is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain.
Tordesillas is a town and municipality in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, central Spain.
The Tormes is a Spanish river, that starts in Prado Tormejón, in the mountain range of Gredos, Navarredonda de Gredos, province of Ávila.
Toro is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines in the province of Zamora, which is in the northwest of Castile and Léon (Spain).
Toro is a town and municipality in the province of Zamora, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
Torralba is a municipality in the province of Cuenca, Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turmodigi were a pre-Roman ancient people, later mixed with the Celts people of northern Spain who occupied the area within the Arlanzón and Arlanza river valleys in the 2nd Iron Age.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
The typical warblers are small birds belonging to the genus Sylvia in the "Old World warbler" (or sylviid warbler) family Sylviidae.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unión Fenosa, S.A. was a large Spanish company dedicated to the production and distribution to end users of gas and electricity.
The Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD, also translated as "Democratic Centre Union") was an electoral coalition, and later political party, in Spain, existing from 1977 to 1983.
Union, Progress and Democracy (Unión Progreso y Democracia, UPyD) is a Spanish political party founded in September 2007.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Left (Izquierda Unida, IU) is a political coalition that was organized in 1986, bringing together several left-wing and far-left political organizations.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Burgos (in Spanish: Universidad de Burgos and often abbreviated UBU) is a public university in the Spanish city of Burgos with about 10,000 students studying over 30 different undergraduate degrees, over 20 PhD Programmes, as well as several Official Masters and other graduate courses.
The University of León is a Spanish public university with campus in León and Ponferrada.
The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The University of Valladolid is a public university in the city of Valladolid, province of Valladolid, in the autonomous region of Castile and Leon, Spain.
The Upper Court of Justice of Castile and León, is an organ of the Judicial Power of Spain whose main purpose is to exert the jurisdiction, this is, resolve disputes with efficiency of thing judged, in the territory of the autonomous community of Castile and Leon. It reaches to all his territorial field, in the civil orders, penal, contentious-administrative and social, without prejudice to the competitions that correspond to the High court. Also it has entrusted the resolution of the questions of competition that pose between judicial organs in Castile and Leon.
The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania (specifically in Castile and León).
Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
The Vía de La Plata (Silver Way) or Ruta de la Plata (Silver Route) is an ancient commercial and pilgrimage path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Mérida to Astorga.
Velilla del Río Carrión is a municipality located in the province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain.
Velilla Power Plant is a coal-fired power plant near the village of Velilla del Río Carrión in the province of Palencia, community of Castile and León, Spain.
Venta de Baños is a small town and municipality of about 6,400 inhabitants located in the Cerrato district of the province of Palencia, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León in central Spain.
The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.
Villablino (Leonese: Vitsablinu) is a municipality located in the Laciana comarca, province of León, Castile and León, Spain.
Villanueva de Gormaz is a municipality located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
Vilvestre is a village and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the wood grouse, heather cock, or just capercaillie, is the largest member of the grouse family.
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wildcat is a small cat species complex comprising ''Felis silvestris'' and the ''Felis lybica''.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora.
The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known in Spain as 11-M) were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections.
Autonomous Community of Castile and León, Castile & León, Castile and Leon, Castile and Lion, Castile and Léon, Castile and leon, Castile y Leon, Castile y León, Castile-Leon, Castile-León, Castilla León, Castilla and leon, Castilla leon, Castilla y Leon, Castilla y Leon Autonomous Community, Castilla y Leon Autonomous Community, Spain, Castilla y León, Castilla y León Autonomous Community, Castilla y León Autonomous Community, Spain, Castilla-Leon, Castilla-León, Castilla–León, Castille and Leon, Castille and León, Castille and leon, Castille y Leon, Castille y León, Castille-Leon, Castille-León, History of Castile and León.