233 relations: Al-Adil I, Al-Karak, Albarrana tower, Alcazaba of Badajoz, Alcázar, Americas, Anglo-Saxons, Antioch, Antiquarian, Archaeology, Arrowslit, Artificial ruins, Artillery, Ávila, Spain, Ħal Far, Ballista, Barbican, Baron de Longueuil, Bastion, Bastion fort, Battering ram, Battlement, Bayeux Tapestry, Beaumaris Castle, Belvoir Fortress, Bent entrance, Bloomsbury Publishing, Bodiam Castle, Brick Gothic, British Archaeological Association, Bronze Age, Bubaqra, Bubaqra Tower, Burgstall, Burh, Byzantine architecture, Caernarfon Castle, Caerphilly Castle, Cambridge University Press, Carolingian Empire, Castle Drogo, Castle town, Castra, Cave castle, Chapultepec Castle, Charles the Bald, Château, Château de Chinon, Château de Coucy, Château de Dinan, ..., Château de Ham, Château de Langeais, Château Gaillard, Chemin de ronde, Chivalry, Cistern, Classical antiquity, Clones, County Monaghan, Concentric castle, Constantinople, Counterscarp, County of Edessa, County of Tripoli, Court (royal), Courtly love, Crusader states, Crusades, Curtain wall (fortification), Curvilinear coordinates, Découvertes Gallimard, Deer park (England), Defensive wall, Demography of the Roman Empire, Diminutive, Din l-Art Ħelwa, Ditch (fortification), Doornenburg Castle, Doué-la-Fontaine, Dover Castle, Dower, Drawbridge, Dzong architecture, Eaton Socon, Edward I of England, Edwin Lutyens, Enfilade and defilade, English Civil War, English country house, English Heritage, Escalade, Fall of Constantinople, Fertile Crescent, Feudalism, First Crusade, Folly, Fort Longueuil, Fort Senneville, Fortaleza Ozama, Fortification, Forts in India, Franks, Galilee, Georges Duby, Gloucester Castle, Gothic Revival architecture, Greenwood Publishing Group, Groupe Flammarion, Gunpowder, Harper (publisher), Headquarters, Henry I of England, Hill castle, Hillfort, Hillside castle, Hoarding (castle), House of Plantagenet, Hungarians, Indus River, Iron Age, Iroquois, Island castle, James of Saint George, Japanese castle, Keep, Kenilworth Castle, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, Krak des Chevaliers, Latin, Leeds Castle, Legitimacy (family law), Lincoln, England, List of castles in Africa, Livonia, Livonian Crusade, Low Countries, Lowland castle, Machicolation, Maiden Castle, Dorset, Malbork Castle, Mangonel, Manor house, Manorialism, Margat, Marksburg, Medieval cuisine, Medieval technology, Mehmed the Conqueror, MENA, Merlon, Middle Ages, Military order (monastic society), Moat, Motte-and-bailey castle, Murder-hole, Neuschwanstein Castle, New France, Nobility, Norman conquest of England, Normandy, Northern Europe, Old English, Old French, Orford Castle, Osprey Publishing, Owain Glyndŵr, Oxford University Press, Palace, Palisade, Parish church, Peel tower, Peveril Castle, Playmobil FunPark, Portcullis, Principality of Antioch, Prometheus Books, Provence, Prussia, Raglan Castle, Rampart (fortification), Reconquista, Rhuddlan Castle, Ridge castle, Ringwork, Romanesque architecture, Romanticism, Rougemont Castle, Safed, Saint-Georges-d'Espéranche, Saladin, Sally port, Sanskrit, Sapping, Saracen, Saxon Shore, Scaffolding, Schloss, Siege tower, Slighting, Sortie, Spanish Main, Springald, Spur castle, Stephen Turnbull (historian), Stonemasonry, Sycharth, Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, Teutonic Order, Thames & Hudson, The Crown, The History Press, The Midlands, Third Crusade, Toll castle, Tournament (medieval), Tower house, Treadwheel crane, Trebuchet, Tristan and Iseult, Tunnel warfare, Turret, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, UNESCO, University of Chicago Press, University of Minnesota Press, Vassal, Vikings, Warwick Castle, Water castle, Water well, Wends, William the Conqueror. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Al-Adil I (العادل, in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu-Bakr Ahmed ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub, الملك العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب,‎ "Ahmed, son of Najm ad-Din Ayyub, father of Bakr, the King, the Just, Sword of the Faith"; 1145–1218) was an Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria of Kurdish descent.
Al-Karak (الكرك), also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle.
An Albarrana tower (from the Arabic word barrani.
The Alcazaba of Badajoz is an ancient Moorish citadel in Badajoz, Extremadura, western Spain.
An alcázar is a type of Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during Muslim rule, although some were founded by Christians and others were built on earlier Roman or Visigothic fortifications.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
An arrowslit (often also referred to as an arrow loop, loophole or loop hole, and sometimes a balistraria) is a narrow vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows.
Artificial ruins or imitation ruins are edifice fragments built to resemble real remnants of historic buildings.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Ávila (Latin: Abula) is a Spanish town located in the autonomous community of Castile and León, and is the capital of the Province of Ávila.
Ħal Far is one of the main industrial estates in Malta.
The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα ballistra and that from βάλλω ballō, "throw"), plural ballistae, sometimes called bolt thrower, was an ancient missile weapon that launched a large projectile at a distant target.
A barbican is a fortified outpost or gateway, such as an outer defense to a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge which was used for defensive purposes.
The title Baron de Longueuil is the only currently-extant French colonial title that is recognized by Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada.
A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.
A bastion fort, a type of trace Italienne (literally, Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield.
A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates.
A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.
The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux or La telle du conquest; Tapete Baiocense) is an embroidered cloth nearly long and tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.
Beaumaris Castle (Castell Biwmares), located in the town of the same name on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, was built as part of Edward I's campaign to conquer the north of Wales after 1282.
Belvoir Fortress (כוכב הירדן, Kochav HaYarden "Star of the Jordan"; كوكب الهوا, Kawkab al-Hawa "Star of the Wind") is a Crusader fortress in northern Israel, on a hill south of the Sea of Galilee.
A bent entrance is a defensive feature in mediaeval fortification.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex, England.
Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.
The British Archaeological Association (BAA) was founded in 1843 and aims to inspire, support and disseminate high quality research in the fields of Western archaeology, art and architecture, primarily of the mediæval period, through lectures, conferences, study days and publications.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bubaqra is a hamlet with its own administrative division in Żurrieq, Malta.
Bubaqra Tower (Torri ta' Bubaqra), formerly named as Saliba Tower, is a fortified house in Bubaqra, limits of Żurrieq, Malta.
A burgstall is a German term referring to a castle of which so little is left that its appearance cannot effectively be reconstructed.
A burh or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.
Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon), often anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service.
Caerphilly Castle (Castell Caerffili) is a medieval fortification in Caerphilly in South Wales.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Castle Drogo is a country house and castle near Drewsteignton, Devon, England.
A castle town is a settlement built adjacent to or surrounding a castle.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
A cave castle (Höhlenburg) or grotto castle (German: Grottenburg) is a residential or refuge castle that has been built into a natural cave.
Chapultepec Castle (Castillo de Chapultepec) is located on top of Chapultepec Hill.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.
Château de Chinon is a castle located on the bank of the Vienne river in Chinon, France.
The Château de Coucy is a French castle in the commune of Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, in Picardy, built in the 13th century and renovated by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century.
The Château de Dinan consists of a keep, in the town of Dinan, in the Côtes-d'Armor département of the Brittany region of France.
The Château de Ham (also called fort or forteresse de Ham) is a castle in the commune of Ham in the Somme département in Hauts-de-France, France.
The Château de Langeais is a medieval castle in Indre-et-Loire, France, built on a promontory created by the small valley of the Roumer River at the opening to the Loire Valley.
Château Gaillard ("Strong Castle") is a ruined medieval castle, located above the commune of Les Andelys overlooking the River Seine, in the Eure département of Normandy, France.
A chemin de ronde (French, "round path"' or "patrol path")—also called an allure, alure or, more prosaically, a wall-walk—is a raised protected walkway behind a castle battlement.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Clones is a small town in western County Monaghan, Ireland.
A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the inner wall is higher than the outer and can be defended from it.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A scarp and a counterscarp are the inner and outer sides of a ditch or moat used in fortifications.
"Les Croisades, Origines et consequences", Claude Lebedel, p.50--> The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century.
The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
A curtain wall is a defensive wall between two towers (bastions) of a castle, fortress, or town.
In geometry, curvilinear coordinates are a coordinate system for Euclidean space in which the coordinate lines may be curved.
Découvertes Gallimard (literally in English “Discoveries Gallimard”; in United Kingdom: New Horizons, in United States: Abrams Discoveries) is an encyclopaedic of illustrated, pocket-sized books on a variety of subjects, aimed at adults and teenagers.
In medieval and Early Modern England, a deer park was an enclosed area containing deer.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
Din l-Art Ħelwa (National Trust of Malta) is a non-governmental and non-profit, voluntary organisation founded in 1968, by Maltese Judge Maurice Caruana Carron, to safeguard Malta's cultural heritage and natural environment.
A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders.
Castle Doornenburg (Kasteel Doornenburg is a Dutch castle from the 13th century. The castle is located in the eastern part of the province of Gelderland, near the village of Doornenburg. It is one of the biggest and most well-preserved castles in the Netherlands. It consists of the main castle and a front castle which are connected via a small wooden bridge. The castle was originally a fortified manor built in the 9th century. At this stage, it was known as the Villa Dorenburc. It wasn't until the 13th century that it was converted into a proper castle. Gradually, through the centuries, the castle was expanded further into its current form. The front castle was built in the 15th century. It contains sleeping quarters, a chapel and a farm, the latter being quite a unique feature for a Dutch castle. Castle Doornenburg was occupied until the 19th century. After that it fell into disrepair and became a ruin. In 1936 the Stichting tot Behoud van den Doornenburg (literally: Foundation for Preservation of the Doornenburg) was created and the castle was restored between 1937 and 1941. Unfortunately, by the end of the Second World War it was almost completely destroyed. The Germans were thought to have blown it up, but it had actually been hit by a British bombardment in March 1945. The castle was completely rebuilt between 1947 and 1968. In 1968 this castle, amongst others, was used as a set for the television series Floris. Image:Doornenburg.jpg|Old print Image:Kasteel Doornenburg (133).JPG|Chapel Image:Kasteel Doornenburg (100).JPG|Main gate Image:Doornenburg-kasteel.jpg|Castle wall Image:Kasteel Doornenburg (48).JPG|Castle wall Image:Doornenburg-2007-1.jpg|Castle courtyard.
Doué-la-Fontaine is a former commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover, Kent, England.
Dower is a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should become widowed.
A drawbridge or draw-bridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle and a number of towers, surrounded by a moat.
Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found mainly in Bhutan and the former Tibet.
Eaton Socon is a district of St Neots in Cambridgeshire, England.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era.
Enfilade and defilade are concepts in military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside.
English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.
Escalade is the act of scaling defensive walls or ramparts with the aid of ladders, and was a prominent feature of siege warfare in medieval times.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, but suggesting through its appearance some other purpose, or of such extravagant appearance that it transcends the range of garden ornaments usually associated with the class of buildings to which it belongs.
Fort Longueuil was a stone fort that stood in Longueuil, Canada from 1690 to 1810.
Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671.
The Ozama Fortress (Fortaleza Ozama) was built in 1502 by the Spanish at the entrance to Santo Domingo's Ciudad Colonial, Dominican Republic, and overlooking the Ozama River.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Most of the forts in India are actually castles or fortresses.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Georges Duby (7 October 1919 – 3 December 1996) was a French historian who specialised in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages.
Gloucester Castle was a castle in the city of Gloucester in the county of Gloucestershire.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Groupe Flammarion is the fourth-largest publishing group in France, comprising many units, including its namesake, founded in 1876 by Ernest Flammarion, as well as units in distribution, sales, printing and bookshops (La Hune and Flammarion Center).
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
A hill castle is a castle built on a natural feature that stands above the surrounding terrain.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
A hillside castle is a castle built on the side of a hill above much of the surrounding terrain but below the summit itself.
A hoard or hoarding (also known as a brattice or brettice, from the French bretèche) was a temporary wooden shed-like construction that was placed on the exterior of the ramparts of a castle during a siege to allow the defenders to improve their field of fire along the length of a wall and, most particularly, directly downwards to the wall base.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
The island castle (Inselburg) is a variation of the water castle.
Master James of Saint George (c. 1230 – 1309), also known as Master James of Savoy and in French Maitre Jacques de Saint-Georges d'Espéranche, was an architect from Savoy, described by historian Marc Morris as "one of the greatest architects of the European Middle Ages".
were fortresses constructed primarily of wood and stone.
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.
Kenilworth Castle is located in the town of the same name in Warwickshire, England.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Krak des Chevaliers (حصن الفرسان), also Crac des Chevaliers, Ḥoṣn al-Akrād (rtl, literally "Castle of the Kurds"), formerly Crac de l'Ospital is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leeds Castle is in Kent, England, southeast of Maidstone.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
This list of castles in Africa includes castles, forts, and mock castles in Africa.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
The term lowland castle or plains castle (Niederungsburg, Flachlandburg or Tieflandburg) describes a type of castle based that is situated on a lowland, plain or valley floor, as opposed to one built on higher ground such as a hill spur.
A machicolation (mâchicoulis) is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones or other material, such as boiling water or boiling cooking oil, could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensive wall.
Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset.
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (zamek w Malborku; Ordensburg Marienburg) was built in the 13th century in Prussia and is currently located near the town of Malbork, Poland.
A mangonel, also called the traction trebuchet, was a type of catapult or siege engine used in China starting from the Warring States period, and later across Eurasia in the 6th century AD.
A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Margat, also known as Marqab from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab (قلعة المرقب, "Castle of the Watchtower") is a castle near Baniyas, Syria, which was a Crusader fortress and one of the major strongholds of the Knights Hospitaller.
The Marksburg is a castle above the town of Braubach in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages, which lasted from the fifth to the fifteenth century.
Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian rule.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence.
A motte-and-bailey castle is a fortification with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade.
A murder hole or meurtrière is a hole in the ceiling of a gateway or passageway in a fortification through which the defenders could fire, throw or pour harmful substances or objects, such as rocks, arrows, scalding water, hot sand, quicklime, tar, or boiling oil, down on attackers.
Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Orford Castle is a castle in the village of Orford, Suffolk, England, located 12 miles (20 km) northeast of Ipswich, with views over the Orford Ness.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
Owain Glyndŵr (c. 1359 – c. 1415), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) but to many, viewed as an unofficial king.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure.
A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish.
Peel towers (also spelt pele) are small fortified keeps or tower houses, built along the English and Scottish borders in the Scottish Marches and North of England, intended as watch towers where signal fires could be lit by the garrison to warn of approaching danger.
Peveril Castle (also Castleton Castle or Peak Castle) is a ruined 11th-century castle overlooking the village of Castleton in the English county of Derbyshire.
Playmobil FunPark is the world's second largest Playmobil factory, located in Ħal Far in the extreme south of Malta.
A portcullis (from the French porte coulissante, "sliding door") is a heavy vertically-closing gate typically found in medieval fortifications, consisting of a latticed grille made of wood, metal, or a combination of the two, which slides down grooves inset within each jamb of the gateway.
The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria.
Prometheus Books is a publishing company founded in August 1969 by the philosopher Paul Kurtz (who was also the founder of the Council for Secular Humanism, Center for Inquiry, and co-founder of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry).
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Raglan Castle (Castell Rhaglan) is a late medieval castle located just north of the village of Raglan in the county of Monmouthshire in south east Wales.
In fortification architecture, a rampart is a length of bank or wall forming part of the defensive boundary of a castle, hillfort, settlement or other fortified site.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Rhuddlan Castle (Castell Rhuddlan) is a castle located in Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales.
A ridge castle (from the German word Kammburg) is a medieval fortification built on a ridge or the crest of mountain or hill chain.
A ringwork is a form of fortified defensive structure, usually circular or oval in shape.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rougemont Castle, also known as Exeter Castle, is the historic castle of the city of Exeter, Devon, England.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
Saint-Georges-d'Espéranche is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
A sally port is a secure, controlled entryway to a fortification or prison.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sapping is a term used in siege operations to describe any trench excavated near an attacked, defended fortification, under defensive small arms or artillery fire.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Saxon Shore (litus Saxonicum) was a military command of the late Roman Empire, consisting of a series of fortifications on both sides of the English Channel.
Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures.
Schloss (pl. Schlösser), formerly written Schloß, is the German term for a building similar to a château, palace, or manor house; or what in the United Kingdom would be known as a stately home or country house.
A siege tower or breaching tower (or in the Middle Ages, a belfryCastle: Stephen Biesty'sSections. Dorling Kindersley Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). Siege towers were invented in 300 BC.) is a specialized siege engine, constructed to protect assailants and ladders while approaching the defensive walls of a fortification.
Slighting is the destruction, partial or complete, of a fortification without opposition, to render it unusable as a fortress.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
In the context of Spain's New World Empire, its mainland coastal possessions surrounding the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico were referred to collectively as the Spanish Main.
A Springald, or espringal, is a mechanical artillery device for throwing large bolts and less commonly stones or Greek fire.
A spur castle is a type of medieval fortification that uses its location as a defensive feature.
Stephen Richard Turnbull (born 6 February 1948) is a British academic, historian and writer.
The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.
Sycharth is a motte and bailey castle and town in Llansilin, Powys, Wales.
Tattershall Castle is a castle in Tattershall, Lincolnshire, England, about 12 miles (19 km) north east of Sleaford.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The History Press is a British publishing company specialising in the publication of titles devoted to local and specialist history.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
A toll castle (Zollburg) is a castle that, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era, guarded a customs post and was intended to control it.
A tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei) was a chivalrous competition or mock fight in Europe in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries).
A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation.
A treadwheel crane (Latin magna rota) is a wooden, human powered, hoisting and lowering device.
A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
Tristan and Iseult is a tale made popular during the 12th century through Anglo-Norman literature, inspired by Celtic legend, particularly the stories of Deirdre and Naoise and Diarmuid Ua Duibhne and Gráinne.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.
In architecture, a turret (from Italian: torretta, little tower; Latin: turris, tower) is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from an original built by William the Conqueror in 1068.
A water castle is a castle or stately home whose site is entirely surrounded by water-filled moats (moated castles) or natural waterbodies such as island castles in a river or offshore.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
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