262 relations: A, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, Adjective, Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Algeria, Algherese dialect, Alghero, Algiers, Alicante, Alsatian dialect, Alveolar consonant, Andorra, Apertium, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Aragon, Aranese dialect, Article (grammar), Asturian language, Ausiàs March, Autonomous communities of Spain, Àngel Guimerà, Òmnium Cultural, B, Bajo Cinca/Baix Cinca, Balearic dialect, Balearic Islands, Barracks, Barracoon, Basque language, Bernat Metge, Betacism, Bilabial consonant, Bonaventura Carles Aribau, Breton language, C, Campidanese dialect, Carche, Carolingian Empire, Catalan Braille, Catalan Countries, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan personal pronouns, Catalonia, Central Catalan, Central consonant, Classical Latin, Comarcas of Aragon, ..., Compound (linguistics), Consonant cluster, Constitution of Andorra, County of Barcelona, Crown of Aragon, Cucumber, D, Dead end (street), Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dialect, Diglossia, E, Ebro, English language, Esperanto, Ethnologue, European Union, Exonym and endonym, Extraposition, F, Final-obstruent devoicing, Flap consonant, Flemish, Formentera, France, Franco-Provençal language, Francoist Spain, Free software, French First Republic, French language, French Revolution, Fricative consonant, G, Galician language, Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Romance languages, Gemination, General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales, Generalitat de Catalunya, Gothic language, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, H, Hispania Tarraconensis, I, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Romance languages, Ibiza, Inflection, Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Isogloss, Italian language, Italic languages, Italo-Western languages, Italy, J, Jacint Verdaguer, Joanot Martorell, K, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Valencia, L, La Bressola, La Franja, La Litera, Ladin language, Language shift, Languages of Catalonia, Languages of France, Languages of Italy, Languages of Spain, Languedoc-Roussillon, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, Latin Union, Lenition, Linguistic features of Spanish as spoken by Catalan speakers, Lunfardo, M, Macaronic language, Mallorca, Manresa, Manuel de Pedrolo, Marca Hispanica, Marina Abràmova, Masculinity, Matarraña, Mediterranean Sea, Menorca, Middle Ages, Middle French, Modal verb, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Multilingualism, Murcia, Muslim, N, Narcís Oller, Nasal consonant, National language, Normes de Castelló, Northern Catalan, Northern Catalonia, Noun, Nueva Planta decrees, O, Object (grammar), Occitan language, Occitano-Romance languages, Official language, Old Catalan, Old French, Old Occitan, Oran, P, Paella, Palatal consonant, Palato-alveolar consonant, Passive voice, Philip Babcock Gove, Philip M. Parker, Philology, Phonetics, Phonology, Pied-Noir, Pierre Bec, Plataforma per la Llengua, Pompeu Fabra, Portuguese language, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Principality of Catalonia, Pronoun, Pronunciation, Proparoxytone, Prosodic unit, Province of Alicante, Province of Barcelona, Province of Girona, Province of Lleida, Province of Sassari, Province of Tarragona, Pyrénées-Orientales, Pyrenees, Q, R, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Ramon Llull, Region of Murcia, Renaixença, Ribagorza (comarca), Romance languages, Romanian language, Roussillon, S, Sardinia, Sardinian language, Second Spanish Republic, Semantics, Signed Spanish, Sociolinguistics, Sovereign state, Spain, Spanish language, Spanish transition to democracy, Stateless nation, Statistical Institute of Catalonia, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Suppletion, Syllable, Syntax, T, T–V distinction, Tirant lo Blanch, Topic and comment, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty of the Pyrenees, Trill consonant, U, University of the Balearic Islands, V, Val d'Aran, Valencia, Valencian, Valencian Community, Valencians, Velar consonant, Verb, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel breaking, Vowel reduction, Vulgar Latin, W, War of the Spanish Succession, Western Romance languages, Word order, X, Y, Z. Expand index (212 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (English: Valencian Language Academy), also known by the acronym AVL, is an institution created on September 16, 1998, by the Valencian Parliament, which belongs to the set of official institutions that compose the Generalitat Valenciana, according to the Act of Autonomy of the Valencian Community.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algherese (Standard Catalan: Alguerès,; Algherese: Alguerés) is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero (L'Alguer in Catalan), in the northwest of Sardinia, Italy.
Alghero (L'Alguer,,; S'Alighèra; La Liéra), is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Apertium is a free/open-source rule-based machine translation platform.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
Ausiàs March (1400March 3, 1459) was a medieval Valencian poet and knight from Gandia, Valencia.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
Àngel Guimerà (6 May 1845 or 6 May 1847 or 1849 – 18 July 1924), known also as Ángel Guimerá, was a Spanish writer in Catalan language.
Òmnium Cultural is a Catalan association based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Bajo Cinca or Baix Cinca (Cinca Baxa) is a comarca in eastern Aragon, Spain.
Balearic (balear) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Menorca.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.
A barracoon (from Catalan barraca ('hut') through Spanish barracón) is a type of barracks used historically for the temporary confinement of slaves or criminals.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bernat Metge (1340 – 1413) was a Catalan humanist, best known as the author of Lo Somni (c. 1399).
In historical linguistics, betacism is a sound change in which (the voiced bilabial plosive, as in bane) and (the voiced labiodental fricative, as in vane) are confused.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bonaventura Carles Aribau (1798–1862) was a Spanish writer and politician who wrote in Spanish, Catalan, Latin, and Italian.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
Campidanese Sardinian (Sardu Campidanesu, Sardo Campidanese) is a standardised variety of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari, Italy.
Carche (El Carxe) is a mountainous, sparsely populated area in the Region of Murcia, Spain, lying between the municipalities of Jumilla and Yecla.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Catalan Braille is the braille alphabet of the Catalan language.
The Catalan Countries (Els Països Catalans),, refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
This article discusses the forms and functions of the personal pronouns in Catalan grammar.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Central Catalan (català central) is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest number of speakers, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most of the Girona province, except for it is northern part, where a transition to Northern Catalan begins.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Here is a list of the administrative comarcas (counties) in the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The Constitution of Andorra (Constitució d'Andorra) is the supreme law of the Principality of Andorra.
The County of Barcelona (Comitatus Barcinonensis) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A dead end is a street with only one inlet/outlet.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Extraposition is a mechanism of syntax that alters word order in such a manner that a relatively "heavy" constituent appears to the right of its canonical position.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Flemish (Vlaams), also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands), or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is any of the varieties of the Dutch language dialects spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.
Formentera is the smaller and more southerly island of the Pityusic Islands group (comprising Ibiza and Formentera, as well as various small islets), which belongs to the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales (in French: Conseil Général des Pyrénées-Orientales, Catalan: Consell General dels Pirineus Orientals) is the assembly elected for 6 years by the 31 Cantons of the Pyrénées-Orientales and its executive.
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan;,; Generalidad de Cataluña) is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.
Ibiza (Eivissa) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The Institut d'Estudis Catalans (English: "Institute for Catalan Studies"), also known by the acronym IEC, is an academic institution which seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture".
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italo-Western is, in some classifications, the largest branch of the Romance languages.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a catalan writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.
Joanot Martorell (Gandia, south of Valencia, 1413 – 1468) was a Valencian knight and the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch, written in the Valencian vernacular (Martorell calls it vulgar llengua valenciana) and published at Valencia in 1490.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
La Bressola is a cultural association founded in Perpignan, France in 1976 to promote a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs in France, particularly in the comarques of so-called North Catalonia.
La Franja ("The Strip") is the area of Catalan-speaking territories of Aragon bordering Catalonia, in Spain.
La Litera or La Llitera (A Litera) is an Aragonese comarca in the south-east of the province of Huesca.
Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
There are four languages with official status in Catalonia (an autonomous community of Spain): Catalan; Spanish, which is official throughout Spain; Aranese, a dialect of Occitan spoken in the Aran Valley; and Catalan Sign Language.
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
Languedoc-Roussillon (Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is a former administrative region of France.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Latin Union was an international organization of nations that used Romance languages that existed as a functional institution from 1983 to 2012.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
The Spanish language is widely spoken in most of the Catalan-speaking territories, where it is partly characterized by language contact with the Catalan language.
Lunfardo (from the Italian lumbardo or inhabitant of Lombardy in the local dialect) is a dialect originated and developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the lower classes in Buenos Aires and from there spread to other cities nearby, such as the surrounding area Greater Buenos Aires, Rosario and Montevideo.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Macaronic refers to text using a mixture of languages, particularly bilingual puns or situations in which the languages are otherwise used in the same context (rather than simply discrete segments of a text being in different languages).
Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.
Manresa is the capital of the Comarca of Bages, located in the geographic centre of Catalonia, Spain, and crossed by the river Cardener.
Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina (1918-1990) was an author of novels, short stories, poetry and plays.
The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
Marina Abràmova is a Russian expert in Catalan culture, born in Moscow in 1955.
Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
Matarraña or Matarranya is a comarca in eastern Aragon, bordering the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Valencia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission and obligation, and advice.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Narcís Oller i Moragas (10 August 1846 in Valls – 26 July 1930 in Barcelona) was a Catalan writer, most noted for the novels La papallona (The Butterfly) which appeared with a foreword by Émile Zola in the French translation; his most well-known work L'Escanyapobres (The Usurer); and La febre d'or (Gold Fever) which is set in Barcelona during the period of promoterism.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Normes de Castelló ("Castelló's Norms"), also known as Normes del 32, are elementary orthographic guidelines that follow Pompeu Fabra's Catalan language norms for its Valencian variety.
Northern Catalan (català septentrional,, also known as rossellonès) is a Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northeast part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan.
Northern Catalonia (Catalunya del Nord, also known as Catalunya Nord Catalogne Nord), French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recent founded Catalan Republic.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
The Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (llengües occitanoromàniques, lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan language, the Catalan language, and the Aragonese language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Catalan was the Romance variety spoken in territories that spanned roughly the territories of the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the island of Sardinia; all of them then part of the Crown of Aragon.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Paella is a Valencian rice dish that has ancient roots but its modern form originated in the mid-19th century in the area around Albufera lagoon on the east coast of Spain adjacent to the city of Valencia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Philip Babcock Gove (1902–1972) was an American lexicographer who was editor-in-chief of the Webster's Third New International Dictionary, published in 1961.
Philip M. Parker (born June 20, 1960) holds the INSEAD Chair Professorship of Management Science at INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France).
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.
Pierre Bec (in Occitan Pèire Bèc 11 December 1921 – 30 June 2014) was a French Occitan language poet and linguist.
La Plataforma per la Llengua (the Pro-Language Platform) is a non-governmental organisation born in 1993 in Barcelona (Catalonia), in order to defend and promote Catalan language all over the Catalan-speaking territories in the European States where it is spoken: Spain, France, Andorra and Italy.
Pompeu Fabra i Poch (Gràcia, Barcelona, 20 February 1868 - Prada de Conflent, 25 December 1948) was a Spanish engineer and grammarian.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The Principality of Catalonia (Principat de Catalunya, Principatus Cathaloniæ, Principautat de Catalonha, Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity or state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Proparoxytone (προπαροξύτονος) is a linguistic term for a word with stress on the antepenultimate (third last) syllable such as the English words "cinema" and "operational".
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).
Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community.
Barcelona is a province of eastern Spain, in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
Girona (Gerona) is a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
Monastery of Santa Maria de Bellpuig de les Avellanes. The Province of Lleida (Lérida; Lhèida) is one of the four provinces of Catalonia.
The Province of Sassari (Provincia di Sassari, Provìntzia de Tàtari, Prubìnzia di Sàssari, Província de Sàsser) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy.
Tarragona is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
Pyrénées-Orientales (Pirineus Orientals; Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees") is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ramón Menéndez Pidal (13 March 1869 - 14 November 1968) was a Spanish philologist and historian.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia, Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.
The Renaixença, Catalan Renaissance, ((also written Renaixensa before spelling standardisation) was an early 19th-century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture, akin to the Galician Rexurdimento or the Occitan Félibrige movements. The movement dates to the 1830s and 1840s, but lasted into the 1880s, when it branched out into other cultural movements. Even though it primarily followed a romantic impulse, it incorporated stylistic and philosophical elements of other 19th century movements such as Naturalism or Symbolism. The name does not indicate a particular style, but rather the cultural circumstances in which it bloomed.
Ribagorza or Ribagorça (Ribagorce) is a comarca (county) in Aragon, Spain, situated in the north-east of the province of Huesca.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Roussillon (or;; Rosselló, Occitan: Rosselhon) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees).
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Signed Spanish and Signed Exact Spanish are any of several manually coded forms of Spanish that apply the words (signs) of a national sign language to Spanish word order or grammar.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
A stateless nation is a political term for an ethnic group or nation that does not possess its own stateDictionary Of Public Administration, U.C. Mandal, Sarup & Sons 2007, 505 p. and is not the majority population in any nation state.
The Statistical Institute of Catalonia (in Catalan: Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, usually referred to by its acronym IDESCAT) is the official body responsible for collecting and publishing statistics in the autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
In linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Tirant lo Blanch (modern orthography: Tirant lo Blanc) is a chivalric romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished posthumously by his friend Martí Joan de Galba and published in the city of Valencia in 1490 as an incunabulum edition.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos, Tractat dels Pirineus, Tratado dos Pirenéus) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The University of the Balearic Islands (Universitat de les Illes Balears, UIB;; Universidad de las Islas Baleares) is a Balearic Spanish university, founded in 1978 and located in Palma on the island of Majorca.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
Valencians (valencians, valencianos) are an indigenous Romance ethnic group whose homeland is the Valencian Community, which is recognised as an historical nation in eastern Spain.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Catala, Catalan (language), Catalan Language, Catalan Sociolinguistics, Catalan dialect examples, Catalan-Valencian, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Catalan-Valencian-Balear language, Catalan-Valencian-Balearic, Catalan-language, Catalan-speaking, Catalan‑Valencian‑Balear, Catalan–Valencian–Balearic, Catalonian language, Catalunyan language, Català, Catalán language, Eastern Catalan, El idioma catalan, El idioma catalán, ISO 639:ca, ISO 639:cat, Majorcan language, Mallorcan language, North-Western Catalan, Northwestern Catalan, Standard Catalan language, Western Catalan.