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Catalan orthography

Index Catalan orthography

Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology. [1]

69 relations: A, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, Acute accent, À, Ç, È, É, Í, Ï, Ò, Ó, Ú, Ü, B, C, Catalan Braille, Catalan language, Catalan manual alphabet, Catalan phonology, Cedilla, Close-mid vowel, D, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diaeresis (diacritic), E, F, Front vowel, Function word, G, Gemination, Grave accent, Guillemet, H, Hiatus (linguistics), I, Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Interpunct, ISO basic Latin alphabet, J, K, L, Latin alphabet, Letter case, Ll, M, N, O, Open-mid vowel, Oxytone, ..., P, Paroxytone, Pluricentric language, Pompeu Fabra, Proparoxytone, Prosodic unit, Q, R, Romance languages, S, Stress (linguistics), T, U, V, Valencian, W, X, Y, Z. Expand index (19 more) »

A

A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua

The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (English: Valencian Language Academy), also known by the acronym AVL, is an institution created on September 16, 1998, by the Valencian Parliament, which belongs to the set of official institutions that compose the Generalitat Valenciana, according to the Act of Autonomy of the Valencian Community.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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À

À, à (a-grave) is a letter of the Catalan, Emilian-Romagnol, French, Galician, Italian, Occitan, Portuguese, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages consisting of the letter A of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and a grave accent.

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Ç

Ç or ç (c-cedilla) is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Manx, Portuguese, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish and Zazaki alphabets.

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È

"È" is a letter.

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É

É, é (e-acute) is a letter of the Latin alphabet.

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Í

Í, í (i-acute) is a letter in the Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Czech, Slovak, and Tatar languages, where it often indicates a long /i/ vowel.

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Ï

Ï, lowercase ï, is a symbol used in various languages written with the Latin alphabet; it can be read as the letter I with diaeresis or I-umlaut.

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Ò

Ò, ò (o-grave) is a letter of the Latin script.

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Ó

Ó, ó (o-acute) is a letter in the Czech, Emilian-Romagnol, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Kazakh, Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian languages.

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Ú

Ú or ú (U with acute) is a Latin letter used in the Czech, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, and Slovak writing systems.

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Ü

Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.

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B

B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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C

C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.

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Catalan Braille

Catalan Braille is the braille alphabet of the Catalan language.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalan manual alphabet

The Catalan manual alphabet is used in Catalan Sign Language.

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Catalan phonology

The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.

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Cedilla

A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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D

D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Dental and alveolar flaps

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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E

E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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F

F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Function word

In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

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G

G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Gemination

Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Grave accent

The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.

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Guillemet

Guillemets, or angle quotes, are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used instead of quotation marks in a number of languages.

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H

H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.

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Hiatus (linguistics)

In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.

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I

I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Institut d'Estudis Catalans

The Institut d'Estudis Catalans (English: "Institute for Catalan Studies"), also known by the acronym IEC, is an academic institution which seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture".

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Interpunct

An interpunct (&middot), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.

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ISO basic Latin alphabet

The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.

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J

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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K

K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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L

L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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Ll

Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.

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M

M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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N

N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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O

O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Oxytone

An oxytone (from the ὀξύτονος,, 'sharp-sounding') is a word with the stress on the last syllable, such as the English words correct and reward.

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P

P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Paroxytone

Paroxytone (παροξύτονος) is a linguistic term for a word with stress on the penultimate syllable, that is, the second last syllable, such as the English word potato.

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Pluricentric language

A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.

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Pompeu Fabra

Pompeu Fabra i Poch (Gràcia, Barcelona, 20 February 1868 - Prada de Conflent, 25 December 1948) was a Spanish engineer and grammarian.

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Proparoxytone

Proparoxytone (προπαροξύτονος) is a linguistic term for a word with stress on the antepenultimate (third last) syllable such as the English words "cinema" and "operational".

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Prosodic unit

In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).

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Q

Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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R

R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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S

S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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T

T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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U

U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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V

V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Valencian

Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).

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W

W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.

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X

X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Y

Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Z

Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Redirects here:

Catalan Alphabet, Catalan alphabet, Catalan alphabet (old page history), Catalan spelling, Valencian orthography.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalan_orthography

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